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See detailEffect of raingage density, position and interpolation on rainfall-discharge modelling
Ly, Sarann ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Charles, Catherine ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2012), 14(EGU2012), 2592

Precipitation traditionally observed using raingages or weather stations, is one of the main parameters that has direct impact on runoff production. This pPrecipitation data requires a preliminary spatial ... [more ▼]

Precipitation traditionally observed using raingages or weather stations, is one of the main parameters that has direct impact on runoff production. This pPrecipitation data requires a preliminary spatial interpolation prior to hydrological modeling. The accuracy of modelling result is determined bydepends on the accuracy of the interpolated spatial rainfall which differs according to different interpolation methods. The accuracy of the interpolated spatial rainfall is usually determined by cross-validation method. The objective of this study is to assess the different interpolation methods of daily rainfall at the watershed scale through hydrological modelling and to explore the best methods that provides a good long term simulation. Four versions of geostatistics: Ordinary Kriging (ORK), Universal Kriging (UNK), Kriging with External Dridft (KED) and Ordinary Cokriging (OCK) and two types of deterministic methods: Thiessen polygon (THI) and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) are used to produce 30-year daily rainfall inputs for a distributed physically-based hydrological model (EPIC-GRID). This work is conducted in the Ourthe and Ambleve nested catchments, located in the Ardennes hilly landscape in the Walloon region, Belgium. The total catchment area is 2908 km², lies between 67 and 693 m in elevation. The multivariate geostatistics (KED and OCK) are also used by incorporating elevation as external data to improve the rainfall prediction. This work also aims at analysing the effect of different raingage densities and position used for interpolation, on the stream flow modelled to get insight in terms of the capability and limitation of the geostatistical methods. The number of raingage varies from 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 8 to 4 stations located in and surrounding the catchment area. In the latter case, we try to use different positions: around the catchment and only a part of the catchment. The result shows that the simple method like THI fails to capture the rainfall and to produce good flow simulation when using 4 raingages. The KED and UNK are comparable to other methods for a raingage case that in which stations are located around the catchment area, especially in the high elevation catchment but the worst methods for other raingage position cases where the rainfall stations are located only at a part and mostly outside of the catchment area. However, three methods (IDW, ORK and OCK) can overcome this problem since they are more robust and can provide good performance of simulation in all raingage densities. When using 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 8 raingages in the catchment area (2908 km²), no substantial differences in model performance are observed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of raloxifene and alendronate on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
Johnell, O; Lu, Y; Seeman, E et al

in Osteoporosis International (2000), 11(S2), 184

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See detailEffect of raloxifene combined with monofluorophosphate as compared with monofluorophosphate alone in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized, controlled trial
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Felsenberg, D.; Pavo, I. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 741-749

Raloxifene effectively reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent data suggest that low-dose monofluorophosphate (MFP) plus calcium reduces the ... [more ▼]

Raloxifene effectively reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent data suggest that low-dose monofluorophosphate (MFP) plus calcium reduces the vertebral fracture rate in postmenopausal women with moderate osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combination of raloxifene and MFP in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis. A total of 596 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis (mean femoral neck T-score of -2.87 SD) were randomized to treatment with 60 mg/day raloxifene HCl and 20 mg/day fluoride ions (as MFP) or 20 mg/day fluoride and placebo for 18 months. All patients received calcium (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (500 IU/day) supplements. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), as primary endpoint, and the rate of osteoporotic fractures and biochemical markers, as secondary endpoints, were assessed. As compared with MFP, raloxifene plus MFP was associated with significantly greater mean increases in the BMD of the femoral neck (1.37% versus 0.33%; P=0.004), total hip (0.89% versus -0.42%; P<0.001) and lumbar spine (8.80% versus 5.47% P<0.001). In the raloxifene plus MFP group, 16 patients sustained 17 osteoporotic fractures, as compared with 22 patients sustaining 34 incident osteoporotic fractures in the MFP group (P=0.313). One patient in the raloxifene plus MFP group sustained multiple osteoporotic fractures, as compared with eight patients in the MFP group (P=0.020). MFP alone significantly increased the serum bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP) and the urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagene (U-CTX). The addition of raloxifene in the combination arm blunted the rise in bone ALP, which remained nevertheless significant, and abolished the increase in U-CTX. The combination of raloxifene with MFP was generally well tolerated. This study demonstrates that, in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis, the combination therapy of raloxifene plus MFP favorably influences the BMD and the bone formation and resorption balance, and may reduce the risk of multiple osteoporotic fractures compared to MFP alone. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECT OF RAW MATERIAL PROPERTIES ON THE KINETICS OF IRON ORES GRANULATION
Jaimes Contreras, Rafael Antonio ULg; van Loo, Fréderic; Douce, Jean-François et al

