Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic and Production Repercussions of Deworming by Pulse Release Device and Oral Suspension in Grazing Double-Muscled Fattening Cattle
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B = Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B (1991), 38(3), 238-240

In this field trial, the repercussions of 2 administration forms of oxfendazole, namely a single administration of a front-loaded device (group 1; n = 18) and a repeated administration of a 90.6 per cent ... [more ▼]

In this field trial, the repercussions of 2 administration forms of oxfendazole, namely a single administration of a front-loaded device (group 1; n = 18) and a repeated administration of a 90.6 per cent oral suspension (group 2; n = 18), were compared in first season-grazing double-muscled fattening bulls. The comparison was based on the production performances, the mean worm egg counts and the product- and labour-costs. The daily body gains determined on the whole trial period, i.e. 1.312 +/- 0.055 kg and 1.270 +/- 0.056 kg for groups 1 and 2 respectively, and mean worm egg counts per gram (on days 0 and 130:200.0 +/- 44.3 and 94.4 +/- 27.4 for group 1; 366.7 +/- 98.4 and 100.0 +/- 33.6 for group 2) did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, the total costs were lower with a front-loaded device (1,021 Belgian Francs) than with oral suspension (1,248 Belgian Francs per bull). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe Economic and Statistical Designs of Control charts for Censored and Non-Normal Data
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Davis, Darwin, Edward et al

Scientific conference (2011, December)

In this research, we are dealing with constructing the statistical design (SD) and economic statistical design (ESD) of Shewhart and CUSUM control charts for reliability data which are right censored ... [more ▼]

In this research, we are dealing with constructing the statistical design (SD) and economic statistical design (ESD) of Shewhart and CUSUM control charts for reliability data which are right censored. This is the case which happens more frequently in the field. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEconomic efficiency of milk production farms in Hanoi Suburbs, Vietnam
Le Dinh, Khan; Phan Dang, Thang ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2014, November 14)

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year ... [more ▼]

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year. However, fresh milk production satisfies about 20-25% of milk consumption. The rural areas of Hanoi Province are large for dairy production. This province builds the 7 agro-ecological sub-regions for the development of dairy farming, in which Ba Vi District is a most of sub-regions for dairy production development. But the average size is about 2.5 cows per farm. This research aims to better understand how the factors in milk sector adapt to current economic conditions in Hanoi suburbs through analyzing farming systems. These studies were conducted from January to August 2012 on 43 dairy farms with different production scales at Ba Vi District to characteristic of dairy farming systems. The data were collected by interviewing and keeping records at the farms that have milk production. The results showed that three dairy production systems in these zones: (1) Dairy small farming system has from 1 to 3 cows per farm; (2) The medium farming system has from 4 to 5 cows per farm; and (3) The dairy intensive farming system has more 5 cows per farm. The economic activities were really diversified with landless per household farm such as rice production, gardens, grass production and sylviculture. Land resources per farm of intensive farming system were largest including 9,239 m² for garden around the household; 2,574 m² for rice land; 563 m² of grass area and 3,325 m² for sylviculture. While the small farming system has the lowest potential land, each household has only 2,815 m² of garden; 1,795 m² of rice land; 2,095 m² of grazing land. The medium farming system has about 3,150 m² of garden; 2,220 m² of rice land and 3,891 m² of grazing land. Milk production cycle was quite long with intensive farming system, up to 324 days comparing with 299 days per cycle with medium farming system and to 306 days per cycle with small-scale farmers. This difference was not statistically signification (P> 0.05). Average milk production yield per cow was high with medium farming system (16 kg per cow per day) in comparison with 15 kg per day at intensive and small farming systems (P> 0.05). Milk production yield has been improved in the past years with crossbreed cows such as Holstein-Friesian 50% and 75%. But this productivity was still considered to be lower than the milk production yield with dairy cows raised in Moc Chau District under Son La Province with 20.5 kg per cow per day and 6,250 kg of milk per cow per cycle). In addition, in the period from 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate have continued to rise for the farmers, while feed prices increased in the period from 2006 to 2010 and these feed prices were stable between 2011 and 2012. In the period of 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate increased from 0.17 USD per kg in 2006 to 0.60 USD per kg in 2012 and feed prices were from 0.15 USD per kg in 2006 increasing to 0.39 USD per kg in 2012. The net incomes were calculated per a cow per year reached 1,274 USD with the small-scale farming households to 1,476 USD with medium farming system. The net income per kg of fresh milk at farm gate obtained from 0.28 USD with small farming system to 0.31 USD with medium farming system. The net household income was high from dairy production, from 2,437 USD per farm per year with small farming system to 5,487 USD per farm per year with intensive farming system. The net labor family income gained from 997 USD per active per year with small farming system to 2,757 USD per active per year with intensive farming system. Thus, dairy production farms in recent years in Hanoi Suburbs provide very high economic efficiency for farmers in comparison with other agricultural activities at the farms. This explains why the rate of dairy family farming has grown very fast in the studied zones in the period from 2009 to 2012. This trend will continue to grow in the future. This research was also showed that the price of fresh milk plays a crucial role for profitable at farm level. But medium farming system with the size from 4 to 5 dairy cows per farm is more profitable with current economic conditions at farms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic evaluation of an osteoporosis screening campaign: using FRAX as a prescreening tool
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(2), 38-39

