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See detailDistributive Justice and Social Equity: Québécois and French Students’ Patterns of Social Justice Perception
Fournier, Bernard ULg; Hudon, Raymond

Conference (1998, July 15)

Multivariate analysis, like correspondence analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification, allow us not only to reduce information collected with several questions, but in a more significant way, to ... [more ▼]

Multivariate analysis, like correspondence analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification, allow us not only to reduce information collected with several questions, but in a more significant way, to stress on the plurality of behaviors and cognitions which coexists inside a given population. However, the theoretical consequences of these possibilities are not always fully used, especially if the objective of the research is to compare survey results between two populations: isn’t it more convenient to keep one or two global images and to suggest hypotheses from this representation? First analyses of the survey results on Distributive Justice and the role of the State show us that French students seem to stress more on the role of State in society and economics than their Québécois counterparts. But many subtleties are hidden by this single image and in fact, for students who filled the survey in 1996, many patterns have to be presented. With a more precise portrait, we can suggest that even a strong economical context like the one we experience today doesn’t lead to homogeneous attitudes for student populations : construction processes of individual’ s reference are still important to study. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributive Justice and Social Equity: Québécois and French Students' Perceptions
Hudon, Raymond; Fournier, Bernard ULg

Conference (1996, July)

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See detailDistributive Justice and the Role of the State. Students’ Opinions in Ontario and Quebec
Fournier, Bernard ULg; Hudon, Raymond; Nesbitt-Larking, Paul

Conference (1997, August 10)

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See detailDistrict heating and energy indicators: a method to assess the link between urban planning characteristics and energy efficiency of district heating networks
Pacot, Pierre-Emmanuel ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proc. of The 7th international symposium on heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (2011)

District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. Moreover, the only energy ... [more ▼]

District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. Moreover, the only energy indicator generally used is the primary energy factor (PEF), which quantifies the primary energy use of a device. However it does not give a complete insight of the whole energy use of district heating networks. In this paper, three other energy indicators are defined to enhance their energy analysis. The use of these energy indicators is highlighted by an application on a specific heating district network and by a sensitivity analysis. Finally, a methodology to assess the link between urban characteristics and energy district heating performance is proposed, based on the developed energy indicators. [less ▲]

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See detailLes districts sanitaires : un outil pour le renforcement des systèmes de santé locaux
Porignon, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2006)

Objectif Le présent travail vise à argumenter la pertinence des systèmes de santé de district pour la mise en place de services de santé locaux permettant la prise en charge des principaux problèmes de ... [more ▼]

Objectif Le présent travail vise à argumenter la pertinence des systèmes de santé de district pour la mise en place de services de santé locaux permettant la prise en charge des principaux problèmes de santé dans un contexte de crise. Matériel et méthodes En Afrique centrale, plusieurs faisceaux d'arguments convergents ont été développés à travers des études sur la performance de districts sanitaires dans trois contextes différents : (1) le suivi sur 17 ans des performances d'un district sanitaire de l'Est de la République démocratique du Congo (1985-2001), (2) l'analyse des performances dans 46 districts de santé dans la partie ouest de la République démocratique du Congo (2003-2004) et (3) l'analyse des performances des districts sanitaires comme pierre angulaire de la réforme sanitaire au Rwanda après la guerre et le génocide (1995-2001). Résultats Dans ces trois contextes, il est apparu que les districts de santé lorsqu'ils disposent d'un minimum de ressources en termes humains et financiers, sont capables de développer assez rapidement des niveaux de performances pour les activités de base et de référence (curatives, préventives, générales ou spécialisées) . Ces derniers sont comparables à ceux que l'on trouve dans la littérature internationale pour des pays de niveau analogue. En outre, les principes d'organisation des districts, notamment à travers les organes de participation, permettent d'envisager le rôle potentiel que les professionnels de santé peuvent jouer dans l'élaboration des processus de paix. Discussion Les différentes causes et facteurs expliquant ces observations positives sont analysés. Parmi ceux-ci, la volonté politique et la capacité humaine apparaissent comme essentielles. En conclusion, nous avons pu étayer l'hypothèse de départ et confirmer le rôle potentiel majeur que peuvent jouer les districts de santé dans le paysage actuel de la santé publique internationale, y compris en situation critique. [less ▲]

