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See detailEffects of desert dust on air quality and human health. What do we know about West Africa compared to other regions?
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2009, February 24)

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara and its desertified margins that produce about half of the yearly global mineral dust. Saharan dust is often transported far away to the sources ... [more ▼]

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara and its desertified margins that produce about half of the yearly global mineral dust. Saharan dust is often transported far away to the sources and causes air quality deterioration impacting northwards the Mediterranean and Europe, westwards crossing the Atlantic Ocean to the United States, the Caribbean and South America, and southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate levels that exceed internationally recommended levels and transport allergens, including bacteria and fungi. Therefore special attention is paid to dust storms as such mineral particulate matter air pollution may be a serious health threat in various regions of the world because it may promote respiratory infection, cardiovascular disease and other ailments. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of design and kinematic parameters of rotary cultivators on soil structure
Destain, Marie-France ULg; Houmy, K.

in Soil & Tillage Research (1990), 17(3-4), 291-301

In comparison with drawn implements, rotary cultivators are of particular interest in final seedbed preparation. In this paper, a quantitative basis for the description of soil structure created by rotary ... [more ▼]

In comparison with drawn implements, rotary cultivators are of particular interest in final seedbed preparation. In this paper, a quantitative basis for the description of soil structure created by rotary tillers is given. Undisturbed Ap horizon samples were collected, impregnated with polyester resin, sectioned by sawing and analysed by means of image analysis. Total porosity, area and size of pores are related to the design and kinematic parameters of the rotary cultivator, arising from an analysis based upon the location of instant centres of velocity. It is shown that using a rotary cultivator with a higher ratio of peripheral to forward velocity leads to a smaller total mean porosity which is more homogeneous. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Dexamethasone on the Profile of Cytokine Secretion in Human Whole Blood Cell Cultures
Franchimont, Denis; Louis, Edouard ULg; Dewé, Walthère ULg et al

in Regulatory Peptides (1998), 73(1), 59-65

EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES: The interaction between the endocrine and immune systems is a very intriguing area. Endogenous glucocorticoids, as end-effectors of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, inhibit ... [more ▼]

EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES: The interaction between the endocrine and immune systems is a very intriguing area. Endogenous glucocorticoids, as end-effectors of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, inhibit the immune and inflammatory responses and are used as immunosuppressive drugs in many inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on the profile of cytokine secretion in whole blood cell cultures from healthy subjects and to analyse the gender-related sensitivity to dexamethasone on each cytokine secretion. RESULTS: There was a significant inhibition by dexamethasone (from 1 to 100 nM) on the secretion of monokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF alpha) and lymphokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma), either after LPS or PHA stimulation (P < 0.01). Interleukin 4 and IL-10 were less inhibited than IFN gamma (P < 0.05 at 1 nM, P < 0.01 at 10 nM and P < 0.001 from 100 nM to 10 microM). No gender difference was observed in the rate of inhibition of the secretion of each cytokine. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the inhibition of cytokine secretion by dexamethasone is more marked on Th1-type cytokines than on Th2-type cytokines. These data support the idea that glucocorticoids may induce a shift from the Th1 to Th2 profile of cytokine secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dexamethasone treatment on growth performances, sexual axis and hormonal status in finishing bulls
Renaville, Robert ULg; Massart, Serge; Devolder, Anne et al

Poster (1993)

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See detailEffects of dexamethasone treatment on growth performances, sexual axis and hormonal status in finishing bulls
Renaville, Robert ULg; Massart, Serge; Devolder, Anne et al

in Journal of Animal Science (1993), 71(suppl 1), 232

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See detailEffects of diazoxide, benzothiadiazine and benzopyrane derivatives on mitochondrial proton and electron leaks of cardiomyocytes (H9C2 cell line).
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Ceusters, Justine ULg; Charef, M et al

Poster (2013)

Background: Mitochondria are double membrane- organelles that play a central role in cellular metabolism, calcium homeostasis and redox signaling. They have been also considered as main producers of ... [more ▼]

