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See detailDoes an Acute COPD Crisis Modify the Cardiorespiratory and Ventilatory Adjustments to Exercise in Horses?
Art, Tatiana ULg; Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1998), 84(3), 845-52

The present study was conducted to understand better the mechanisms leading to the decrease in exercise capacity observed in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Five COPD ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to understand better the mechanisms leading to the decrease in exercise capacity observed in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Five COPD horses were submitted to a standardized submaximal treadmill exercise test while they were in clinical remission or in acute crisis. Respiratory airflow, O2 and CO2 fractions in the respired gas, pleural pressure changes and heart rate were recorded, and arterial and mixed venous blood were analyzed for gas tensions, hemoglobin, and plasma lactate concentrations. O2 consumption, CO2 production, expired minute ventilation, tidal volume, alveolar ventilation, cardiac output, total pulmonary resistance, and mechanical work of breathing were calculated. The results showed that, when submaximally exercised, COPD horses in crisis were significantly more hypoxemic and hypercapnic and that their total pulmonary resistance and mechanical work of breathing were significantly higher and their expired minute ventilation significantly lower than when they were in remission. However, their O2 consumption remained unchanged, which was probably due to the occurrence of compensatory mechanisms, i.e., higher heart rate, cardiac output, and hemoglobin concentration. Last, their net anaerobic metabolism seemed to be more important. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes annual repetition of estrous induction influence the fertility of goats after A.I. at a fixed time ?
Drion, Pierre ULg; Furstoss, V.; Baril, G. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(1), 28-29

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See detailDoes Belgian bioethanol comply with European Renewable Energy Directive ?
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2013, November)

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined ... [more ▼]

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined guidelines to assess carbon footprint of a biofuel depending on biomass source. It also provided generic values of GHG emissions relative to each step of the life cycle taking into account all steps from the cultivation to the end-of-life. These values are used to evaluate the sustainability of European biofuels depending on the used crops and the used transformation technology. This study, based on local crops cultivated in Belgium (sugar beet and wheat), compares specific Belgian values with European generic ones. Belgium yields for both crops are among the best of the continent. Specific Belgian values for fertilizers and pesticides are used. The transformation of wheat into bioethanol is modelled using industrial data. As recommended by the RED, no land use change is taken into account for Belgium. Greenhouse gas emissions induce by the life cycle of Belgium sugar beet bioethanol are similar to the ones mentioned in the European directive but impact repartition is different. In our case, the transformation step achieves a higher part of the impact. That can be explained by the higher cultivation yield. Belgian wheat bioethanol obtains better results than those mentioned by the European directive with a 9% higher reduction. Cultivation step is the major step for this impact. Importance of fertilizers consumptions and associated emissions are highlighted. The comparison of both bioethanols impacts for climate change category, using an energy basis, shows that wheat allows a higher reduction of GHG emissions than sugar beet. If the comparison is performed on a cultivated area basis, results are reversed and sugar beet achieves a twofold reduction compared with wheat. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the importance of N fertilizers and associated emissions and on energy consumptions relative to the transformation step. These analyses reveal non-negligible impact variations. A range of GHG reduction that can be reached using Belgian sugar beet and wheat bioethanol are then calculated. In any case, sugar beet does not achieve the amount of reduction given by the RED, while the opposite effect is shown for wheat with a reduction at least as high as the RED default value. These results indicate the importance of make use of specific values to assess the sustainability of bioethanol for a specific country using a specific crop and a specific technology. Further measurements and research about emission factors due to fertilizers application could improve the accuracy of our results. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes cardiac surgery in newborn infants compromise blood cell reactivity to endotoxin?
Schumacher, Katharina; Korr, Stefanie; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F et al

