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See detailElectrochemical synthesis of conjugated polymer wires and nanotubules
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Legras, Roger et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2000), 6(17), 3089-3093

Two electrochemical methods designed for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) wires and nanotubules are the topic of this paper. The concept that allows the morphology of PPy to be controlled is discussed ... [more ▼]

Two electrochemical methods designed for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) wires and nanotubules are the topic of this paper. The concept that allows the morphology of PPy to be controlled is discussed for each method, and the performances of the two complementary techniques are compared in terms of dimension, shape and conductivity of PPy. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical synthesis of new electroactive polymers from dithienylene-vinylene derivatives
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Maertens, Christophe; Mertens, Marc et al

in Synthetic Metals (1997, January), 84(1-3), 163-164

Highly conjugated thiophene derivatives, based on thienylene-vinylene and thieneylene-vinylene-phenylene units, have been synthesized in order to examine: (i) the effect of such regular conjugated monomer ... [more ▼]

Highly conjugated thiophene derivatives, based on thienylene-vinylene and thieneylene-vinylene-phenylene units, have been synthesized in order to examine: (i) the effect of such regular conjugated monomer structures on the polymerization; (ii) the optical and electrochemical properties of the corresponding conjugated polymers. The all-trans monomers have been prepared by a Wittig reaction and the polymers have then been synthesized electrochemically. The polymers are electrochromic and can be reversibly doped both oxidatively and reductively. Their electrochemical behavior and optical properties have been analysed on the basis of quantum-chemical calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole nanowires
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (1998), 37(18), 2488-2490

Through a hole in a poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) layer that is electrochemically grafted to the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode-that is the route that must be taken by a growing polypyrrole nanowire ... [more ▼]

Through a hole in a poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) layer that is electrochemically grafted to the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode-that is the route that must be taken by a growing polypyrrole nanowire in the electropolymerization of pyrrole. Chain growth is controlled by diffusion of the monomer through the DMF-swollen PEA layer, which acts as a template for the formation of nanowires (shown in the picture) with diameters of 400-1000 nm and lengths of up to 300 m. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemically Driven Sequential Machines: An Implementation of Copper Rotaxanes
Periyasamy, Ganga ULg; Collin, Jacques ULg; Sauvage, Jacques ULg et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2009), 15(6), 1310-1313

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See detailElectrochemically synthesized polypyrrole nanotubules : effects of different experimental conditions
Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Ferain, Etienne; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (1998), 34(12), 1767-1774

Nanotubules of polypyrrole (PPy) were electrochemically synthesized using the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) particle track-etched membranes (PTM) as templates. The influence of some conditions of ... [more ▼]

Nanotubules of polypyrrole (PPy) were electrochemically synthesized using the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) particle track-etched membranes (PTM) as templates. The influence of some conditions of electrosynthesis (electrochemical method, monomer concentration, electrolyte concentration and nature) on the kinetics of pyrrole electropolymerization and on the morphology of the obtained nanomaterials has been investigated. In particular, the empirical kinetics of the electrochemical generation of polypyrrole-perchlorate (PPy-ClO4) from aqueous solution, at 0.8 V (vs SCE) was followed by electrical charges measurement. The orders with respect to pyrrole and LiClO4 are 0.34 and 0.70 respectively. The electrogeneration of polypyrrole-polystyrenesulfonate (PPy-PSS) was also followed and shows that an increase of the electrolyte concentration increases the polymerization rate at constant potential. Finally, the morphology of PPy nanotubules doped with LiClO4 and NaPSS has been studied by high resolution emission SEM and by TEM. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry as a correlation tool candidate with catalytic activities in ruthenium(II)-catalysed atom transfer radical polymerisation ?
Richel, Aurore ULg; Tutusaus, Oscar; Viñas, Clara et al

in Polymer Preprints (2005), 46(2), 227-228

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See detailElectrochemistry as a correlation tool with the catalytic activities in [RuCl2(p-cymene)(PAr3)]-catalysed Kharasch additions
Richel, Aurore ULg; Demonceau, Albert ULg; Noels, Alfred ULg

in Tetrahedron Letters (2006), 47

[RuCl2(p-cymene)] complexes containing triarylphosphine ligands with various substituents at the para position were used to catalyse the atom transfer radical addition of carbon tetrachloride to various ... [more ▼]