Background: Mitochondria are double membrane- organelles that play a central role in cellular metabolism, calcium homeostasis and redox signaling. They have been also considered as main producers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In many cancer cells those organelles become dysfunctional leading to a shift of energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to active glycolysis and an increase of ROS generation. According to Warberg’ theory, cancer damage might occur at the mitochondrial level, affecting tiny structures within each cell implicated in the energy production through ATP. New insight is that mitochondria might be a good therapeutic target for metabolic syndromes, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organs transplantation. Therefore, search for novel molecules able to keep mitochondria functional are of relevant interest. Methodology: Cardiomyocytes (H9C2 cells) were from ATCC (USA) and grown till confluence. The basal cellular respiratory rate, proton and electron leaks as well as ATP production were measured with the High Resolution Oxygraphy (Oroboros, Austria). All compounds: diazoxide (DIAZ), diazoxide –related analogs (1: BPDZ-259, 2: BPDZ-444), and benzopyran derivatives (3: BPDZ-490, 4: BPDZ-711) were tested at final concentration of 10-5 M, except when specified and compared to control samples (cells with or without DMSO). Results and conclusion: The basal respiratory rate of H9C2 cells (5x106/mL) was changed depending on the chemical structure of the tested compounds: e.g. compound 3 strongly enhanced the routine respiration, while 4 displayed a marked lowering effect. In contrast, the addition of similar concentration of benzothiadiazin derivatives (1, 2) had no effect on routine respiration but also on the other respiratory parameters such as oligomycin-induced leak and ATP production. Similar profile was obtained with the reference molecule: diazoxide. Overall, our findings indicate that both diazoxide-like analogues (1 and 2) and diazoxide were without significant effect on basal respiration, ATP production, even on maximal respiration. Interestingly, two derivatives show opposite effects: compound 3 behaves as a uncoupling agent and the other one (4) exhibits a real lowering effect on respiration but that was reversible. The latter effect might be of interest if this kind of molecules could be used for further use as an agent for organ conservation during transplantation. Our results also demonstrate that diazoxide, a well-known Mito-KATP opener, did not exert its effect beside of clinical situation like ischemia/reperfusion injury. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP on cultured brain cells from chick embryos of different ages.
Moonen, Gustave ULg; Sensenbrenner, M.

in Experientia (1976), 32(1), 40-42

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See detailEffects of dietary A-lipoic-acid on feed intake and hypothalamic AMPK activity of young broiler chicks
Wang, Y.; Willems, E.; Franssens, L et al

in Proceedings of the 6th Combined Workshop on Fundamental Physiology and Perinatal Development in Poultry (2013)

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See detailEffects of dietary carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation, plasma hormone and metabolites in growing fattening bull
Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg et al

in Animal Production (1990), 50

A finishing diet containing barley and sugarbeet pulp 500:200 or 200:500 g/kg was given to 12 bulls twice daily at 08.00 and 16.00 h. The high-pulp diet increased rumen acetic and butyric acids and ... [more ▼]

A finishing diet containing barley and sugarbeet pulp 500:200 or 200:500 g/kg was given to 12 bulls twice daily at 08.00 and 16.00 h. The high-pulp diet increased rumen acetic and butyric acids and decreased propionic acid compared with the high-barley diet. The diurnal patterns over a 24-h period of rumen pH, volatile fatty acids, glucose and ammonia were characterized by 2 cycles. The high-pulp induced more even fermentations as indicated by flatter curves with less extreme values than those produced by high-barley diet. Ammonia concentration was high before feeding and decreased subsequently during 4 to 6 h after the meal. No typical patterns were observed in plasma concentrations of glucose and alpha-amino nitrogen. Plasma urea concentration increased 2 h after feeding and dropped during the following 6 to 8 h. There were no effects of dietary carbohydrate composition on growth hormone concentration but plasma insulin was significantly reduced with the high-pulp diet. Furthermore, the insulin profile showed peaks after each meal with the high-barley diet but only after the afternoon feeding with the high-pulp diet. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of dietary crude protein on growth of the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis
Fiogbe, E. D.; Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture (1996)

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See detailEffects of dietary fibres on greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions associated to gestating sows
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Cabaraux, Jean-François; Delguste, Catherine; Frippiat, thibault (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium) (2011)