in Critical Care (2005), 9(5), 549-55

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal cardiac surgery is associated with a systemic inflammatory reaction that might compromise the reactivity of blood cells against an inflammatory stimulus. Our prospective study was ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal cardiac surgery is associated with a systemic inflammatory reaction that might compromise the reactivity of blood cells against an inflammatory stimulus. Our prospective study was aimed at testing this hypothesis. METHODS: We investigated 17 newborn infants with transposition of the great arteries undergoing arterial switch operation. Ex vivo production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), of the regulator of the acute-phase response IL-6, and of the natural anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cell culture supernatant after whole blood stimulation by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide before, 5 and 10 days after the operation. Results were analyzed with respect to postoperative morbidity. RESULTS: The ex vivo production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 was significantly decreased (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002, respectively), whereas ex vivo production of IL-10 tended to be lower 5 days after the operation in comparison with preoperative values (P < 0.1). Ex vivo production of all cytokines reached preoperative values 10 days after cardiac surgery. Preoperative ex vivo production of IL-6 was inversely correlated with the postoperative oxygenation index 4 hours and 24 hours after the operation (P < 0.02). In contrast, postoperative ex vivo production of cytokines did not correlate with postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Our results show that cardiac surgery in newborn infants is associated with a transient but significant decrease in the ex vivo production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 together with a less pronounced decrease in IL-10 production. This might indicate a transient postoperative anti-inflammatory shift of the cytokine balance in this age group. Our results suggest that higher preoperative ex vivo production of IL-6 is associated with a higher risk for postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes co-treatment with immunosuppressors improve outcome in patients with Crohn's disease treated with adalimumab?
Reenaers, C.; LOUIS, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2012), 36(11-12), 1040-8

BACKGROUND: There is clear benefit from combination therapy with infliximab and immunosuppressive drugs (IS), but few data are available for adalimumab (ADA). AIM: To assess the efficacy of ADA ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: There is clear benefit from combination therapy with infliximab and immunosuppressive drugs (IS), but few data are available for adalimumab (ADA). AIM: To assess the efficacy of ADA monotherapy and ADA+IS for induction and maintenance therapy in Crohn's disease. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with Crohn's disease treated with ADA in Oxford, UK or Liege, Belgium. Treatment periods were divided into 6-month semesters. A combination therapy semester was defined as ADA+IS for at least 3 months; successful induction meant clinical response; a semester with flare as ADA dose escalation, starting steroids, perianal complication, or surgery; and ADA failure as ADA withdrawal for secondary loss of response or intolerance. Semesters with and without flares were compared through univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Successful induction was achieved in 171/207 (83%) patients, with no significant difference between ADA+IS and ADA monotherapy (85% vs. 82%, P = 0.50). Five hundred and sixty-two semesters in 181 patients were included for maintenance analysis. ADA+IS was not associated with fewer semesters with flare (34% vs. 35%, P = 0.96), or with ADA failure (6% vs. 8%, P = 0.43). Nevertheless, combination therapy in the first semester was associated with a lower risk of ADA failure (5% vs. 10%, P = 0.04, OR = 0.48) and combination therapy beyond 6 months was associated with fewer semesters with flares (14% vs. 36%, P = 0.02, OR = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: There may be a benefit from adalimumab+immunosuppressive drugs combination therapy during the first semester of initiating adalimumab, with a slight decrease in adalimumab failure and lower need for adalimumab dosage escalation. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes cognitive impairment influence burden in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease?
Germain, Sophie ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Olivier, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2009), 17(1), 105-114

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive deterioration of various cognitive and behavioral abilities and it also has a health impact on the patients’ caregiver. Our aim was to determine the ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive deterioration of various cognitive and behavioral abilities and it also has a health impact on the patients’ caregiver. Our aim was to determine the patient (and to a lesser extent the caregiver’s) characteristics that contribute most to the caregiver burden. We used the baseline data from the ICTUS study, a European longitudinal cohort of patients with mild to moderate AD. Data from 1091 patients and their caregivers has been used for analysis. Three principal components analyses were performed on variables from the domains of cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms and daily function using MMSE plus ADAS-Cog, NPI and IADL subscores respectively. These were followed by a stepwise logistic regression to identify patient characteristics which best predict caregiver burden. The regression model (R2 = 0.35, p < .001) shows that the best explanatory variables are (1) neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), (2) difficulties in the IADL, (3) time taken by caregiving, (4) demographic variables such as caregiver’s age and patient sex and (5) severity of cognitive impairment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that although the strongest determinant of the caregiver burden is behavioral disturbance, the impact of the degree of cognitive impairment on burden is also significant. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes comfort therapy during controlled donation after circulatory death shorten the life of potential donors?
LEDOUX, Didier ULg; DELBOUILLE, Marie-Hélène ULg; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg et al

