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See detailEffect of carprofen treatment following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows.
Vangroenweghe, F.; Duchateau, L.; Boutet, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2005), 88(7), 2361-2376

Acute Escherichia coli mastitis is one of the major sources of economic loss in the dairy industry due to reduced milk production, treatment costs, discarded milk, and occasional fatal disease ... [more ▼]

Acute Escherichia coli mastitis is one of the major sources of economic loss in the dairy industry due to reduced milk production, treatment costs, discarded milk, and occasional fatal disease. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used as adjunctive therapy to antibiotics. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of carprofen treatment following infusion of Escherichia coli into the mammary glands of primiparous cows during the periparturient period. Severity of mastitis was scored based on the average milk production in the uninfected quarters on d +2 postinoculation and a clinical severity score. Carprofen was administered intravenously at 9 h postchallenge, when clinical signs of mastitis appeared. In previous work, efficacy of NSAIDs was mainly evaluated using clinical symptoms. In the present study, the effect of carprofen on innate immune response was also assessed by quantification of inflammatory mediators. All primiparous cows reacted as moderate responders throughout the experimental period. Primiparous cows were intramammarily inoculated with 1 x 10(4) cfu of E. coli P4:O32 in 2 left quarters. Analysis of blood and milk parameters, including IL-8, complement component C5a, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14, prostaglandin E2, and thromboxane B2 was performed from d 0 to d +6 relative to intramammary inoculation. Rectal temperature in carprofen-treated animals was lower than in control animals at 3 and 6 h posttreatment. Treatment also restored the decreased reticulorumen motility that occurs during E. coli mastitis to preinfection levels faster than in control animals. Carprofen treatment resulted in an earlier normalization of the clinical severity score. Eicosanoid (prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2) production in milk tended to be inhibited by carprofen. No significant differences in the kinetic patterns of somatic cell count, IL-8, complement component C5a, LBP, and soluble CD14 were observed. In conclusion, carprofen treatment improved general clinical condition by effective antipyrexia and restoration of reticulorumen motility but did not significantly inhibit eicosanoid production. Carprofen treatment did not result in a significant decrease of chemotactic inflammatory mediators, IL-8 and C5a, and early innate immune molecules, sCD14 and LBP. Therefore, major modulatory effects from NSAID administration were not observed in this mastitis model, although a larger study might confirm some apparent trends obtained in the present results. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of catechins and citrus flavonoids on invasion in vitro.
Bracke, M.; Vyncke, B.; Opdenakker, G. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Metastasis (1991), 9(1), 13-25

Catechins, a group of flavonoid molecules, inhibit invasion of mouse MO4 cells into embryonic chick heart fragments in vitro. The anti-invasive effects can be ranked as follows: (+)-catechin greater than ... [more ▼]

Catechins, a group of flavonoid molecules, inhibit invasion of mouse MO4 cells into embryonic chick heart fragments in vitro. The anti-invasive effects can be ranked as follows: (+)-catechin greater than (-)-epicatechin greater than 3-O-methyl-(+)-catechin greater than 3-O-palmitoyl-(+)-catechin. Most of the catechins are unstable in cell culture media, and their spontaneous rearrangement products tend to bind to extracellular matrix (ECM). Due to these interactions proteases such as tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) are linked to the ECM glycoprotein laminin. This leads to a partial inactivation of the enzyme. Within the group of catechins we found a positive correlation between anti-invasive activity and linking of t-PA to laminin. Citrus flavonoids are also anti-invasive in vitro (tangeretin greater than nobiletin greater than hesperidin = naringin). However, these stable molecules show poor affinity for ECM, and do not link enzymes to laminin. These data suggest that catechins and citrus flavonoids inhibit invasion in vitro by different mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of ceiling configurations on indoor air motion and ventilation flow rates
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Building & Environment (2011), (46), 1211-1222