Usually, gestating sows are restrictedly-fed to prevent excessive body weight gain and fat deposition. However, feed restriction causes sustained feeding motivation resulting in stereotypic behaviour and ... [more ▼]

Usually, gestating sows are restrictedly-fed to prevent excessive body weight gain and fat deposition. However, feed restriction causes sustained feeding motivation resulting in stereotypic behaviour and impairment of animal welfare. High fibre diets (HFD) are known to reduce feeding motivation without impairments of performance but the effects of HFD on emissions of pollutant gases are very few studied. Thus, a study was carried out to compare the effect of two fibre contents (standard diet (STD) with 22% of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) vs. HFD with 44% of NSP) on emissions of ammonia (E-NH3), nitrous oxide (E-N2O), methane (E-CH4) and CO2-equivalents (E-EqCO2) associated to gestating sows. Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were divided into 2 homogeneous groups and randomly allocated to one of two treatments: STD vs. HFD. The groups were kept separately in two identical rooms equipped with a pen divided into a lying area with slatted floor and five individual feeding stalls with permanent access. Emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection. The HFD significantly decreased ENH3 (12.1 vs. 15.9 g/sow.day) but increased E-EqCO2 (0.68 vs. 0.47 kg/sow.day) in relation with an increase of E-CH4 (18.4 vs. 9.1 g/sow.day), E-N2O being not impacted by the diet, with value around 0.60 g/sow.day. So, the effects of HFD offered to gestating sows on slatted floor on environment seem conflicting with a decrease of NH3 emissions which mainly contribute to acidification of soils and waters and eutrophication, but an increase of CO2-quivalents emissions which contribute to greenhouse effect and climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dietary methylmercury on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver proteome
Brésart, David ULg; Fourdrilis, Séverine; Mathy, Grégory ULg et al

Poster (2010, July 19)

Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic pollutant. It is produced from HgS by the action of sulphate-reducing bacteria and is released in fresh waters. MeHg is bioaccumulated through the trophic chain and is ... [more ▼]

Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic pollutant. It is produced from HgS by the action of sulphate-reducing bacteria and is released in fresh waters. MeHg is bioaccumulated through the trophic chain and is known to cause different health troubles (trembling, memory loss, anemia and kidney deficiency). Toxic exogenous substances, such as MeHg, are transformed by liver’s metabolic pathway, making this the starting point of vertebrate detoxication. Almost 50% of MeHg assimilated in hepatocytes is accumulated in mitochondria (Ware et al.,1975) and It has been suggested that it may uncouples OXPHOS (Mori et al., 2007). The aim of this study was to identify the proteomics modifications of the liver mitochondrial proteome in response to a chronic MeHg intoxication by using the 2D DIGE methodology (Figure 1). Fishes were fed with two different contaminated diets (6.5 and 13.5 µg of MeHgCl / g of dry food.). We have also performed functional assays in order to confirm the MeHg uncoupling effect on Salmo truita liver mitochondria. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Dietary N-3 and Antioxidant Supplementation on Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition and Fluidity in Exercising Horses
Portier, Karine; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Fellman, Nicole et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2006), 36