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See detailDistrribution of specific thiamine triphosphatase in biological objects
Makarchikov, Alexander F; Bettendorff, Lucien ULg

in News of Biomedical Sciences (2005), 2

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See detailDisturbed Cytokine Production at the Systemic Level in Difficult-to-Control Atopic Asthma: Evidence for Raised Interleukin-4 and Decreased Interferon-gamma Release following Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation.
MANISE, Maïté ULg; SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg; QUAEDVLIEG, Valérie ULg et al

in International Archives of Allergy & Immunology (2012), 158(1), 1-8

Background: Disturbed cytokine production is thought to govern inflammation in asthma, which, in its turn, may lead to uncontrolled disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between ... [more ▼]

Background: Disturbed cytokine production is thought to govern inflammation in asthma, which, in its turn, may lead to uncontrolled disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cytokine production from blood leucocytes and the level of asthma control. Methods: We compared the production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha from peripheral blood leucocytes in non-atopic healthy subjects (n = 22), atopic non-asthmatics (n = 10), well-controlled asthmatics [Juniper asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) score <1.5; n = 20] and patients with uncontrolled asthma despite inhaled or oral corticoids (ACQ score >/=1.5; n = 20). Fifty microlitres of peripheral blood was incubated for 24 h with RPMIc, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 ng/ml) or phytohaemagglutinin (1 mug/ml), and cytokines were measured by immunotrapping (ELISA). Results: Both controlled and uncontrolled asthmatics as well as atopic non-asthmatics spontaneously produced more IL-4 than non-atopic healthy subjects (p < 0.001). IL-4 production induced by LPS was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in both asthma groups compared to atopic non-asthmatics and non-atopic healthy subjects. By contrast, IFN-gamma release induced by LPS was lower in uncontrolled asthmatics than in non-atopic healthy subjects (p < 0.05) and controlled asthmatics (p < 0.05). IL-10 release after LPS was greater in uncontrolled asthmatics than in atopic non-asthmatics (p < 0.05). No difference was observed regarding other cytokines. Conclusion: Blood cells from patients with difficult-to-control atopic asthma display highly skewed Th2 cytokine release following LPS stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailDisturbed sense of agency in checking symptoms
Belayachi, Sanaa ULg

Conference (2008)

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See detailDisturbed sugar metabolism in a fully habituated nonorganogenic callus of Beta vulgaris (L.)
Bisbis, B.; le Dily, F.; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Growth Regulation (1993), 13(3), 257-261

Habituated (H) nonorganogenic sugarbeet callus was found to exhibit a disturbed sugar metabolism. In contrast to cells from normal (N) callus, H cells accumulate glucose and fructose and show an abnormal ... [more ▼]

Habituated (H) nonorganogenic sugarbeet callus was found to exhibit a disturbed sugar metabolism. In contrast to cells from normal (N) callus, H cells accumulate glucose and fructose and show an abnormal high fructose/glucose ratio. Moreover, H cells which have decreased wall components, display lower glycolytic enzyme activities (hexose phosphate isomerase and phosphofructokinase) which is compensated by higher activities of the enzymes of the hexose monophosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). The disturbed sugar metabolism of the H callus is discussed in relation to a deficiency in H2O2 detoxifying systems. © 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. [less ▲]

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See detailDisturbi del comportamento alimentare nei contesti scolastici e sanitari
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Scientific conference (2004, October 15)

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See detailI disturbi dello stato di coscienza come modello di studio dei suoi correlati neurali
Stanziano, Mario; Soddu, Andrea ULg; Papa, Michele et al

in Paradoxa (2009), 3(4), 106-118

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See detailDisulfide bond assignement and folding characterization of peptide toxins by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 11)

Main component of animal venoms is peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges fill different roles as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their ... [more ▼]

