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See detailEffects of gastrointestinal helminth infections and plane of nutrition on the health and productivity of F1 (West African Dwarf x Sahelian) goat crosses in The Gambia
Faye, D.; Leak, S.; Nouala, S. et al

in Small Ruminant Research (2003), 50(1-2), 153-161

A two by two factorial design including natural helminth infections (dewormed 'D' or not dewormed 'ND') and different levels of diet (basal 'B' or basal diet plus supplement 'S') was used to assess the ... [more ▼]

A two by two factorial design including natural helminth infections (dewormed 'D' or not dewormed 'ND') and different levels of diet (basal 'B' or basal diet plus supplement 'S') was used to assess the effect of helminth infections and plane of nutrition on health and productivity of F1 (West African Dwarf (WAD) x Sahelian) crosses. The pasture composed the basal diet and supplemented animals received cottonseed and rice bran. Feed composition analysis revealed that the pasture did not provide sufficient nutrients for reproduction requirements. Feed supplementation had a significant effect on weight gain of does during pregnancy and lactation, and milk off-take was significantly higher in supplemented does compared to non-supplemented ones (31.3 +/- 2.5 1 versus 17.7 +/- 2.5 1 respectively, P < 0.01). A peri-parturient rise in strongyle egg output was noted, and diet supplementation tended to reduce faecal egg count and to increase packed cell volume (PCV), mainly during the dry season. Deworming had a significant effect on red blood cell (RBC) count, PCV and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mainly during the period of peak strongyle egg output (season x deworming: P < 0.001 for RBC and PCV and P < 0.05 for Hb). Helminth infections combined with a basal diet seriously affected weight gain but the interaction of deworming and diet was not significant. In groups receiving the basal diet, dewormed animals had a significantly higher milk yield than those that were not dewormed (23.5 +/- 3.31 versus 12.0 +/- 3.71, respectively; interaction diet x deworming: P < 0.05). The higher daily weight gains of offspring born from dewormed does might be explained by the fact that, in addition to the effect of deworming on milk yield in animals receiving basal diet, the kids were less exposed to helminth eggs, whereas does that were not dewormed constituted a greater source of helminth infection for their kids. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of gastroplasty on body weight and related biological abnormalities in morbid obesity.
Luyckx, Françoise ULg; Scheen, André ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (1998), 24(4), 355-61

Obesity is a prevalent metabolic disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Medical treatment rarely succeeds, and bariatric surgery has been proposed as an alternative therapy. The ... [more ▼]

Obesity is a prevalent metabolic disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Medical treatment rarely succeeds, and bariatric surgery has been proposed as an alternative therapy. The purpose of this non-controlled retrospective study was to evaluate time-course changes in body weight in severely obese patients who underwent vertical ring gastroplasty or adjustable silicone gastric banding, and to assess the prevalence and potential reversibility of several of the biological abnormalities associated with morbid obesity. From an initial cohort comprising 658 patients, regular body weight measurements and biological data were obtained in 505 patients [419 females, 86 males; age 36 +/- 11 years; body mass index 42.7 +/- 6.9 kg/m2; (mean +/- SD)] with a mean follow-up of 26 +/- 14 months. Mean weight loss was 32 +/- 16 kg. Most weight reduction occurred within the first 6 months, followed by near-stabilisation or even slight weight regain. Most biological parameters were obtained before surgery and after at least 6 months of follow-up. The high prevalence and severity of metabolic disturbances associated with the insulin resistance syndrome (hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, elevated fibrinogen levels and hyperuricaemia) before gastroplasty were significantly decreased after weight loss. No major biological deficiencies were observed following gastroplasty, except low iron serum levels. It is concluded that marked weight loss associated with gastroplasty involved a remarkable reduction in the prevalence and severity of several biological abnormalities classically considered as cardiovascular risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of genotype and nutrition on growth performance,carcass characteristics, and meat properties of goats in Laos
Nguyen Xuan, Trach; Phiovankham, Bounmy; Do Duc, Luc ULg

in Journal of Southern Agriculture (2011), 42(7), 786-790

【Objective】A 2×2 factorial trial was carried out to determine effects of genotype and nutrition on improved growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat properties of goats in Laos. 【Method】The ... [more ▼]