in Clinical transplantation (2014), 28(1), 47-51

INTRODUCTION: Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether this policy shortens the DCD donors' life. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data on patients proposed for DCD at the University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, over a 56-month period. The survival duration of these patients, defined as duration between the time of proposal for DCD and the time of circulatory arrest, was compared between patients who actually donated organs and those who did not. RESULTS: About 128 patients were considered for controlled DCD and 54 (43%) became donors. Among the 74 non-donor patients, 34 (46%) objected to organ donation, 38 patients (51%) were denied by the transplant team for various medical reasons, and two potential DCD donors did not undergo procurement due to logistical and organizational reasons. The survival durations were similar in the DCD donor and non-donor groups. No non-donor patient survived. CONCLUSIONS: Survival of DCD donors is not shortened when compared with non-donor patients. These data support the ethical and respectful approach to potential DCD donors in the authors' center, including regular comfort therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes delay release the verbal overshadowing effect in child and adult eyewitnesses?
Vanootighem, Valentine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg; Dehon, Hedwige ULg

in Perception (2012), 41(supplement), 194

The verbal overshadowing effect (VO) (eg, Schooler and Engstler-Schooler, 1990 Cognitive Psychology 22(1) 36–71) suggests that the fact of generating a verbal description of a previously seen face may ... [more ▼]

The verbal overshadowing effect (VO) (eg, Schooler and Engstler-Schooler, 1990 Cognitive Psychology 22(1) 36–71) suggests that the fact of generating a verbal description of a previously seen face may impair subsequent performance on a lineup identification task in adults. Previous research has examined whether descriptions also impaired children’s identification abilities but no evidence of VO was found (Memon and Rose, 2002 Psychology, Crime and Law 8(3), 229–242). However, the method might not have been appropriate to observe this effect as, for instance, a 24-hour delay between the description and the identification tasks (associated with a release of the VO effect in adults) was used. Hence, in this current experiment, groups of children (7–8, 10–11, 13–14 years old) and adults were presented with a short video and then assigned to a description or a no description condition before the identification task. Participants were also assigned either to a “no delay”, a “24-hour post encoding delay” or a “24-hour post description delay” condition to determine the influence of delay on the VO effect. Results indicated that, compared to the control condition, the description decreased correct identification performance in both children and adults and no release of VO was found with delay. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes domestication process affect stress response in juvenile Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis ?
Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, S. N. M.; Marotte, Grégory et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A : Comparative Physiology (2011), 159

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See detailDoes drawing faces make you a super-expert of faces? An investigation of face perception and recognition abilities in visual artists.
Devue, Christel ULg; Barsics, Catherine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

Poster (2012, September 01)

Face recognition abilities might constitute a continuum with developmental prosopagnosia and outstanding face recognition capacity at each extreme. 'Super-recognizers' display better face processing ... [more ▼]