Main component of animal venoms is peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges fill different roles as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their immunogenicity or providing the adequate conformation to efficiently bind to the biological receptor. The sequencing and the determination of the cysteine pairing is still challenging and therefore an important step in structural analysis. In this work, we present a new strategy to sequence structured toxins and assign S-S bridges using ion mobility resolved MS/MS. The method relies on the analysis of partially reduced multiple-disulfide peptide. The mixture of the different forms is resolved by ion mobility, followed by MS/MS acquisition on each mobility separated species. The proof of concept has been successfully conducted on α-CnI, a toxin purified from the venom of Conus consors marine snail. The toxin’s sequence contains four cysteines linked together with two disulfide bridges. α-CnI was partially reduced by a small excess of tris(carboxyethyl)phosphine (10:1). The resulting mixture was purified before analysis by infusion nanoESI-Synapt-G2. Fragmentation was performed after the mobility cell, to obtain specific fragments of each species. Partial reduction of α-CnI results in a mixture of oxidized (the two disulfides are formed), reduced (the two disulfides have been reduced) and partially reduced forms (one of the two disulfides has been reduced). The arrival time distribution of triply charged ions reveals the presence of 4 different species, characterized by different relative cross sections in the gas-phase. Mass matching allows identifying the species: the first mobility (the most compact structure) was identified to be the oxidized folded toxin (M). The latest peak, corresponding to the larger cross-section, was identified as the fully reduced toxin (M+4Da). The second and the third mobility peaks were attributed to the two partially reduced forms in which only one disulfide bridge was reduced (M+2Da). The change in ion mobility depends on which S-S bridge is reduced. Ion mobility separated species give characteristic fragment ions upon fragmentation in the transfer cell (i.e. after ion mobility separator). Interestingly, fragment ions coming from partially reduced species, especially the C-S or S-S bond cleavages, clearly indicates that the disulfide linkage of α-CnI is (Cys1-Cys3) and (Cys2-Cys4) as expected from literature. The method is now being applied with success to more complex systems containing 3 or 4 disulfide bridges. The influence of the charge state on the mobility separation is systematically analyzed in terms of structural implications. [less ▲]

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See detailDisulfide bond assignment and folding characterization of peptide toxins by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2011)

Introduction Animal venoms are mainly composed of peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges are a key feature as (i) they increase the toxins efficiency ... [more ▼]

Introduction Animal venoms are mainly composed of peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges are a key feature as (i) they increase the toxins efficiency by lowering their immunogenicity; (ii) they provide the adequate conformation for high affinity binding to the biological receptor. The sequencing and the determination of the cysteine pairing is still challenging and therefore an important step in their structure analysis and the understanding of their interactions with receptors. In this work, we present a new strategy to sequence structured toxins and assign S-S bridges using ion mobility resolved MS/MS. Methods The method relies on the analysis of partially reduced multiple-disulfide peptide. The mixture of the different forms is resolved by ion mobility, followed by MS/MS acquisition on each mobility separated species. The proof of concept has been successfully conducted on α-CnI, a toxin purified from the venom of Conus consors marine snail. The toxin sequence is GRCCHPACGKYYSC-NH2. It contains four cysteines linked together with two disulfide bridges. α-CnI was partially reduced by a small excess of tris(carboxyethyl)phosphine (10:1) at 56°C during 30min. The resulting mixture was purified by ZipTip C18 micro columns before analysis by infusion nanoESI-Synapt-G2. Fragmentation was performed after the mobility cell, to obtain specific fragments of each species. Mobilograms and mass spectra were analyzed using MassLynx (v4.1) and Driftscope (v2.1) from Waters. Preliminary data Partial reduction of a-CnI was performed in order to obtain a mixture of oxidized (the two disulfides are formed), reduced (the two disulfides have been reduced) and partially reduced forms (only one of the two disulfides has been reduced). The arrival time distribution of triply charged ions reveals the presence of 4 different species, characterized by a different relative cross sections in the gas-phase. The charge state of the ions influences the ion mobility separation. Mass matching allows identifying the species: the first mobility (the most compact structure) was identified to be the oxidized folded toxin (M=1541.58 Da). The latest peak, corresponding to the larger cross-section, was identified as the fully reduced toxin (M=1545.6 Da). The second and the third mobility peaks were attributed to the two partially reduced forms in which only one disulfide bridge was reduced (M=1543.59 Da). The change in ion mobility depends on which S-S bridge is reduced. Ion mobility separated species give characteristic fragment ions upon fragmentation in the transfer cell (i.e. after ion mobility separator). Interestingly, fragment ions coming from partially reduced species, especially the C-S or S-S bond cleavages, clearly indicates that the disulfide linkage of α-CnI is (Cys1-Cys3) and (Cys2-Cys4) as expected from literature. The method is now being applied with success to more complex systems containing 3 or 4 disulfide bridges. The influence of the charge state on the mobility separation is systematically analyzed in terms of structural implications. Novel aspect Sequencing and disulfide bridges assignment of peptide toxins using ion mobility resolved MS/MS [less ▲]