【Objective】A 2×2 factorial trial was carried out to determine effects of genotype and nutrition on improved growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat properties of goats in Laos. 【Method】The indigenous goat breed (Lat) was used as the control in comparison with F1 (BT×L) as a result of crossbreeding Lat does with Bach Thao bucks imported from Vietnam. For each genotype, 30 growing male goats at age of 7 months were chosen and equally divided into 2 groups, one was raised according to the traditional feeding regime (free ranging only) and the other with an improved feeding regime including cassava hay and mineral block provided ad libitum in addition to free ranging. The animals were observed for the average daily gain (ADG) and at the end, three animals per group were slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics (physical composition, primal cuts), and meat properties (shear force, color, pH, drip loss, and cooking loss). 【Result】The results showed that the ADG of F1(60.02 g/head/day) was very much higher (56.09%) than that of the indigenous goat (38.45 g/head/day). The ADG of goats supplemented with cassava hay and mineral block (55.45g/head/day)was also significantly higher (28.89%) than that of those not supplemented (43.02 g/head/day). No significant (P >0.05)effects of the crossbreeding and supplementation were found for dressing percentage and percentages of shoulder-foreleg, rump-rearleg, and breast-rip cuts in the carcass; however, the F1 had a bigger neck (P<0.01) but a smaller loin-abdomen cut (P<0.01) compared with the indigenous goat. No significant differences were observed for the parameters of meat characteristics between Lat and F1 goats under the two different feeding regimes. 【Conclusion】It was therefore concluded that crossbreeding with Bach Thao bucks and supplementation of cassava hay and mineral block improved meat yield without negative effects on meat quality of goats in Laos. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects Of Genotype, Harvest Year And Genotype-By-Harvest Year Interactions On Arabinoxylan, Endoxylanase Activity And Endoxylanase Inhibitor Levels In Wheat Kernels
Dornez, Emmie; Gebruers, Kurt; Joye, Iris J. et al

in Journal of Cereal Science (2008), 47(2), 180-189

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See detailEffects of geographic origin on growth and food intake in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) juveniles under intensive culture conditions
Mandiki, S. N. M.; Blanchard, G.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture (2004), 229(1-4), 117-128

Survival, growth, and food intake of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles from different stocks originating from various geographic regions of Europe were compared under the same conditions of ... [more ▼]

Survival, growth, and food intake of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles from different stocks originating from various geographic regions of Europe were compared under the same conditions of laboratory-scale intensive culture. In Experiment 1, four stocks originating from Italy (1), southwest (SF) and northwest (NF) France, and Belgium (B) were examined at larval and early juvenile (initial body weight, IBW = 0.53 g) stages. In Experiment 2, B stock was compared to a Finnish (F) one in two trials, including small (IBW = 1.26 g) and large (IBW = 32 g) juveniles. In Experiment 3, small (IBW = 1.29 g) and large (IBW = 7.33 g) juveniles from Polish (P), F, and B stocks were examined. In Experiment 1, body weight means at hatching and survival at the end of the larval stage were significantly lower in the I and SF stocks than in the B and NF stocks. In the early juvenile stage, survival and growth rates were significantly lower in the I and SF stocks than in the B and NF ones. In Experiment 2, {early juvenile stage} survival in the F stock was significantly lower than in the B stock, partly due to a higher incidence of cannibalism. During this stage, growth rates and food intake or feed efficiency in the F and B stocks were comparable, but at the end of the juvenile stage, the F stock outperformed the B one. In Experiment 3, survival in all the three stocks was comparable both in small and large juveniles. In contrast to the higher performance of F juveniles in Experiment 2, growth rates were comparable between the B and F stocks, and fish from the P stock had the highest growth rates. The results indicate a high level of variation within and between hatchery stocks in survival rates, growth rates, and food intake. These variations depended on the geographic origin of the fish, with the lowest survival and growth potentials being in the stocks originating from the southern regions. These findings highlight the interest in evaluating growth and food consumption of different Eurasian perch stocks. Such evaluation is a necessary tool for genetic selection in improving performance in perch aquaculture. (C) 2004 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of geometrical imperfections on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened plates subject to combined uniaxial compression and lateral pressure
Khedmati, Mohammad Reza; Pedram, Masoud; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Ships and Offshore Structures (2012)

