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See detailEffects of Aroclor 1254 on oxidative stress in developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles.
Gillardin, Virginie; Silvestre, Frederic; Divoy, Celine et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2009), 72(2), 546-51

Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat ... [more ▼]

Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat destruction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCBs could induce oxidative stress in young tadpoles. Developing Xenopus laevis were exposed from 2- to 5-d postfertilization (pf) to 0.1 or 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx, GR activities and t-GSH level) were investigated in whole organisms. Exposure to both concentrations did not impact on the survival and development whereas the average body weight decreased. Exposure to 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254 induced a significant (p<0.05) increase of GST activity when compared to controls 0 and DMSO. The other antioxidant enzymes and LPO evaluation remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate that exposure of X. laevis tadpoles to environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 interfere with normal growth. They also highlight that very young X. laevis tadpoles express antioxidant systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of aromatase inhibition on testosterone-dependent conditioned rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements in male Japanese quail
Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Holloway, K. S.; Taziaux, Mélanie ULg et al

in Physiology & Behavior (2004), 83(1), 99-105

Male Japanese quail produce a foam that, along with semen, is transferred to the quail hen during copulation. This foam has been reported to increase fertility, prolong sperm motility, and enhance sperm ... [more ▼]

Male Japanese quail produce a foam that, along with semen, is transferred to the quail hen during copulation. This foam has been reported to increase fertility, prolong sperm motility, and enhance sperm competition. Action of the cloacal sphincter muscles in response to visual exposure to a female produces the foam. The rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (RCSM) responsible for foam production in male quail is elicited by a conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with access to a quail hen. These conditioned RCSM are testosterone-dependent. The present experiment was conducted to explore whether, as is the case with most other testosterone-dependent male sexual behaviors in the quail, conditioned RCSM are mediated by the aromatization of testosterone. Castrated, testosterone-treated male quail were presented with paired presentations of an arbitrary focal CS and visual access to a female. Once conditioned RCSM had developed, subjects received twice daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor Vorozole(TM) (R083842) during a series of extinction test presentations of the CS. Injections of Vorozole(TM) significantly decreased the number of RCSM elicited by a sexual CS. This decrease was specific to sexual RCSM; cloacal sphincter movements that occurred following defecation were not affected by Vorozole. Conditioned sexual RCSM are therefore mediated by the aromatization of testosterone, most likely due to effects on central aromatase activity related to sexual motivation. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of aromatase mutation (ArKO) on the sexual differentiation of kisspeptin neuronal numbers and their activation by same versus opposite sex urinary pheromones.
Bakker, Julie ULg; Pierman, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Martinez, David

in Hormones and Behavior (2010), 57(4-5), 390-5

Pheromones have been shown to induce sexually dimorphic responses in LH secretion. Here we asked whether the sexually dimorphic population of kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the ... [more ▼]

Pheromones have been shown to induce sexually dimorphic responses in LH secretion. Here we asked whether the sexually dimorphic population of kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) could relay sexually dimorphic information from the olfactory systems to the GnRH system. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of aromatase mutation (ArKO) and thus the role of estradiol on RP3V kisspeptin neuronal numbers and on the response of these kisspeptin neurons to same- versus opposite-sex urinary pheromones. Exposure to male but not female urinary odors induced Fos protein in kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V of female wildtype (WT) mice, suggesting that these kisspeptin neurons may be part of the neural circuitry that relays information from the olfactory brain to the GnRH system in a sexually dimorphic manner. Male pheromones induced Fos in kisspeptin neurons in ArKO females, albeit significantly less compared to WT females. The sexual differentiation of kisspeptin neuronal number was lost in ArKO mice, i.e. the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the RP3V of ArKO females was as low as in male mice, whereas male ArKO mice had somewhat increased numbers of kisspeptin neurons. These results suggest that the sex difference in kisspeptin neuronal number in WT mice reflects an organizational action of estradiol in females. By contrast, the ability of male urinary pheromones to activate kisspeptin neurons in WT females may not depend on the organizational action of estradiol since ArKO females still showed some Fos/kisspeptin co-activation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of arzoxifene on fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or with low bone mass
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; McClung, M.; Cox, D. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2010, May), 21(Suppl.1), 23-24