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a building parameter, namely ceiling configuration, on indoor natural ventilation. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Phoenics was used ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a building parameter, namely ceiling configuration, on indoor natural ventilation. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Phoenics was used with the RNG k-ɛ turbulence model to study wind motion and ventilation flow rates inside the building. All the CFD boundary conditions were described. The simulation results were first validated by wind tunnel experiment results in detail, and then used to compare rooms with various ceiling configurations in different cases. The simulation results generated matched the experimental results confirming the accuracy of the RNG k-ɛ turbulence model to successfully predict indoor wind motion for this study. Our main results reveal that ceiling configurations have certain effects on indoor airflow and ventilation flow rates although these effects are fairly minor. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of celecoxib combined with thoracic epidural analgesia on pain after thoracotomy
Senard, Marc ULg; Deflandre, Eric; Ledoux, Didier ULg et al

in British Journal of Anaesthesia (2010), 105(2), 196-200

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See detailEffect of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions on the response of fibroblasts to epidermal growth factor in vitro. Expression of collagen type I, collagenase, stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases.
Colige, Alain ULg; Lambert, Charles ULg; Nusgens, Betty ULg et al

in Biochemical Journal (1992), 285 ( Pt 1)

Investigations of the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the expression of four genes involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix, collagen type I, collagenase, stromelysin and tissue ... [more ▼]

Investigations of the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the expression of four genes involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix, collagen type I, collagenase, stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) were performed on four strains of skin fibroblasts in vitro. Addition of EGF to subconfluent cultures for increasing periods of time up to 5 days induced an inhibition of procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA and a strong stimulation of collagenase (100-fold) and stromelysin (1000-fold) mRNAs, whereas the mRNA of TIMP was increased to a lesser extent (5-fold). After a 40 h pulse with EGF, these effects persisted for 24-48 h after withdrawal of the growth factor and slowly diminished thereafter to attain control values after several days. By culturing fibroblasts for increasing periods of time, different levels of confluence were obtained allowing for the deposition of an extracellular biomatrix. The steady-state level of collagenase and stromelysin mRNAs were profoundly depressed in confluent as against non-confluent cultures, whereas no major change for TIMP and procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNAs was observed. Upon treatment of these cultures with EGF for 48h, the steady-state level of collagenase, stromelysin and TIMP increased, whereas procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA was slightly reduced. These modifications were, at least in part, dependent upon a regulation of the transcription rate, as suggested from run-off experiments. Similar states of confluence were obtained by seeding cells at increasing densities in short-term cultures in which cell-cell contact predominated. In such culture conditions, the collagenase and stromelysin mRNAs were enhanced in high as compared to low density cultures. The response to EGF was progressively decreased for collagenase, stromelysin and, to a lesser extent, TIMP mRNAs at most densities and a complete lack of response to EGF at the highest cell density was observed. Under all culture conditions the modulation of collagenase mRNA was paralleled by similar modifications of enzyme activity. These results emphasize the importance of the cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions in the expression of the genes coding for metalloproteinases or their inhibitor and their modulation by growth factors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Cholesterol and Fatty Acids on the Molecular Interactions of Fengycin with Stratum Corneum Mimicking Lipid Monolayers.
Eeman, Marc; Francius, G.; Dufrêne, Yves et al

in Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids (2009), 25

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See detailEffect of chronic airway inflammation and exercise on pulmonary and systemic antioxidant status of healthy and heaves-affected horses
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Smith, N.; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(6), 563-571

In heaves-affected horses the relation between oxidant status, airway inflammation (AI) and pulmonary function (PF) is unknown. The oxidant status of blood and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of ... [more ▼]