[RuCl2(p-cymene)] complexes containing triarylphosphine ligands with various substituents at the para position were used to catalyse the atom transfer radical addition of carbon tetrachloride to various olefins, and their catalytic activities were nicely correlated with their electrochemical parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry of lanthanum and uranium chlorides in organic media: Deposition of lanthanum and uranium
Martinot, Lucien; Lopes, L.; Marien, José ULg et al

in Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry (2002), 253(3), 407-412

Molten salts have been widely used for the electrochemical preparation of lanthanum and uranium metals at high temperature. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a similar process in ... [more ▼]

Molten salts have been widely used for the electrochemical preparation of lanthanum and uranium metals at high temperature. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of a similar process in dimethylformamide (DMF) and in the mixture gamma-butyrolactone/tetrahydrofuran (gamma-BL/THF) The best conditions for the preparation were deduced from preliminary transient electrochemistry experiments and from secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements involving SIMS mappings and SIMS depth profile analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and a non polymerizable analogue
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Kroonen, D.; Mertens, Marc et al

in Polymer (1998), 39(1), 23-29

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the ... [more ▼]

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the pyrrolidone substituent of N-VP is also involved in the anodic reaction in addition to the polymerizable vinyl double bond. This additional reaction in the potential range of interest was confirmed by the electrochemical oxidation of a non polymerizable analogue of N-VP, i.e. N-methylpyrrolidone. Therefore, at least two mechanisms can contribute to the electrodeposition of a polymer film in a solvent of poly N-VP: electrografting and polymer branching and/or crosslinking by species stemming from the electrooxidation of the pyrrolidone rings. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochromic TiO2, ZrO2 and TiO2-ZrO2 thin films by dip-coating method
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : B (2009), 165(3), 212-216

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing ... [more ▼]

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing temperatures were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Electrochromic behavior of the three kind materials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the basic electrochromic characteristics were determined. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis.
Bailleul, Benjamin; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Breyton, Cecile et al

in Photosynthesis Research (2010), 106(1-2), 179-89

In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an ... [more ▼]

In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient (Deltamu(H)(+)), which comprises a gradient of electric potential (DeltaPsi) and of proton concentration (DeltapH). The Deltamu(H)(+) has a central role in the photosynthetic process, providing the energy source for ATP synthesis. It is also involved in many regulatory mechanisms. The DeltapH modulates the rate of electron transfer and triggers deexcitation of excess energy within the light harvesting complexes. The DeltaPsi is required for metabolite and protein transport across the membranes. Its presence also induces a shift in the absorption spectra of some photosynthetic pigments, resulting in the so-called ElectroChromic Shift (ECS). In this review, we discuss the characteristic features of the ECS, and illustrate possible applications for the study of photosynthetic processes in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic
Zodi, Salim; Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Michon, Clémence et al

in Separation & Purification Technology (2011), 81

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current ... [more ▼]

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150 A/m2). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of the aromaticity of the treated effluent. The process was also very efficient for the removal of lignin-based pollution, characterized by the fluorescence of humic substances. Arsenic was selected as an example of a non-organic micropollutant and was also satisfactorily removed (from 4 to 0.5 lg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained after the electrocoagulation treatment were also evaluated. The sludge aptitude to settling is better with Fe electrodes than with Al electrodes. The experimental results obtained in the present study indicate that electrocoagulation treatment can be very effective and was capable of improving the paper mill wastewaters’ quality downstream of the biological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrocoagulation as a tertiary treatment for paper mill wastewater: Removal of non-biodegradable organic pollution and arsenic
Zodi, Salim; Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Michon, Clémence et al

in Separation & Purification Technology (2011), 81

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current ... [more ▼]