Poster (2013, June 26)

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See detailEFFECT OF RAW MATERIAL PROPERTIES ON THE KINETICS OF IRON ORES GRANULATION
Jaimes Contreras, Rafael Antonio ULg; van Loo, Fréderic; Douce, Jean-François et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

The current study is focused on the iron ores granulation process in a laboratory-scale batch drum granulator using water as a binder, and on the investigation of the influence of raw material properties ... [more ▼]

The current study is focused on the iron ores granulation process in a laboratory-scale batch drum granulator using water as a binder, and on the investigation of the influence of raw material properties (morphology and wettability of the primary particles) on its kinetics. Nowadays processing of iron ores often requires a modification of particle size by means of granulation in order to improve further processability. A comparison of the granulation behaviour of three types of iron ores (magnetite, hematite and goethite) has been carried out. The wettability of the powders has been characterised by contact angle measurement. The results confirm the hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters of magnetite and goethite respectively. The granulation kinetics (evolution of particle size distribution as a function of time) of each type of iron ores was measured. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on platelet counts is strongly modulated by the adequacy of iron supply.
Loo, M.; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Blood (1999), 93(10), 3286-93

The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on megakaryopoiesis remains controversial. Treatment with rHuEpo in renal failure patients has been associated with a slight elevation of platelet ... [more ▼]

The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on megakaryopoiesis remains controversial. Treatment with rHuEpo in renal failure patients has been associated with a slight elevation of platelet counts. In animal studies, high doses of rHuEpo produced an increase of platelet counts followed by a gradual return to normal after 7 to 15 days or even a substantial degree of thrombocytopenia. However, because iron deficiency is also known to be associated with thrombocytosis, (functional) iron deficiency during rHuEpo could be contributing to these observations. We investigated the impact of iron supply on changes in platelet counts induced by rHuEpo. Rats were either fed normal food (normal rats) or received 1% carbonyl iron for 2 weeks or 3 months, as well as during the experiment, to achieve iron supplementation or overload, respectively. Rats of all three categories then received daily intravenous injections of rHuEpo (10, 50, or 150 U) or normal saline (0 U) for 20 days. With 0 to 10 U rHuEpo, platelets remained stable. In normal rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo, platelets increased to 120% to 140% of baseline at 4 to 12 days to level off at 120% at 16 to 20 days. This response was less sustained in splenectomized animals. Iron-supplemented rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo also increased platelets initially, but the peak was at day 4, followed by a gradual return to baseline and even a moderate thrombocytopenia later on. Iron-overloaded rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo also had increased platelets at day 4, but the duration of platelet increase was shorter, and they experienced a more pronounced degree of thrombocytopenia in proportion to the dose of rHuEpo. Because the early elevation of platelets was of larger magnitude than hematocrit changes, it is unlikely that it could be accounted for by shrinkage of plasma volume. Because it was observed in all three iron conditions, there appears to be some direct positive effect of rHuEpo on platelet production. However, after this transient effect, expanded erythropoiesis appears to exert a negative impact upon platelet production. Secondary thrombocytopenia was not related to splenic pooling, and its very slow correction after cessation of rHuEpo therapy is not compatible with changes in platelet survival. Rather, it is consistent with stem cell competition between erythroid and megakaryocytic development. However, this secondary thrombocytopenia is masked by (functional) iron deficiency in rats not receiving an adequate iron supply from food or stores. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of recombinant human erythropoietin on platelets in patients with anemia of renal failure: correlation of platelet count with erythropoietic activity and iron parameters.
Beguin, Yves ULg; Loo, Martine; R'Zik, Samir ULg et al

in European Journal of Haematology (1994), 53(5), 265-70

We examined the effect of treatment with rHuEpo on platelet counts in 61 hemodialysis patients and correlated them with changes in erythropoietic activity, iron status and inflammation. Platelets (10(9)/1 ... [more ▼]

We examined the effect of treatment with rHuEpo on platelet counts in 61 hemodialysis patients and correlated them with changes in erythropoietic activity, iron status and inflammation. Platelets (10(9)/1) increased from 220 +/- 80 to 245 +/- 102 after 14 days and stabilized at that level up to day 90 (p < 0.0001). The increment was similar in complete or partial responders but was not observed in failures. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR, a measure of total erythropoiesis) and Het rose much more progressively, but relative platelet increments correlated with relative increases in sTfR and Hct. Relative platelet increments correlated inversely with relative changes of SeFe or transferrin saturation, but not with their absolute values, nor with baseline ferritin or its progressive decrease. Although baseline platelet count was 12% higher in patients with inflammation and correlated with serum haptoglobin, relative increases were similar in patients with or without inflammation. In conclusion, rHuEpo produced a clinically minor but consistent elevation of platelet counts. These modifications were not related primarily to modifications in iron stores, functional iron deficiency, or inflammation, but paralleled the expansion of erythropoietic activity. The results suggest that rHuEpo has a small positive effect on platelet production, but it cannot be ruled out that this could be partially mediated through functional iron deficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of red clover on the yield and digestibility of rye grass thimoty mixture
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Toussaint, Bernard; Gielen, Marc ULg et al

in 14th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation. (1992)