Face recognition abilities might constitute a continuum with developmental prosopagnosia and outstanding face recognition capacity at each extreme. 'Super-recognizers' display better face processing abilities than controls and show a larger face inversion effect (FIE) [Russell et al, 2009, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16 (2), 252-257]. Hence, FIE could reflect a specific visual experience/expertise with faces compared to other objects rather than a qualitatively different kind of processing. In this experiment we tested face processing abilities of visual artists who practice portraiture, as well as more general visual perception and recognition skills, in order to contribute to the long-lasting debate about a possible special status of faces. If some special processing faces benefit from is due to expertise, artists' practice might lead to better perceptual and possibly recognition performance with upright faces compared to controls, while increasing the FIE. Because they need to take both configural and featural information into account to reach a satisfactory likeness, artists might also make a differential use of these facial cues compared to controls. Preliminary data indicate that face processing performance might indeed be linked to perceptual expertise with faces. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes echocardiographic stress test induced release of hsTnT and TnI II?
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Laurent, Terry; Garweg, Christophe ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry (2010, July), 56(S6), 128

Background: Cardiac troponins (cTn) are considered as the best biomarkers for detection of myocardial cell injury. In this study, cTnT and cTnI were measured by new commercially available high-sensitive ... [more ▼]

Background: Cardiac troponins (cTn) are considered as the best biomarkers for detection of myocardial cell injury. In this study, cTnT and cTnI were measured by new commercially available high-sensitive methods in patients undergoing brief exercise- or pharmacologicinduced stress. Our aim was to compare cTnT and cTnI levels before and after the stress tests, in the patients with or without reversible ischemia. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (28 men and 22 women) underwent an echographic stress test (ST) for suspected ischemic heart disease. Of these 50 patients, 28 received pharmacological ST (dobutamine injection) and 22 dynamic ST (bicycle exercise). The patients were subdivided into two groups according to the presence or absence of documented transient reversible ischemia: 14 with reversible ischemia ( mean age: 67.71±9.66 y) and 36 without ischemia ( mean age: 63.17±11.72 y). In all patients, cTnT and cTnI concentrations were measured by high sensitive methods (hsTnT, Roche Diagnostics and TnI II, Abbott Diagnostics) on heparin plasma immediately before (T0) and after ST (T1).The lower detection limit of these assays was 0.005μg/L for hsTnT and 0.01μg/L for TnI II. The protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Liège (Belgium). All patients gave informed consent. All statistical analyses were performed using Medcalc version 8.1 for Windows. P value <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference between hsTnT concentrations at T0 and T1, neither in the whole patient group, nor in the subgroups of subjects who received pharmacological ST or dynamic ST. The same was true for TnI II. Although there was no change in hsTnT levels during test in ischemic and in non ischemic patients, the latter tend to demonstrate higher median T0 levels (25th, 75th percentiles) than the others [0.011 (0.007, 0.029) vs 0.007 (0.0047, 0.1125) ng/ml, p=0.09]. They also showed higher median T1 levels [0.014 (0.065, 0.03) vs 0.007 (0.003, 0.0102) ng/ml, p=0.08]. Higher TnI II levels were also recorded in ischemic patients as compared to non ischemic patients at T0[ 0.014 (0.0072; 0.0265) vs 0.005 (0.003; 0.01) ng/ml, p=0.08] and T1[ 0.013 (0.0085- 0.03) vs 0.006 (0.0035-0.008) ng/ml, p=0.08]. Also, TnI II levels did not change during test in both subgroups. Conclusions: Measurement of cardiac troponins by high sensitive methods did not allow to detect significant release of biomarkers from the heart during exercise-or pharmacologic-induced ST, even in patients who demonstrated reversible myocardial ischemia. The type of test – pharmacological or dynamic - was without effect. The patients with induced transient ischemia had however higher troponin T and I levels at baseline, this difference remaining during test. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes edge effect influence Bonobos, Pan paniscus, forest use dynamics: a case study in a forest-savannah mosaic of West DR Congo
Serckx, Adeline ULg; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg

Conference (2012)

Our study helps understand how fragmented forests affect bonobos forest use. Previous studies already reveal that habitat types influence bonobos’ densities, but forests’ spatial structure could also have ... [more ▼]