In heaves-affected horses the relation between oxidant status, airway inflammation (AI) and pulmonary function (PF) is unknown. The oxidant status of blood and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy (H, n = 6) and heaves-affected horses in clinical remission (REM, n = 6) and in crisis (CR, n = 7) was assessed at rest, during and after standardised exercise test by measurement of reduced and oxidised glutathione, glutathione redox ratio [GRR%]; uric acid and 8-epi-PGF2alpha. Oxidant status was related to PF parameters (mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gas tension) and Al parameters (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] neutrophil % and AI score). Haemolysate glutathione was significantly different between groups and was correlated with PF and AI parameters; GRR in PELF was increased during CR and was correlated with PF and AI parameters. Exercise induced an increase of plasma uric acid that was significantly higher both in REM and CR. PELF 8-epi-PGF2alpha was significantly increased in CR and correlated with PF and AI parameters. These results suggest that oxidative stress occurring in heaves is correlated with PF and AI and may be locally assessed by PELF glutathione status, uric acid and 8-epi-PGF2alpha. Systemic repercussions are reflected by assay of GSH in resting horses and by uric acid in exercising horses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Chronic confinement stress on growth, survival, blood cortisol and glucose of perch (Perca fluviatilis)
Rougeot, Carole ULg; Tomson, Thomas; Vandecan, Michaël et al

Poster (2011)

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See detailEffect of clay modification on the mechanism of local deformations in PA6 nanocomposites
Dominkovics, Zita; Naveau, Elodie ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2013), 298(7), 796-805

PA nanocomposites are prepared from clays organophilized with a phosphonium and an ammonium salt, and sodium montmorillonite is used as reference. The analysis of mechanical and micromechanical properties ... [more ▼]

PA nanocomposites are prepared from clays organophilized with a phosphonium and an ammonium salt, and sodium montmorillonite is used as reference. The analysis of mechanical and micromechanical properties of the composites reveal that several micromechanical deformation processes occur in the PA/MMT composites. The matrix cavitates at relatively small stress. Processes related to non-exfoliated clay structural units are initiated at larger stresses. Sound is emitted mainly by the fracture of particles, but debonding may also occur. The plastic deformation of the matrix dominates at larger stresses and deformations. The various local deformations are independent of each other and composite properties are not determined by silicate related processes but by the deformation of the matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of clay modification on the structure and mechanical properties of polyamide-6 nanocomposites
Naveau, Elodie ULg; Dominkovics, Zita; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2011), 47(1), 5-15

Polyamide-6 nanocomposites were prepared from a new phosphonium organoclay obtained at pilot scale in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and a commercially available ammonium modified-silicate. The ... [more ▼]

Polyamide-6 nanocomposites were prepared from a new phosphonium organoclay obtained at pilot scale in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and a commercially available ammonium modified-silicate. The composites were homogenised by twin-screw extrusion, then specimens for testing were prepared by injection moulding. The clay content of the composites was varied from 0 to 7 vol% in 7 steps. The clays were characterised in detail; they differed in their surface coverage and gallery structure, while their particle size was similar and their surface energy differed only slightly. X-ray diffraction, electronic microscopy and rheology were used for the characterisation of composite structure. Different gallery structure of the clays led to dissimilar extent of exfoliation. The phosphonium organoclay exfoliated better in PA than the silicate treated with the ammonium salt in spite of its smaller surface coverage. The nanocomposites showed the usual complex structure: besides individual platelets and intercalated stacks, large particles were also present and the development of a silicate network could be shown at large clay contents. Quantitative determination of the extent of reinforcement revealed two determining factors: contact surface and strength of interaction. The first increases with exfoliation, but the latter decreases as an effect of organophilisation. The extent of exfoliation was also estimated quantitatively, and the calculation confirmed the results of qualitative evaluation showing larger extent of exfoliation for the scCO2-prepared phosphonium clay. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of clenbuterol on animal performances, plasma hormones and metabolites in fattening cattle
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 40th annual meeting of the EAAP (1989)

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See detailEffect of climate change on flood risk along river Ourthe
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Ernst, Julien ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg

Conference (2008, November 12)

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See detailEffect of climate change on flood risk along river Ourthe
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Ernst, Julien ULg