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See detailEffect of reduced nitrogen fertilizer in pasture on milk quality: results of 4 years
Raskin, Pascale; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Minet, Vincent et al

in Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science (1997)

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See detailEffect of reduced water supply on aphid physiology : A proteomic approach on peach-aphid interaction
Verdugo, Jaime; Lacroze, Jean-philippe; Sauge, Marie-Hélène et al

Poster (2012, August)

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See detailEffect of reducing energy supply during the finishing of Belgian Blue double-muscled cull cows
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dotreppe, Olivier ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg et al

in Animal Science (2004), 79(Part 3), 469-482

A 4-year experiment has been conducted on finishing Belgian Blue cull cows of double-muscled type in order to study the effects of diets containing adequate levels of metabolizable protein, but either ... [more ▼]

A 4-year experiment has been conducted on finishing Belgian Blue cull cows of double-muscled type in order to study the effects of diets containing adequate levels of metabolizable protein, but either normal (NENP), low (LENP) or medium (MENP) levels of metabolizable energy, on animal performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and plasma metabolites and hormones. The LENP diet was offered during the whole (LENP group) or second half of the finishing (NENP-LENP groups), and the MENP diet during the whole finishing (MENP group). The degree of fatness required for the slaughter of animals from NENP groups was close to 4.5 (scale from 0 (very lean) to 5 (very fat)). In each underfed group, the slaughter of the animals was synchronized to that of NENP cows, by degressive degree of fatness. The same duration of finishing was thus obtained for all groups. The experimental feeding strategies reduced the amounts of fat deposited in the carcass and the meat while muscle deposition was remarkably preserved. The proportions of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat were also decreased while their proportions increased in plasma free fatty acids. Plasma insulin levels were also reduced and those of IGF-1 were, surprisingly, maintained. The low energy diet promoted thus the settlement of a discrete lipolytic state while high levels of IGF-1 preserved muscle deposition. This feeding strategy should be evaluated in other breeds of cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Repeated Intradermal Injections of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Antigen on Seronegative Cattle
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Wellemans, G.; Limbourg, B. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1992), 130(17), 372-5

Forty-three cattle seronegative to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) were given from one to five intradermal injections of BHV-1 inactivated antigen at four-week intervals. This delayed hypersensitivity test ... [more ▼]

Forty-three cattle seronegative to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) were given from one to five intradermal injections of BHV-1 inactivated antigen at four-week intervals. This delayed hypersensitivity test was assessed by the increase in skin thickness. The activity of the antigen was assessed in five animals which had a previous natural BHV-1 infection with clinical signs and seroconversion. Anti-BHV-1 antibodies were detected by seroneutralisation and an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Only one animal showed a significant but slight increase in skin thickness after the first test, but it was negative after a second test. The animals remained seronegative after the first test. Seroconversion was identified in 11 of the 43 animals (25 per cent) submitted to repeated delayed hypersensitivity tests. Five of 37 animals seroconverted after only two tests. The serological response was transient in seven of 11 seroconverted calves. Repeated hypersensitivity tests were therefore able to induce a serological response in seronegative calves but the response was weak and often transient. The test must therefore be applied cautiously to seronegative animals. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of residence time on the efficacy of antidandruff shampoos.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULg; Loussouarn, G. et al

in International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2003), 25(6), 267-71

Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic shampoos active against Malassezia spp. These products also remove the loosely attached scales. This study was performed to assess the effect of a 5-min ... [more ▼]

Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic shampoos active against Malassezia spp. These products also remove the loosely attached scales. This study was performed to assess the effect of a 5-min residence time on the efficacy of antidandruff shampoos. Two commercially available shampoos were used in two groups of 21 panelists with severe dandruff. They contained either 1% ketoconazole or 1% piroctone olamine. In each group, intraindividual comparisons were made by a split-scalp design between the effect of a 5-min residence time versus no residence time. Both shampoos induced significant reductions in scaliness and yeast colonization. The beneficial effects were obvious immediately after one single shampooing and 3 days later as well. The improvement was greater with a 5-min residence time. The piroctone olamine treatment benefited more than the ketoconazole treatment from the extension of shampoo-exposure time. In conclusion, the benefit of a residence time in treating dandruff is documented. The level of improvement in efficacy may vary according to the nature of the shampoo. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of resting patterns of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax) on the spatial distribution of seeds and seedling recruitment
Muñoz Lazo, Fernando J. J.; Culot, Laurence ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2011), 32(1), 223-237