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Fatty acid supplementation could modulate erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses at rest and during exercise, but information is lacking on the effect of exercise ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Fatty acid supplementation could modulate erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses at rest and during exercise, but information is lacking on the effect of exercise. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of exercise with, and without, an oral antioxidant supplementation enriched with n-3 fatty acids on erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF) and fatty acid composition in eventing horses. METHODS: Twelve healthy and regularly trained horses were divided randomly into 2 groups: group S received an oral antioxidant cocktail enriched in n-3 fatty acid (alphatocopherol, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) whereas group P was placebo-treated. At the end of 4 weeks, all horses performed a standardised exercise test (ET) under field conditions. Venous blood was sampled before starting treatment (TO), immediately before (T1) as well as 15 min (T2) and 24 h (T3) after ET. Spin labelled (16-DOXYL-stearic acid) red blood cell membranes were characterised using the relaxation correlation time (Tc in inverse proportion to EMF). Fatty acid composition (%) of the membrane was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Supplementation did not induce changes in EMF (T1 vs. TO) but significant changes in membrane composition were observed and there were increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA, n-3/n-6 ratio, and total n-3 fatty acids. Exercise (T2 vs. T1) induced a significant decrease of EMF in group P (Tc: +19%, P<0.05) and nonsignificant decrease in group S (Tc: +5%), whereas membrane fatty acid composition did not change in either group. During the recovery period (T3 vs. T2), EMF decreased significantly in group S (Tc: +29%, P<0.05) and nonsignificantly in group P (Tc: +18%) without any significant changes in fatty acid composition. CONCLUSION AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: An enriched oral antioxidant supplementation induced changes in membrane composition, which modulated the decrease in EMF induced by exercise. Long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation might therefore be beneficial. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dietary protein content and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid or DL-methionine supplementation on performance and oxidative status of broiler chickens.
Swennen, Quirine; Geraert, Pierre-Andre; Mercier, Yves et al

in The British journal of nutrition (2011), 106(12), 1845-54

Besides its typical role as an amino acid in protein synthesis, methionine is an important intermediate in methylation reactions. In addition, it can also be converted to cysteine and hence plays a role ... [more ▼]

Besides its typical role as an amino acid in protein synthesis, methionine is an important intermediate in methylation reactions. In addition, it can also be converted to cysteine and hence plays a role in the defence against oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to investigate further the role of DL-methionine (DLM) and its hydroxy analogue, DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (DL-HMTBA), on zootechnical performance and oxidative status of broiler chickens. Male broiler chickens were reared on two diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (low-protein, 18.3 % v. high-protein, 23.2 % CP) and were supplemented either with 0.25 % DLM or 0.25 % DL-HMTBA. Reducing the dietary protein content resulted in an impaired body weight gain (P < 0.0001). However, supplementation of DL-HMTBA to the low-protein diet partially alleviated these negative effects (P = 0.0003). This latter phenomenon could be explained by the fact that chickens fed DL-HMTBA-supplemented diets displayed a better antioxidant status as reflected in lower lipid peroxidation probably as a consequence of their higher hepatic concentrations of total and reduced glutathione compared with their DLM counterparts. On the other hand, within the high protein levels, uric acid might be an important antioxidant to explain the lower lipid peroxidation of high-protein DL-HMTBA-supplemented chickens. Hepatic methionine sulfoxide reductase-A gene expression was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the present study indicates that there are interactions between dietary protein content and supplementation of methionine analogues with respect to broiler performance and antioxidant status, also suggesting a causal link between these traits. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dietary supplementation of methionine and its hydroxy analog DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid on growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and the redox status of broiler chickens exposed to high temperatures.
Willemsen, H.; Swennen, Q.; Everaert, Nadia ULg et al

in Poultry science (2011), 90(10), 2311-20

Heat stress is known to impair performance and to induce oxidative stress in poultry. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of dl-methionine (dl-M) or the ... [more ▼]

Heat stress is known to impair performance and to induce oxidative stress in poultry. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of dl-methionine (dl-M) or the synthetic analog 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (dl-HMTBA) on broiler growth performance, plasma hormone levels, and some oxidative stress-related parameters under conditions of chronic exposure to high temperatures (HT). From 2 to 6 wk of age, male broiler chickens were reared under either a constant temperature of 32 degrees C until 6 wk of age or a normal temperature scheme (gradual decrease to 18 degrees C at 5 wk of age). Chicks in both the normal and HT treatments were provided with a commercial grower diet supplemented with either 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg of dl-M or 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg of dl-HMTBA. Because there were no effects of supplement dose, data were pooled over both doses within each temperature treatment. The chronic HT treatment impaired feed intake and BW gain, but these negative effects were less pronounced when the chickens received dl-HMTBA. Exposure to HT was also associated with decreased (P < 0.001) plasma thyroid hormones and increased (P < 0.0001) plasma corticosterone levels. At 4 wk of age, and irrespective of the supplemental source, chickens subjected to HT were characterized by significantly lower plasma TBA-reactive substance levels. In contrast, at 6 wk of age, plasma TBA-reactive substance levels were significantly increased by HT, but this effect was observed only for the chickens receiving dl-M and not for those receiving dl-HMTBA. High temperatures induced a significant increase in hepatic total glutathione (GSH) and oxidized GSH levels, regardless of the supplemental source. However, the hepatic ratios of reduced GSH to total GSH and reduced GSH to oxidized GSH were highest in chickens supplemented with dl-HMTBA. In conclusion, dl-HMTBA supplementation partially prevented the growth-depressing effects of chronic heat exposure compared with dl-M supplementation. It can be inferred that dl-HMTBA is more efficient in alleviating HT-induced oxidative damage because of a more favorable reduced GSH-to-total GSH ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of different calcium formulations on calcium absorption in healthy volunteers
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; DEROISY, Rita ULg; Franchimont, P