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See detailEffects of Atmospheric Ammonia on Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Vascular Permeability in Pigs: Interaction with Endotoxins
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Urbain, B.; Prouvost, J. F. et al

in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (1994), 125(1), 17-26

The influence of atmospheric ammonia on the somatic growth, the plasma cortisol and ammonia concentrations, and cell blood counts was investigated in pigs exposed to four concentrations (0, 25, 50, and ... [more ▼]

The influence of atmospheric ammonia on the somatic growth, the plasma cortisol and ammonia concentrations, and cell blood counts was investigated in pigs exposed to four concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) for 6 days in a specifically designed air-pollutants exposure chamber. The effects of this gas on pulmonary vascular hemodynamics and permeability and on the endotoxin-induced vascular response were also assessed using an isolated perfused lung preparation. The total pulmonary blood flow resistance (Rt) was partitioned into four components: arterial (Ra), pre-(Ra′) and post-(Rv′) capillary and venous (Rv). The capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) was evaluated by using a gravimetric technique. None of the concentrations of ammonia significantly modified the plasma cortisol and ammonia concentrations or the differential leukocyte percentages and total white blood cell count, suggesting an absence of stress related to ammonia. In exposed animals, lethargy and a concentration-related depression of the somatic growth were observed. The equation of the regression line plotted relating the mean values of the changes in body weight gain recorded over the exposure period expressed as percentages of the initial body weight (y) and ammonia concentrations (x) was: y = 3.204 − 0.177x + 0.001x2(r = 0.99; p≤0.013). Endotoxin infused in the perfusion liquid of lungs from unexposed animals for 180 min induced a significant 208% increase in Rt (p < 0.001) which can be ascribed to a 338 and 180% increase in Ra′ and Rv′, respectively. Endotoxin infusion also induced a 62% (p ≤ 0.001) increase in the Kf,c. Exposure of pigs to ammonia at any concentration did not modify the baseline values of any hemodynamic or permeability parameters. However, the hemodynamic response to endotoxins in lungs from pigs exposed to 100 ppm was significantly altered. The increase in Rt, Ra′, and Rv′ observed in unexposed pigs was completely abolished as shown by the limited changes in Rt (+34.9%). An intermediate reaction (+131.7%) was obtained in pigs exposed to 50 ppm. This inhibiting effect of ammonia was closely correlated with gas concentration by a linear regression (r = 0.99; p ≤ 0.037). The changes in the Kf,c recorded in the control group were not modified by exposure to ammonia. It was concluded that exposure of pigs to aerial ammonia concentrations from 0 to 100 ppm for 6 days has no direct effect on the pulmonary microvascular hemodynamics and permeability and induces no stress response. A marked depressive effect on the somatic growth is observed at concentrations greater than 25 ppm. Concentrations greater than 50 ppm can modulate the pulmonary vascular response to endotoxins [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of atmospheric turbulence on the GENIE nulling interferometer
Absil, Olivier ULg

in Aime, Claude; Soummer, Rémi (Eds.) Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging II (2004)

Two competitive design studies for the Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment (GENIE) have recently been initiated by the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory. A ... [more ▼]

Two competitive design studies for the Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment (GENIE) have recently been initiated by the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory. A major issue in these studies is the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the performance of the instrument, and how atmospheric effects can be compensated in order to reach the goal performance (detection of faint exozodiacal clouds). In this paper, we review the main atmospheric processes affecting a nulling interferometer and discuss possible ways to reduce them by means of real-time control systems. Preliminary performance estimates of GENIE are then presented. The effects of the thermal background and its fluctuations (Absil & Bakker 2004) are not considered here. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of atrazine on sex steroid dynamics, plasma vitellogenin concentration and gonad development in adult goldfish (Carassius auratus)
Spano, L.; Tyler, C. R.; van Aerle, R. et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2004), 66(4), 369-379

Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000 mug/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isolropylamino-s-triazine) for a ... [more ▼]

Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000 mug/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isolropylamino-s-triazine) for a period of 21 days and effects on the concentrations of gonad and plasma sex steroids (testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonad histo-morphology assessed. Atrazine did not show any obvious estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a lack of vitellogenin induction. There were, however, effects of atrazine on plasma androgen concentrations (androgen dynamics) and tissue (plasma and gonad) estrogen concentrations in male goldfish; exposure to 1000 mug/l atrazine induced suppression in both testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, and resulted in elevated 17beta-estradiol, after 21 day of exposure. Further, these suppressive effects on plasma androgens and the induction in estrogen were dose- and time-related. The highest atrazine exposure dose induced structural disruption in the testis and both 100 and 1000 mug/l induced elevated levels of atresia in ovaries. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of attention on emotional face processing in depression : a functional MRI study
Desseilles, Martin; Scwartz, Sophie; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailEffects of attention on emotional face processing in depression : a functional MRI study
Desseilles, Martin; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailThe effects of attentional level and test format on the resistance to false memories.
Dehon, Hedwige ULg; Lampinen, James Michael

Poster (2006)

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See detailEffects of available surface on gaseous emissions from group-housed gestating sows kept on deep litter
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Canart, Bernard; Laitat, Martine ULg et al

in Animal (2010), 4(10), 1716-1724

In the European Union, the group-housed pregnant sows have to have a minimal legal available area of 2.25m²/sow. However, it has been observed that an increased space allowance reduces agonistic behaviour ... [more ▼]

In the European Union, the group-housed pregnant sows have to have a minimal legal available area of 2.25m²/sow. However, it has been observed that an increased space allowance reduces agonistic behaviour and consecutive wounds and thus induces better welfare conditions. But, what about the environmental impacts of this greater available area? Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify pollutant gases emissions (nitrous oxide, N2O, methane, CH4, carbon dioxide, CO2 and ammonia, NH3), according to the space allowance in the raising of gestating sows group-housed on a straw-based deep litter. Four successive batches of 10 gestating sows were each divided into two homogeneous groups and randomly allocated to a treatment: 2.5 v. 3.0m²/sow. The groups were separately kept in two identical rooms. A restricted conventional cereals based diet was provided once a day in individual feeding stalls available only during the feeding time. Rooms were automatically ventilated. The gas emissions were measured by infra red photoacoustic detection during six consecutive days at the 6th, 9th and 12th weeks of gestation. Sows performance (body weight gain, backfat thickness, number and weight of piglets) was not significantly different according to the space allowance. In the room with 3.0m²/sow and compared with the room with 2.5m²/sow, gaseous emissions were significantly greater for NH3 (6.29 v. 5.37 g NH3-N/day per sow; P<0.01) and significantly lower for N2O (1.78 v. 2.48 g N2O-N/day per sow; P<0.01), CH4 (10.15 v. 15.21 g/day per sow; P<0.001), CO2 equivalents (1.11 v. 1.55 kg/day per sow; P<0.001), CO2 (2.12 v. 2.41 kg/day per sow; P,0<001) and H2O (3.10 v. 3.68 kg/day per sow; P<0.001). In conclusion, an increase of the available area for group-housed gestating sow kept on straw-based deep litter seems to be ambiguous on an environmental impacts point of view. Compared with a conventional and legal available area, it favoured NH3 emissions, probably due to an increased emitting surface. However, about greenhouse gases, it decreased N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions, probably due to reduced anaerobic conditions required for their synthesis, and led to a reduction of CO2 equivalents emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of background electrolyte composition and addition of selectors on separation selectivity in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg

in Electrophoresis (2003), 24(10), 1499-1507

This review gives a survey of the approaches employed to obtain, enhance and tune selectivity in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). Recent developments in NACE are described and the effects of ... [more ▼]

This review gives a survey of the approaches employed to obtain, enhance and tune selectivity in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). Recent developments in NACE are described and the effects of background electrolyte composition and addition of selectors on separation selectivity are discussed. The use of one organic solvent, a mixture of several organic solvents or the use of additives to tune separation selectivity in NACE is presented and a list of relevant applications is included. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of bazedoxifene (TSE-424), a novel tissue selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in a chinese population
Xu, Ling; Liu, Jianli; Lin, Jingfang et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 97-98