Conference (2008, November 12)

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See detailThe Effect of Clonidine Infusion on Distribution of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Volunteers
Bonhomme, Vincent ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (2008), 106(3), 899-909

BACKGROUND: Through their action on the locus coeruleus, alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists induce rapidly reversible sedation while partially preserving cognitive brain functions. Our goal in this ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Through their action on the locus coeruleus, alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists induce rapidly reversible sedation while partially preserving cognitive brain functions. Our goal in this observational study was to map brain regions whose activity is modified by clonidine infusion so as to better understand its loci of action, especially in relation to sedation. METHODS: Six ASA I-II right-handed volunteers were recruited. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was monitored continuously. After a baseline H2(15)O activation scan, clonidine infusion was started at a rate ranging from 6 to 10 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1). A sequence of 11 similar scans was then performed at 8 min intervals. Plasma clonidine concentration was measured. Using statistical parametric mapping, we sought linear correlations between normalized regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), an indicator of regional brain activity, and plasma clonidine concentration or spindle EEG activity. RESULTS: Clonidine induced clinical sedation and EEG patterns (spindles) comparable to early stage nonrapid eye movement sleep. A significant negative linear correlation between clonidine concentration and rCBF or spindle activity was observed in the thalamus, prefrontal, orbital and parietal association cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus. CONCLUSIONS: The EEG patterns and decreases in rCBF of specific brain regions observed during clonidine-induced sedation are similar to those of early stage nonrapid eye movement sleep. Patterns of deactivated brain regions are also comparable to those observed during general anesthesia or vegetative state, reinforcing the hypothesis that alterations in the activity of a common network occur during these modified conscious states. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Clonidine on Propofol and Remifentanil requirements using BIS score and the A-line ARX (AAI) index during laparoscopic gastric bypass in obese patients
Rosant, Séverine; Nkiko, Gédéon; Lauwick, Séverine ULg et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2008, June 14), 59(3), 228

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See detailEffect of CO2 activation of carbon xerogels on the adsorption of methylene blue
Páez Martínez, Carlos ULg; Contreras, M. S.; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Adsorption (2012), 18(3-4), 199-211

The effect of physical activation with CO2 of carbon xerogels, synthesized by pyrolysis of a resorcinolformaldehyde aqueous gel, on the adsorption capacities of Methylene Blue (MB) was studied. The ... [more ▼]

The effect of physical activation with CO2 of carbon xerogels, synthesized by pyrolysis of a resorcinolformaldehyde aqueous gel, on the adsorption capacities of Methylene Blue (MB) was studied. The activation with CO2 lead to carbon materials with micropore volumes ranging from 0.28 to 0.98 cm³/g -1 C. MB-adsorption isotherm studies showed that the increase of micropore volume and corresponding surface area led to: (i) a significant improvement in the capacity of MB-adsorption at monolayer coverage, from 212 to 714 mgg -1 C, and (ii) an increase of the binding energy related to Langmuir isotherm constant up to 45 times greater than those of commercial microporous activated carbons used as reference (NORIT R2030, CALGON BPL and CALGON NC35). It is proposed that the increase of the binding energy results from chemical cleaning of the O-groups onto carbon surface as a consequence of CO2-activation, increasing the π-π interaction between MB and graphene layers of the carbon xerogels. Finally, a series of batch kinetics were performed to investigate the effect of CO2-activation conditions on the mechanism of MB-adsorption. Experimental data were fitted using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. From pseudo-second-order kinetic model, one observes an increase in the initial rate of MB-adsorption from 0.019 to 0.0565 min -1, by increasing the specific surface area from 630 to 2180 m²/g -1 C via CO2-activation. Depending on the activation degree of the carbons, two different mechanisms control the MB-adsorption rate: (i) at low activation degree, the intraparticle diffusion is the rate-limiting phenomenon, whereas (ii) at high activation degree, the reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface are the rate-limiting steps. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. [less ▲]

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