in Advances in Therapy (1991), 8(2), 86-91

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See detailEffects of different levels of energy allowances and of hibernation on growth in hatchling Testudo hermanni boettgeri (Mojsisovic, 1889)
Diez, Marianne ULg; Vanstrazeele, Boris; Justet, Delphine et al

in Clauss, M.; Fidgett, A.; Hatt, J. M. (Eds.) et al Zoo Animal Nutrition IV (2009)

Cet article présente des données de croissance de Testudo nouveaux nés dont les apports alimentaires et l'hibernation ont été contrôlés.

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See detailEffects of different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth on performance in Belgian Blue bulls
Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg et al

in EAAP (Ed.) Abstracts of the 47th meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (1996)

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See detailEffects of different spatial interpolators on the estimate of extreme precipitations
Ly, Sarann ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Charles, Catherine ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011), 13

The design values of the areal precipitation are needed for engineer to manage vital elements of our infrastructure. The areal precipitation can be generated by different interpolation methods. The ... [more ▼]

The design values of the areal precipitation are needed for engineer to manage vital elements of our infrastructure. The areal precipitation can be generated by different interpolation methods. The problem involves choosing the interpolation method that we should use to estimate the extreme event. This work aimed at analyzing the effects of different interpolation methods on the estimate of extreme events of daily areal precipitations at catchment scale. The extreme rainfalls were estimated using areal daily rainfall interpolated by several interpolation methods (Thiessen polygon, Inverse Distance Weighting, Ordinary Kriging, Universal Kriging, Kriging with an External Drift and Ordinary Cokriging). We used thirty-years-long daily time series and different density of rain gages (from 4 to 70 rain gages). Our study is located in the Ourthe and Ambleve catchment area (2908 km²) in the southern part of Belgium). Spatial interpolation with the geostatistical and Inverse Distance Weighting algorithms outperformed considerably interpolation with the Thiessen polygon. Kriging with an External Drift and Ordinary Cokriging presented the highest Root Mean Square Error between the geostatistical and Inverse Distance Weighting methods. Ordinary Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting were considered to be the best methods, as they provided smallest Root Mean Square Error for nearly all cases. However, it’s not really the case of extreme estimates for particular return period. The extreme daily rainfall, corresponding to return periods of 25, 50 and 100 years, were computed by fitting of a statistical model to the series of maximum annual precipitation. These estimates were conducted using HYFRAN which allows us to fit 16 different statistical models, in 2 or 3 parameters. The most known are the models of Gumbel, Gamma, Weibull, exponential, Pareto, lognormale, Pearson III and GEV. Our results showed that the behaviour of extreme daily areal rainfall in this area was best described via the Gumbel and lognormal distributions. Using 70 rain gages, little differences in extreme rainfall were observed between the interpolation methods. The estimates from these methods were in the area of 95% confidence intervals of the estimates using the Thiessen polygon. However, when the number of rain gages diminishes, the Universal Kriging and Kriging with External drift methods produced extreme estimates outside the area of 95% confidence intervals of the estimates using the Thiessen polygon with all available stations. The analysis described here provides a means to choose the interpolation method in view to calculate extreme events. It shows to engineers or hydrologists the need for a particular care when working in the regions of sparse data. [less ▲]

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