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See detailEffect of restraint stess on plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone and pregnancy associated-glycoproteins-1 in pregnant heifers during late embryonic development.
Szenci, O.; Karen, A.; Bajcsy, A. C. et al

in Theriogenology (2011), 76(8), 1380-1385

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of restraint stress, which is commonly practised in the field, on plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone (P4) and bovine pregnancy ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of restraint stress, which is commonly practised in the field, on plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone (P4) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (boPAG-1) in pregnant heifers between Days 30 to 40 of gestation. Twelve Holstein-Friesian heifers between Days 30 (Day 0 of experiment) and 40 (Day 10 of experiment) of pregnancy in a Hungarian dairy farm were used in the present study. The heifers were exposed to an acute stressor consisting of immobilisation (restraint stress) in a crush for 2 h (Group 1, n = 6) on Day 2 (Hour 48) and for 2 × 2 h (Group 2, n = 6) on Days 2 and 3 (Hour 72) of the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear-array rectal transducer) was performed daily from Day 0 to Day 10 of the experiment to detect embryonic heartbeat or the fate of the conceptus. Blood samples were withdrawn before each ultrasonographic examination. Additional blood samples were withdrawn by 1 and 2 h (at Hours 49 and 50 in Groups 1 and 2 and Hours 73 and 74 in Group 2) of the onset of applying the stressor. Plasma cortisol, P4 and boPAG-1 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Acute restraint stress significantly (P < 0.001) increased the plasma cortisol level in pregnant heifers at 1 h of the exposure to the stressor at Days 2 (48 h) and 3 (72 h) of the experiment. On the other hand, the restraint stress did not affect the concentration of P4 and boPAG-1 concentrations in both groups. In conclusion, restraint stress for 2 h during early pregnancy in heifers increased blood cortisol, but it did not affect the concentrations of P4 and boPAG-1 between Days 30 to 40 of gestation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of rimonabant on blood pressure in overweight/obese patients with/without co-morbidities: analysis of pooled RIO study results.
Ruilope, Luis M; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Journal of Hypertension (2008), 26(2), 357-67

OBJECTIVE: Rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blocker, has been shown to improve multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients. This analysis assessed ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Rimonabant, the first selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blocker, has been shown to improve multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients. This analysis assessed the impact of rimonabant on blood pressure in the pooled population from four large trials with similar design - the Rimonabant-In-Obesity (RIO) programme. METHODS: RIO-Europe (n = 1507) and RIO-North America (n = 3040) recruited overweight/obese patients, and RIO-Lipids (n = 1033) and RIO-Diabetes (n = 1045) recruited overweight/obese patients with untreated dyslipidaemia or type 2 diabetes, respectively. At study entry (screening), 37.2% (n = 2463) of patients had hypertension, 71.4% (n = 1757) of whom were taking an antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: After 1 year of treatment, mean change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline was -0.8 mmHg for rimonabant 20 mg versus +0.3 mmHg for placebo (P = 0.007); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by -0.8 versus -0.3 mmHg (P = 0.029) respectively. In the subgroup of patients with high blood pressure at baseline, SBP change was -7.5 mmHg for rimonabant 20 mg versus -4.7 mmHg for placebo (P = 0.005); DBP change was -5.2 versus -3.0 mmHg (P < 0.001). Reductions were more pronounced in patients with dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. There was no effect of rimonabant 20 mg on blood pressure beyond that expected from weight loss alone. Overall, there was a similar incidence of adverse events (AEs) at 1 year in the placebo (81.8%) and rimonabant 20 mg (86.0%). The most common AEs occurring with rimonabant were nausea, dizziness, arthralgia and diarrhoea. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the rimonabant 20 mg group discontinued as a result of AEs (13.8%) versus placebo (7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Rimonabant 20 mg led to modest, but significant SBP and DBP reductions in overweight/obese patients. The effect of rimonabant on blood pressure appears to be mediated by weight loss. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of rimonabant on quality of life in overweight/obese patients
Kolotkin, R. L.; Crosby, R. D.; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Value in Health (2006), 9(3, MAY-JUN), 92

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See detailEffect of risedronate on collagen cross-links in postmenopausal osteoporosis
Zegels, Brigitte ULg; Balena, R; Eastell, R et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1995), 10(s1), 455

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See detailThe effect of risedronate on hip fracture risk in elderly women with osteoporosis
Bensen, W; Eastell, R; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2001), 28(S63), 24

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