The present study aims at determining the effects of the geometrical imperfections on the ultimate strength and load-carrying capacity of aluminium stiffened plates under combined axial compression and ... [more ▼]

The present study aims at determining the effects of the geometrical imperfections on the ultimate strength and load-carrying capacity of aluminium stiffened plates under combined axial compression and lateral pressure. The finite element models proposed by the Committee III.1 ‘Ultimate Strength’ of ISSC’2003 are used in the present investigation. Initial imperfections as proposed by ISSC committee as well as those recommended by Ship Structure Committee are considered in the analyses. Models are tested using non-linear finite element elastic–plastic analyses. Aluminium alloy AA6082-T6 is selected as the material for the models. The studied models are triple-span panels stiffened by either extruded or non-extruded angle-bar profiles. Different arrangements of heat-affected zone (HAZ) are considered. The main outcomes of this study show the need for a subtle assessment of the real shapes of the initial deformations. The way they affect the ultimate strength of models is clarified through finite element analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glucagon in the control of endogenous glucose production in man.
Surmely, J. F.; Schneiter, P.; Henry, S. et al

in Nutrition (1999), 15(4), 267-73

Endogenous glucose production has been shown to increase during administration of glucagon + fructose, but not during administration of fructose alone. To determine the mechanisms by which glucagon exerts ... [more ▼]

Endogenous glucose production has been shown to increase during administration of glucagon + fructose, but not during administration of fructose alone. To determine the mechanisms by which glucagon exerts this action, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and gluconeogenesis from fructose (GNF) were measured in eight healthy subjects infused 1) with graded doses of glucagon (2 and 4 ng.kg-1.min-1 for 3 h each) during constant infusion of 13C-fructose (3 mg.kg-1.min-1), and 2) with graded doses of 13C-fructose (3 and 6 mg.kg-1.min-1) during constant glucagon infusion (2 ng.kg-1.min-1). GNF was estimated from 13C-glucose synthesis. In both protocols, infusion of 3 mg.kg-1.min-1 fructose + 2 ng.kg-1.min-1 glucagon increased EGP by 5-8% (P < 0.05), while GNF represented 43-49% of EGP. Thereafter, increasing the glucagon infusion rate further increased EGP to 118 +/- 3% of basal values (P < 0.01) without altering the proportion due to GNF. In contrast, increasing the fructose infusion rate at constant glucagonemia increased EGP similarly (by 19 +/- 4%, P < 0.05) but enhanced the contribution of GNF to 76 +/- 2% (P < 0.001). Graded infusion of glucagon or fructose alone failed to stimulate EGP. The present findings indicate that hyperglucagonemia stimulates endogenous glucose production during fructose infusion. This effect is not secondary to a stimulation of gluconeogenesis, but to a channelling of glucose-6-phosphate towards systemic release. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glucagon on fructose-induced alterations of glucose metabolism in man.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, Ph; Jéquier, E. et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (1996), 36