The tertiary treatment of paper mill wastewaters was investigated by testing the effect of batch electrocoagulation for 90 min with two parallel iron or aluminum plates at two values of the current density (100 and 150 A/m 2 ). Dissolved organic carbon removal ranged between 24% and 46%, and chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 32% and 68%. UV–visible spectroscopy showed a reduction of aromaticity of the treated effluent. The process was also very efficient for the removal of lignin-based pollution, characterized by the fluorescence of humic substances. Arsenic was selected as an example non-organic micropollutant and was also satisfactorily removed (from 4 to 0.5 lg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained after the electrocoagulation treatment were also evaluated. The sludge aptitude to settling is better with Fe electrodes than with Al electrodes. The experimental results obtained in the present study indicate that electrocoagulation treatment can be very effective and capable of improving the paper mill wastewaters’ quality downstream of the biological treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailElectroconvulsive therapy for depression in a patient with an intracranial arachnoid cyst.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Thiry, Jean-Christophe; Monville, Jean-Francois et al

in Journal of ECT (2009), 25(1), 64-6

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been frequently considered relatively contraindicated in patients with space-occupying lesions in the brain. After the 7 cases available in the literature, we describe ... [more ▼]

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been frequently considered relatively contraindicated in patients with space-occupying lesions in the brain. After the 7 cases available in the literature, we describe the safe use of ECT in a depressive patient with arachnoid cyst. We provide a comprehensive review on this clinical association, and we conclude that even if the few data available are reassuring, careful neurological evaluation before the ECT treatment is indicated. [less ▲]

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See detailL'électroconvulsivothérapie en 2008.
Servais, Sophie ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Mikolajczak, Gladys ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

L’électroconvulsivothérapie (anciennement dénommée sismothérapie, électronarcose ou électrochoc) est une technique thérapeutique utilisée dans certaines affections psychiatriques. Elle consiste en la ... [more ▼]

L’électroconvulsivothérapie (anciennement dénommée sismothérapie, électronarcose ou électrochoc) est une technique thérapeutique utilisée dans certaines affections psychiatriques. Elle consiste en la réalisation d’une crise convulsive généralisée induite par le passage d’un courant électrique transcrânien. S’il est vrai que cette méthode continue de stigmatiser l’imaginaire collectif en suscitant effroi et méfiance (modèle de barbarie thérapeutique pour certains, traitement obsolète pour d’autres), elle se révèle, au contraire, être un traitement souvent très efficace, dans certains cas irremplaçable, et dans l’ensemble très bien toléré. Ainsi, ces dernières années ont vu un regain d’intérêt pour l’ECT. Elle constitue, aujourd’hui, la plus ancienne des somathérapies psychiatriques toujours en vigueur. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrodeposition of metals and magnetic alloys onto conducting polymeric substrates
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Licour, C. et al

in Journal De Chimie Physique Et De Physico-Chimie Biologique (1998), 95(6), 1491-1493

A new composite material prepared by mixing polycarbonate with carbon black has been tested as new kind of cathode, This material has been compared with a conducting polymer precipitated onto ... [more ▼]

A new composite material prepared by mixing polycarbonate with carbon black has been tested as new kind of cathode, This material has been compared with a conducting polymer precipitated onto polycarbonate, both in aqueous and organic solutions. We report some examples of electrodeposition of magnetic alloys (Lanthanides/Transition metals) in Formamide, In this medium, the use of thin polypyrrole films cathodes had remained impossible, The preparation of amorphous and magnetic alloys onto PC/carbon black is evidenced by RES. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrodeposition of mixed adherent thin films of poly(ethyl acrylate) and polyacrylonitrile onto nickel
Baute, Noëlle; Geskin, Victor M; Lazzaroni, Roberto et al

in e-Polymers (2004), (63), 1-20

Adherent thin polymer films have been prepared by sequential electrodeposition of ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel. Their composition has been studied by IR spectroscopy and time of ... [more ▼]

Adherent thin polymer films have been prepared by sequential electrodeposition of ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel. Their composition has been studied by IR spectroscopy and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry. Morphology and thickness have been analyzed by atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry, respectively, and compared to single component films of PEA and PAN. No microphase separation was detected in the mixed PEA/PAN films. These show a granular morphology comparable to that of PAN films. The grains contain the two constitutive polymers, as confirmed by the selective thermal degradation of PEA. [less ▲]

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