Our study helps understand how fragmented forests affect bonobos forest use. Previous studies already reveal that habitat types influence bonobos’ densities, but forests’ spatial structure could also have an impact. In the current context of deforestation and increasing illegal concessions, approaching such questions should help orient future conservation programs. We focus on the influence of edge effect on bonobos forest use, presuming that they avoid areas with non mature forests and increased human pressure. We travelled along transects (113km total) to define habitat types and to record bonobos indices (tracks, food remains and nesting sites) in 200km² of forests in Southwestern Lake Tumba Region. Our results show that bonobos clearly prefer specific habitats for nesting, and, within these nest-forest types, an understory of Marantaceae Haumania sp. is preferentially chosen. To evaluate edge effect on nesting behavior, we counted nesting sites in 100m distance classes from the forest edge. Our results indicate a uniform distribution of nesting sites, but with a negative edge effect in the first 100m. When we analyzed tracks and food remains distribution, we didn’t find any habitat type preferences or any edge effect. These results indicate that, although bonobos are known to favor dense forests, they can also adapt to fragmented forests environment. Habitat types appear to be more relevant to understand their distribution and range. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes electrical stimulation of knee extensor and flexor muscles induce DOMS?
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Triffaux, Mylène; Demoulin, Christophe ULg et al

in Loland, S.; Fasting, K.; Hallen, J. (Eds.) et al Book of Abstracts of 14th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (2009, June)

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See detailDoes environmental exposure to cadmium represent a health risk? Conclusions from the Cadmibel Study.
Lauwerys, R.; Bernard, A.; Buchet, J.-P. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1991), 46

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See detailDoes Export Controls Regimes could Contribute to Counter the Acquisition of WMD by Sub-national ?,
Michel, Quentin ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Sciences (2003)

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See detailDoes F2 need a hard pomeron?
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Soyez, G.

in Physics Letters B (2001), 516

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See detailDoes feeding dairy cattle with different levels of condensed distillers solubles (Protiwanze®) increase the risk of Sara?
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2011, September 08)

INTRODUCTION The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of Protiwanze® (PW) supplementation, a highly acid (pH = 3.8 ± 0.8) and fermentescible CDS, on ruminal function of ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of Protiwanze® (PW) supplementation, a highly acid (pH = 3.8 ± 0.8) and fermentescible CDS, on ruminal function of dairy cows. MATERIAL AND METHODS PW supplementation was tested in 5 dairy herds (144 cows, DIM: 96 ± 61, daily milk production: 34.69 ± 8.22 L). In Herd 1, TMR was supplemented with 0% or 10% of PW on a dry matter basis for 4 weeks including a 7-day transition period. Each concentration was distributed twice during 2 periods alternatively with the other one, each cow being its own control. PW concentrations were 10 and 15% in Herd 2, 3 and 4. During every period, milk production was measured by the Dairy Herd Improvement and ruminal fluid sampled by a stomach tube (Ruminator®) on 5 cows. Samples were assessed for pH (portable pH meter), redox potential (Methylene blue test) and protozoa (optical microscopy). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Ruminal pH values ranged between 5.94 and 7.74. Even when a correction factor of 0.5 was applied to take into account possible saliva contamination, only 8 pH samples pleaded for SARA although protozoa and methylene blue tests were within norms and cows clinically normal. No significant correlation between pH value, milk production and fat content could be demonstrated. Ruminal pH did neither significantly differ between the different levels of PW supplementation. In conclusion, in this study, PW could be used in dairy cows TMR at a level as high as 15% without increasing the risk of SARA. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes fluid intelligence protect from age-related decline in cognitive control ?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2012, June 25)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age and fluid intelligence capacity on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, older participants with similar level of fluid intelligence to young adults showed no proactive control age-related decrement. Beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that the level of fluid intelligence influences the efficiency of proactive control in aging. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes fluid intelligence protect from age-related decline in cognitive control ?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

in Proceedings of the BAPS - SEPEX meeting (2012, May 11)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age and fluid intelligence capacity on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, older participants with similar level of fluid intelligence to young adults showed no proactive control age-related decrement. Beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that the level of fluid intelligence influences the efficiency of proactive control in aging. [less ▲]

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