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See detailEffects of glucagon on fructose-induced alterations of glucose metabolism in man.
Tappy, L.; Schneiter, Ph; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg et al

in Diabetes (1994), 44(suppl 1), 254

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See detailEffects of glucocorticoids and sympathomimetic agents on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Jequier, E. et al

in Clinical Physiology (1995), 15(3), 231-40

The mechanisms responsible for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance remain unclear. Glucocorticoids show several interactions with the sympatho-adrenal system which may contribute to this decrease in ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms responsible for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance remain unclear. Glucocorticoids show several interactions with the sympatho-adrenal system which may contribute to this decrease in insulin sensitivity: they enhance the synthesis and actions of catecholamines, but abolish insulin-induced activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The present study was performed in order to investigate the effects of the interactions between glucocorticoids and the sympatho-adrenal system on insulin sensitivity. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism was measured in healthy human subjects during four 2-h clamp studies as follows: control (C); after taking oral dexamethasone (2 mg daily) for 2 days (D); after taking oral ephedrine sulphate (40 mg daily) for 2 days (E); and after taking dexamethasone+ephedrine (D+E). Glucose uptake, production and oxidation were calculated from plasma 13C glucose and exhaled 13CO2 during constant tracer infusion of U-13C glucose. Basal glucose production, utilization and oxidation were similar in all four studies. During hyperinsulinaemia, glucose uptake was reduced by 51.5% with treatment D, by 25.9% with treatment E, and by 49.6% with D+E. Glucose oxidation was reduced by 54.0% with treatment D, by 24.0% with treatment E, and by 57.2% with D+E. Hepatic glucose production was completely suppressed in all four studies. It is concluded that both dexamethasone and ephedrine decrease insulin-mediated glucose uptake and oxidation. Co-administration of ephedrine does not suppress the glucocorticoid-induced alterations of glucose metabolism. This indicates that glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance is not related to the inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. These results suggest instead that glucocorticoids and sympathomimetic agents may impair glucose metabolism by common actions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glucocorticoids on hepatic sensitivity to insulin and glucagon in man.
Dirlewanger, M.; Schneiter, P. H.; Paquot, Nicolas ULg et al

in Clinical Nutrition (2000), 19(1), 29-34

AIMS: This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short-term dexamethasone treatment on hepatic sensitivities to insulin and glucagon. METHODS: Eleven healthy subjects were studied during one ... [more ▼]

AIMS: This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short-term dexamethasone treatment on hepatic sensitivities to insulin and glucagon. METHODS: Eleven healthy subjects were studied during one or several of four protocols. In all protocols, somatostatin was infused continuously to inhibit pancreatic hormone secretion. In protocol 1, basal insulin was infused over 300 min while glucagon was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg(-1)/min(-1)during 180 min, then at a rate of 1.5 ng/kg(-1)/min(-1)during 150 min. In protocol 2, the same experiment was performed after a 2 day treatment with 8 mg/day dexamethasone. In protocol 3, the two-step glucagon infusion was performed during insulin infusion at a rate aimed to reproduce the hyperinsulinemia observed during protocol 2. In protocol 4, continuous basal insulin and low glucagon (0.5 mg/kg(-1)/min(-1)) were infused over 330 min. RESULTS: In protocol 1, plasma glucose rose transiently by 2.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l when the glucagon rate was increased and glucose production increased by 1.4 +/- 0.5 micromol/kg(-1)/min(-1). In protocol 2, the insulin infusion rate (1.85 +/- 0.36 nmol/kg(-1)/min(-1)) required to maintain glycemia was 3.3-fold higher than during protocol 1. Glucagon-induced stimulation of glycemia (by 1.47 +/- 0.5 mmol/l) and endogenous glucose production (by 0.8 +/- 0.3 micromol/kg(-1)/min(-1)) were blunted, but not abolished. In protocol 3, endogenous glucose production was suppressed by 75% by hyperinsulinemia and was not stimulated when the glucagon infusion rate was increased. In protocol 4, endogenous glucose production did not change significantly with time. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that high dose glucocorticoids induce a marked hepatic insulin resistance. Stimulation of glucose production by hyperglucagonemia was maintained in spite of hyperinsulinemia which can be attributed to either hepatic insulin resistance and/or increased hepatic glucagon sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glucocorticoids on the respiratory burst of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells.
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby, Ginette ULg; Mathy, Marianne ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2004), 318(4), 941-8

