Does reward unpredictability reflect risk?
in Behavioural Brain Research (2015), 280(1), 119-127
Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable ... [more ▼]
Most decisions made in real-life situations are risky because they are associated with possible negative consequences. Current models of decision-making postulate that the occasional, unpredictable absence of reward that may result from free choice is a negative consequence interpreted as risk by organisms in laboratory situations. I argue that such a view is difficult to justify because, in most experimental paradigms, reward omission does not represent a cost for the decision maker. Risk only exists when unpredictability may cause a potential loss of own limited resources, whether energetic, social, financial, and so on. Thus the experimental methodologies used to test humans and non-humans relative to risk-taking seem to be limited to studying the effects of reward uncertainty in the absence of true decision cost. This may have important implications for the conclusions that can be drawn with respect to the neurobehavioural determinants of risk-taking in real-life situations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Does rheumatoid arthritis induce bone loss per se ?
; ; et al
in Medical Science Research (1988), 16Detailed reference viewed: 3 (1 ULg)
Does salt restriction lower the intracellular calcium concentration in essential hypertension?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ; ; Rorive, Georges
in Journal of Hypertension (Supplement) (1992), 10Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Does Saturn's UV aurora vary with SKR phase?
; ; et al
Conference (2009, July 27)Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
Does sector-specific experience matter? The case of European higher education ministers
Lefebvre, Mathieu ;
E-print/Working paper (2015)
This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher ... [more ▼]
This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher education ministers, we find that having a past experience in the sector leads to a higher level of performance, as measured by ranking data. Making a parallel with the literature about the impact of education on the educated, we discuss potential explanations behind the impact of this on-the-job learning experience. As we find that this characteristic has no impact on the spendings of the sector, we argue that this academic experience makes them more prone to introduce adequate reforms. Furthermore, we find that this result is driven by ministers with both this sector-specific and an electoral experience, the latter measured by a succesful election at the regional or national level. This tends to show that political credibility should not be overshadowed by the importance of the sector-specific experience of ministers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Does semi-quantitative analysis perform better than visual analysis in predicting the severity of coronary artery stenosis, using rest/vasodilatation cardiac dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion (DCEMR)?
; ; et al
Poster (2011)Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Does signalling pathways inhibition hold therapeutic promise for osteoarthritis?
in Joint Bone Spine (2014), 81
Signalling pathways inhibition hold promise as therapeutic targets in osteoarthritis but safety concern may limit their use to the more sevre form of the disease.Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Does Size Affect Mutual Fund Performance? A General Approach
Sougné, Danielle ; Bodson, Laurent ;
in Journal of Asset Management (2011), 12(3n), 163-171Detailed reference viewed: 93 (28 ULg)
Does Social Innovation vary with the Organisational Form? Exploring the Diversity of Fair Trade Social Enterprises in Europe
Conference (2009, September)
A common view in the literature on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise is to highlight the fact that social innovation crosses the organizational forms. But does that social innovation should be ... [more ▼]
A common view in the literature on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise is to highlight the fact that social innovation crosses the organizational forms. But does that social innovation should be considered regardless of the organizational form? Fair Trade (FT) offers a quite interesting example of both a social innovation and a field in which diverse organizational forms coexist. My research questions are twofold: (1) what are the different types of organizational forms that underlie social innovation in the FT sector?; (2) do these different forms bring different types of social innovation? The methodology consists of interviews with the leaders of 57 Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) in four European regions: Belgium, France (Rhône-Alpes), United Kingdom (England) and Italy (Rome). The findings show that the legal forms and governance models–the two elements of the organizational form considered here–can be combined into five categories of organizational forms: individual, manager-owned business, volunteer-based, multi-stakeholder cooperative and group. These categories seem to be linked, at least to a certain extent, to the age of the FTSE and to its goals. Certain forms seem to signal a particular type of social innovation. Volunteer-based FTSEs use education and advocacy as the main channel to pursue social change at the global level, and see the partnerships with the producers in the South as a vehicle to support the former goal. Individual and business-form FTSEs focus on offering benefits to the producers through a profitable commercial activity. And multi-stakeholder cooperatives and groups generally seek to combine both types of social innovation. However, nuances exist and lead to considering the organisational form as vehicles that may serve various purposes according to the context and the entrepreneurs’ profiles. I suggest three theoretical frameworks to interpret the diversity of organizational forms and its link with the logics of social innovation. Neo-institutional economics allow to see organizational diversity as the result of the production of different types of goods within the “FT bundle”. New institutionalism in organizational analysis emphasizes organizational diversity as the result of either weak (or non-existent) or multiple institutional logics. And institutional entrepreneurship highlights the ability of FTSEs to shape the environment in a way that legitimizes their own way of conceiving social innovation. I conclude that these three frameworks offer complementary explanations to organizational diversity and that the latter is an asset rather than an obstacle for carrying social innovation in multiple and complementary ways. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 129 (10 ULg)
Does spleen innervation influence TSE pathogenesis?
Jolois, Olivier ; ; et al
Poster (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Does spleen innervation influence TSE pathogenesis?”
Jolois, Olivier ; ; et al
Poster (2000)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (3 ULg)
Does sulfide detoxication occur in the gills of the hydrothermal vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata?
Compère, Philippe ; ; et al
in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2002), 325Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Does sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?
Majerus, Steve ; Van der Linden, Martial ; Collette, Fabienne et al
in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747
We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]
We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
Does terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-immunogold method detect DNA engaged in nucleolar transcription ?
Thiry, Marc ;
Conference (1994)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Does the 43 bp sequence from an 800 000 year old Cretan dwarf elephantid really rewrite the textbook on mammoths?
; Pagès, Marie ; et al
in Biology Letters (2007), 3
Pigmy elephants inhabited the islands from the Mediterranean region during the Pleistocene period but became extinct in the course of the Holocene. Despite striking distinctive anatomical characteristics ... [more ▼]
Pigmy elephants inhabited the islands from the Mediterranean region during the Pleistocene period but became extinct in the course of the Holocene. Despite striking distinctive anatomical characteristics related to insularity, some similarities with the lineage of extant Asian elephants have suggested that pigmy elephants could be most probably seen as members of the genus Elephas. Poulakakis et al. (2006) have recently challenged this view by recovering a short mtDNA sequence from an 800 000 year old fossil of the Cretan pigmy elephant (Elephas creticus). According to the authors of this study, a deep taxonomic revision of Cretan dwarf elephants would be needed, as the sequence exhibits clear affinities with woolly mammoth haplotypes. However, we point here many aspects that seriously weaken the strength of the ancient DNA evidence reported. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Does the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus modify the energy reserves and antitoxic defences of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli?
Gismondi, Eric ; ;
in Parasitology (2012), 139Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Does the achievement of an intermediate glycemic target reduce organ failure and mortality? A post-hoc analysis of the Glucontrol Trial
Penning, Sophie ; ; PREISER, Jean-Charles et al
in Journal of Critical Care (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (6 ULg)
Does the Allelopathic potential of the Tunisian barley root exudates affects simultaneously weeds and barley growth?
Bouhaouel, Imen ; ; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure et al
Conference (2013, May 21)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (7 ULg)
Does the artificial grammar learning paradigm involve the acquisition of complex information?
Meulemans, Thierry ; Van der Linden, Martial
in Psychologica Belgica (1997), 37(1-2), 69-88Detailed reference viewed: 59 (2 ULg)