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See detailDisulfide bond scrambling in partially reduced and alkylated peptides revealed by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

Poster (2012, March 29)

Animal venoms are mainly composed of peptide toxins, which are highly structured by many disulfide bridges. In these toxins, disulfides play different major roles such as increasing the toxins efficiency ... [more ▼]

Animal venoms are mainly composed of peptide toxins, which are highly structured by many disulfide bridges. In these toxins, disulfides play different major roles such as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their immunogenicity or providing the adequate conformation to efficiently bind to the biological receptor. Peptide sequencing followed by determination of the cysteine pairings is still challenging and, therefore, an important step in structural analysis. This work was, in its beginning, focused on the development of ion mobility (IMS) based methodology used to assign disulfides. The strategy relies on the analysis of partially reduced/alkylated disulfide containing peptides. The resulting mixture is analyzed by ion mobility, followed by MS/MS acquisition on each mobility resolved species. Surprisingly, first investigations revealed, after partial reduction, a disulfide rearrangement phenomenon. Indeed, some of the cystein pairings were not those expected to be. These experiments were conducted on ¿-CnI and ¿-GI toxins purified from the venoms of Conus consors and Conus geographus marine snails, respectively. Each toxin contains four cysteines linked together with two disulfide bridges. Peptides were partially reduced by an excess of dithiothreitol and then alkylated by a large excess of iodoacetamide. The resulting mixture was purified on a microcolumn before being analyzed by nanoESI-Synapt-G2. Fragmentation was performed after the mobility cell, to obtain specific fragments of each species. Each toxin partially reduced/alkylated results, theoretically, in a mixture of fully oxidized (two disulfides oxidized), fully reduced (two disulfides reduced) and partially reduced forms (one of the two disulfides reduced). Thanks to the mass shift created by the alkylation, an isolation of the species which m/z ratio corresponds to one disulfide reduced and alkylated has been done in the quadrupole before the mobility separation. The arrival time distribution of triply charged ions reveals the presence of different species (4 in the case of ¿-GI and 2 for ¿-CnI), characterized by different relative cross sections in the gas-phase. As ion mobility resolved species give characteristic fragments upon fragmentation (after IMS), we were able to identify a scrambling of the disulfides (isomerization). In simple words, other disulfide bonds than expected ones were characterized. We suppose that the scrambling phenomenon occurs in solution,during the reduction step, since the alkylation cannot avoid rearrangement. The method is now being applied to more complex systems containing 3 or 4 disulfide bridges. The influence of the charge state on the mobility separation is systematically analyzed in terms of structural implications. [less ▲]

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See detailDisulfide bonds assignment and folding characterization of peptide toxins by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

Conference (2011, April 29)

Main component of animal venoms is peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges fill different roles as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their ... [more ▼]