We previously observed that the respiratory burst of human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) triggered by phorbol myristate acetate was strongly enhanced by a priming of the cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae ... [more ▼]

We previously observed that the respiratory burst of human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) triggered by phorbol myristate acetate was strongly enhanced by a priming of the cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 287 (2001) 781]. We describe here the modifications of the responses of Chlamydia-primed THP-1 cells to hydrocortisone (HCT) and methylprednisolone (MPL). HCT and MPL inhibited the production of the cytokines TNFalpha and IL-8. But HCT, which inhibited the respiratory burst in LPS-primed monocytes, paradoxically stimulated the phenomenon in Chlamydia-primed cells; MPL exerted no significant effect. Both glucocorticoids did not significantly modify the triggering effect of Chlamydia on NF-kappaB binding activity. On the expression of p22(phox), a protein subunit of the NADPH oxidase, HCT had an increasing and MPL a decreasing effect. Glucocorticoids thus had unexpected effects on the inflammatory response of Chlamydia-primed monocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glucosamine on differentiated human chondrocytes cultivated in clusters
Bassleer, C; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Franchimont, P

in Revista Espanola de Reumatologia : Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Reumatologia (1993), 20(S1), 95

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See detailEffects of glucose-lowering agents on vascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: A critical reappraisal.
Scheen, André ULg; Charbonnel, B.

in Diabetes & metabolism (2014)

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with cardiovascular complications, especially coronary artery disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between major ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with cardiovascular complications, especially coronary artery disease. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between major cardiovascular events and glycaemia, and several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described that explain how hyperglycaemia induces vascular damage. However, randomized controlled trials investigating either an intensive glucose-lowering strategy vs standard care or the addition of a new glucose-lowering agent vs a placebo have largely failed to demonstrate any clinical benefits in terms of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. This lack of evidence has led some people to contest the clinical efficacy of lowering blood glucose in patients with T2DM, despite its positive effects on microvascular complications. This article analyzes the various reasons that might explain such discrepancies. There are still strong arguments in favour of targeting hyperglycaemia while avoiding other counterproductive effects, such as hypoglycaemia and weight gain, and of integrating the glucose-lowering approach within a global multi-risk strategy to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in T2DM. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glycerol on Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1 freeze-dried
Mputu Kanyinda, Jean-Noël ULg; Pierart, C.; Weekers, F. et al

in International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. (2012), 8(2), 245-258

The storage stability of freeze-dried powders was studied by parameters such as loss of viability on the Plate Count Agar (PCA). Powder with glycerol (PG) contains 8.4x1010cfu/g before storage 1 ... [more ▼]

The storage stability of freeze-dried powders was studied by parameters such as loss of viability on the Plate Count Agar (PCA). Powder with glycerol (PG) contains 8.4x1010cfu/g before storage 1.1x1010cfug after 3 months at 4°C and 6.0x108cfu/g after 3 months at 20°C. The concentration of soluble proteins (mg/g) decrease during storage at 4°C from 3.77 to 0.80 after 90 days; and the ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (C18:3/C16:0 and C18:2/C16:0) decrease respectively from 0.05 to 0.04 and 0.007 to 0.004 after 3 months at 4°C. This ratio characterises the membrane fluidity. Powder without glycerol (PS) contains 1.1x1010 cfu/g before storage and 1.4 x 108 cfu/g after 3 months at 4°C and 1.4 x 107 cfu/g after 3 months at 20°C. The concentration of soluble proteins (mg/g) decrease during storage at 4°C from 4.08 to 0.42 after 90 days, the glutathione concentration decrease during storage at 4°C from 2.2 to 1.4. The beneficial effect of glycerol on fatty acid composition during freezedrying is shown and the ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (C18:2/C16:0 and C18:3/C16:0) decrease respectively from 0.019 to 0.004 and 0.054 to 0.036 after 90 days storage at 4°C. Analysis by flow cytometry was used to assess the physiological state in which cells are at the end of freeze-drying. We found 13.5% live cells, 36.1% dead cells and 50.4% cells in an intermediate state for powder with glycerol (PG) after freeze-drying. These results shows that glycerol play an important role in Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1 desiccation during freeze-drying, by maintaining a degree of viability after freeze-drying and during storage. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of glycopyrrolate inhalation on pulmonary function in heaves-affected horses in crisis
Art, Tatiana ULg; De Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailEffects of gold compounds, free or incorporated in liposomes, on human synovial cells in culture
Lhoest-Gauthier, Marie -Paule; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Van Ophem, P. et al