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See detailEffects of bean seed treatment to the imidacloprid-gaucho on the Bean Stem Maggot, the Black Bean Aphids attacks and the Bean Common Mosaic Virus transmission
Karangwa, Antoine; Militery Ngamata, Olivier ULg; Ngirincuti H., Jacques

in East African Journal of Science and Technology (2012), (2), 1-11

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the principal food crops of Rwanda. It is cultivated by 97% of the farms and constitutes the principal source of proteins for the majority of the Rwandan ... [more ▼]

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the principal food crops of Rwanda. It is cultivated by 97% of the farms and constitutes the principal source of proteins for the majority of the Rwandan population. One observes since 2000 a considerable reduction in the bean outputs; among the principal causes, one can quote the transmitted diseases and damage caused by insects. In order to contribute to the production of healthy seeds and plant of bean, a test was carried out (February-May 2009) to the station of Rubilizi-ISAE Busogo, from which the objective was to protect the plants of bean against the attacks of insects during the first 8 weeks by coating the seeds with the imidacloprod-gaucho in order to avoid the viral diseases on the plants which result from these seeds and to also thwart the attacks of the principal devastating insects of the bean among which there were the black bean aphid (BBA), Aphis fabae, vector of bean common mosaic virus and the bean stem maggot (BSM), Ophiomyia spp. Three doses of imidacloprid-gaucho were compared to the control, namely 2, 4 and 6g of active matter per kilo of seeds. The results made possible to draw the following conclusions: - the imidacloprid expressed its effects up to eight weeks after sowing; indeed one recorded few close Bean Common Mosaic Virus-attacked plants (less than 3%) until 56 days after sowing; the percentage of virus attacked plant increased beyond to reach 42% for the dose of 2g of imidacloprid per kilo of seeds and only 25% maximum for 4 and 6g of the insecticide product per kilo of seeds; - the imidacloprid allowed also to control the Bean Stem Maggot in the proportion of 58%, 44%, 22% and 18% respectively for the control (0 g), 2, 4, and 6 g of the product per kg of seeds. Within the sight of these results, we can recommend the producers, the pelleting of bean seeds to the dose 4g of imidacloprid-gaucho per kilo of seeds within the framework of the integrated pest management (IPM) against the common mosaic and the damage of Black Bean Aphids and Bean Stem Maggots. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of beta blockade on contingent negative variation in migraine.
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; Timsit-Berthier, M.; Timsit, M. et al

in Annals of Neurology (1987), 21(1), 111-112

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See detailEffects of betamethasone on inflammation and emphysema induced by cadmium nebulisation in rats
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Kirschvink, N.; Zhang, Wenhui H. et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (2009), 606(1-3), 210-214

Cadmium (Cd) induces centrilobular emphysema and is suspected to contribute to tobacco related lung diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to check whether the ... [more ▼]

Cadmium (Cd) induces centrilobular emphysema and is suspected to contribute to tobacco related lung diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to check whether the inflammatory process observed in rats exposed to nebulised Cd is resistant to betamethasone as observed in COPD and to determine the influence of this drug on airspace enlargement together with the MMP-2-9/TIMP-1-2 imbalance. Our results showed that betamethasone induced emphysema by itself in healthy rats. Moreover, pre-treatment of rats with betamethasone could only partially modulate the increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and the absence of preventive effect of this compound against emphysema development is associated with its inability to rebalance the MMP-2-9/TIMP-1-2 ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of bioactive amphiphiles on model cell membranes
Deleu, Magali ULg

in 11th W. Mejbaum-Katzenellenbogen's Molecular Biology Seminar: amphiphiles and their aggregates in basic and applied science (2005)

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See detailEffects of blood sampling conditions on ionised calcium in calves
Godisioabois, Y.; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (1994), 426

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See detailEffects of BM-573, a dual thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor, on osteogenic sarcoma cell-induced platelet aggregation
de Leval, X.; David, Jean-Louis ULg; Neven, P. et al

in Blood (2001, November 16), 98(11, Part 2), 43

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