Main component of animal venoms is peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges fill different roles as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their immunogenicity or providing the adequate conformation to efficiently bind to the biological receptor. The sequencing and the determination of the cysteine pairing is still challenging and therefore an important step in structural analysis. In this work, we present a new strategy to sequence structured toxins and assign S-S bridges using ion mobility resolved MS/MS. The method relies on the analysis of partially reduced multiple-disulfide peptide. The mixture of the different forms is resolved by ion mobility, followed by MS/MS acquisition on each mobility separated species. The proof of concept has been successfully conducted on α-CnI, a toxin purified from the venom of Conus consors marine snail. The toxin’s sequence contains four cysteines linked together with two disulfide bridges. α-CnI was partially reduced by a small excess of tris(carboxyethyl)phosphine (10:1). The resulting mixture was purified before analysis by infusion nanoESI-Synapt-G2. Fragmentation was performed after the mobility cell, to obtain specific fragments of each species. Partial reduction of α-CnI results in a mixture of oxidized (the two disulfides are formed), reduced (the two disulfides have been reduced) and partially reduced forms (one of the two disulfides has been reduced). The arrival time distribution of triply charged ions reveals the presence of 4 different species, characterized by different relative cross sections in the gas-phase. Mass matching allows identifying the species: the first mobility (the most compact structure) was identified to be the oxidized folded toxin (M). The latest peak, corresponding to the larger cross-section, was identified as the fully reduced toxin (M+4Da). The second and the third mobility peaks were attributed to the two partially reduced forms in which only one disulfide bridge was reduced (M+2Da). The change in ion mobility depends on which S-S bridge is reduced. Ion mobility separated species give characteristic fragment ions upon fragmentation in the transfer cell (i.e. after ion mobility separator). Interestingly, fragment ions coming from partially reduced species, especially the C-S or S-S bond cleavages, clearly indicates that the disulfide linkage of α-CnI is (Cys1-Cys3) and (Cys2-Cys4) as expected from literature. The method is now being applied with success to more complex systems containing 3 or 4 disulfide bridges. The influence of the charge state on the mobility separation is systematically analyzed in terms of structural implications. [less ▲]

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See detailDisulfide Bonds Reduce the Toxicity of the Amyloid Fibrils Formed by an Extracellular Protein.
Mossuto, M. F.; Bolognesi, B.; Guixer, B. et al

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (2011)

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See detailDisulfide bridges, new prospect in drug delivery systems?
Cajot, Sébastien ULg; Danhier, F.; Schol, Daureen ULg et al

Poster (2011, September 03)

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See detailThe Disulphide Mapping, Folding and Characterisation of Recombinant Ber e 1, an Allergenic Protein, and SFA8, Two Sulphur-rich 2 S Plant Albumins
Alcocer, Marcos; Murtagh, G. J.; Bailey, Kevin et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2002), 324

We have cloned and expressed genes encoding the allergenic brazil nut 2 S albumin (Ber e 1) and the sunflower albumin 8 (SFA8) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We show that both proteins were ... [more ▼]

We have cloned and expressed genes encoding the allergenic brazil nut 2 S albumin (Ber e 1) and the sunflower albumin 8 (SFA8) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We show that both proteins were secreted at high levels and that the purified proteins were properly folded. We also showed that Ber e 1 is glycosylated during secretion and that the glycan does not interfere with the folding or immunoreactivity. The disulphide map of the Ber e 1 protein was experimentally established and is in agreement with the conserved disulphide structure of other members of the 2 S albumin family. A model three-dimensional structure of the allergen was generated. During the expression studies and through mutation we have also shown that alteration of the sequences around the Kex2 endoproteolytic processing site in the expressed fusion protein can compromise the secretion by targeting part of the protein for possible degradation. The secreted production of these properly folded sulphurrich plant albumins presents an opportunity to delineate the attributes that make an allergen and to facilitate the diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy. [less ▲]

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See detailDisused Jurassic regional stage from Belgium: Virtonian
Delsate, D.; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Geologica Belgica (2006), 9(1-2), 199-200

An overview of the definition and history of the Virtonian is given with the argumentation for the abandonment of this disused regional stage.

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See detailDisused Palaeozoic regional stages from Belgium: Devillian, Revinian, Salmian, Gedinnian and Burnotian.
Dejonghe, L.; Herbosch, A.; Steemans, Philippe ULg et al

in Geologica Belgica (2006), 9(1-2), 191-197

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)