in Archives de Biologie (1984), 95(4), 413-21

Two gold compounds with anti-inflammatory action are separately introduced into fluid negative liposomes : Aurol-sulfide (colloidal gold compound) into the aqueous phase of liposomes, Auranofin (soluble ... [more ▼]

Two gold compounds with anti-inflammatory action are separately introduced into fluid negative liposomes : Aurol-sulfide (colloidal gold compound) into the aqueous phase of liposomes, Auranofin (soluble organic compound) into the lipidic phase. Their effects are analysed in synovial cells in culture. Aurol-sulfide, given alone, rapidly enters into the cells where it is found inside membrane limited inclusions. Under our experimental conditions, this agent is atoxic and has no effect on the cell cycle. When transported inside liposomes, Aurol-sulfide is found free, at least in part, in the cytoplasm and rapidly induces cell degeneration. Auranofin, given alone, is very cytotoxic under some experimental conditions. On the contrary, synovial cells are less sensitive to Auranofin whe encapsulated in liposomes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of grassed buffer strip management on potential denitrification in a belgian agricultural watershed
Cors, Marie; Tychon, Bernard ULg

Conference (2003)

Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with ... [more ▼]

Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with nitrate uptake by plant growth- that reduces nitrate input in surface water. We investigated the Denitrifier Enzyme Activity (DEA) to test how the buffer strip management modifies the denitrification process. The experimental site is composed of a crop field and a 11 m wide grassed buffer strip at the border between the crop field and a tributary to the Attert river, South-East Belgium. Soil samples from the crop field and the buffer strip have been submitted to different imposed conditions combining glucose, nitrate and water saturation to investigate how antecedent water regime, nitrate and carbon content affect denitrification. The work included DEA measurements on undisturbed soil cores freshly sampled. Experiments on undisturbed soil cores identify the buffer strip as more effective in denitrification (p < 0.001) than the cropped field. However, experiments on samples conditioned under imposed carbon and/or nitrate contents emphasised the importance of micro-topography. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Growth and Breed on Direct Static Measurements of Chest Wall Compliance in Cattle
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1997), 62(1, Jan-Feb), 1-5

Chest wall compliance (CW) was measured in 59 conscious standing calves, aged six to 162 days, which were breathing air spontaneously through a face mask. The airways were occluded at the end of ... [more ▼]

Chest wall compliance (CW) was measured in 59 conscious standing calves, aged six to 162 days, which were breathing air spontaneously through a face mask. The airways were occluded at the end of inspiration in order to elicit the Hering-Breuer reflex, the effectiveness of which was ensured by the presence of a plateau on the tracings of airway opening and oesophageal pressure (Pes). CW was measured directly from the inspired volume of the occluded breath and changes in Pes generated by the recoil of the relaxed chest wall. This airway-occlusion technique yielded reproducible CW values similar to those measured by classical invasive methods. The ratio of CW to bodyweight in the growing calves (sCW) ranged from 2.2 to 11.5 ml cmH2O-1 kg-1 and was correlated negatively with age: (log sCW = 0.91-0.003 x age, r = 0.68), the rate of decline corresponding well to the multispecies allometric growth relationship. [less ▲]

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