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic evaluation of chronic hepatitis C treatment by interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in Belgium
Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(4), 233-236

With present treatments for chronic hepatitis C by the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin, it is possible to obtain a sustained viral response in a large number of patients. This viral response ... [more ▼]

With present treatments for chronic hepatitis C by the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin, it is possible to obtain a sustained viral response in a large number of patients. This viral response is associated with long-term disappearance of the C virus, improvement of histology, improvement in quality of life and, most than likely, a reduction in the risk of premature death or infection-linked complications. This therapy is, however, expensive and the number of potentially treatable patients is high in view of the relatively high prevalence of the disease in the population. An economic evaluation is thus indispensable in order, on the one hand, to assess the cost-effectiveness ratio of the treatment (i.e. the extra cost to be paid for obtaining the greater effectiveness provided by the therapeutic combination in comparison with absence of treatment or treatment by interferon alone), and, on the other hand, to estimate practically the global cost of treatment for Belgium (i.e. the annual expense for society according to the number of patients treated per year). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic evaluation of OSIRIS® (osteoporosis index of risk), a prescreening tool for prediction of osteoporosis risk, using decision trees and Markov models
Combescure, C.; Daures, J. P.; Chevallier, T. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 88

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn Economic Evaluation of Quantitative Ultrasonometry as Pre-Screening Test for the Identification of Patients with Osteoporosis
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Disease Management & Health Outcomes (2008), 16(6), 429-438

Background: Screening for osteoporosis has been recommended to identify patients at high risk of fracture in order to provide preventative treatment. Given the limited availability of dual-energy x-ray ... [more ▼]

Background: Screening for osteoporosis has been recommended to identify patients at high risk of fracture in order to provide preventative treatment. Given the limited availability of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and health resources, quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) has emerged as an attractive tool for the mass screening scenario. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a screening strategy using QUS as a pre-screening tool for bone densitometry would be cost effective and, if so, at what cut-off thresholds. Methods: Decision analytic models were used to compare the cost effectiveness and cost utility of several screening strategies: DXA measurement alone and pre-screening strategies that use different QUS index cut-off thresholds. For each strategy, and for hypothetical cohorts of women, we estimated the number of DXA scans required, the number of osteoporotic patients detected and missed, the total screening cost, and the incremental cost per patient detected. A validated Markov microsimulation model with a lifetime horizon and from a healthcare perspective was also computed in order to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of the alternative screening strategies combined with 5 years of alendronate therapy for women who have osteoporosis (T-score -2.5 or less). Results: The DXA strategy had the highest cost and the highest number of patients with osteoporosis detected. Pre-screening strategies using QUS reduced the number of DXA scans per patient with osteoporosis detected and the total screening cost but they also missed patients with osteoporosis as the QUS index decreased. Pre-screening strategies using QUS T-scores of 0.0, -0.5, -2.0, and -2.5 were dominated by extended dominance, as their incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were higher than that of the next more effective alternative. The cost-effectiveness and cost-utility frontiers included no screening, pre-screening using QUS T-scores of -1.0 and -1.5, and DXA measurement alone. Conclusion: These results suggest that QUS may be useful as a pre-screening tool for bone densitometry given the limited availability of DXA and health resources, and that the QUS index T-scores of -1.0 and -1.5 are the most appropriate index. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn economic evaluation of strontium ranelate for the treatment of male osteoporosis
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012, March), 23(Suppl. 2), 305-306

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic feasibility study of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system in waste heat recovery applications
Tchanche, Bertrand; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg et al

(2010, August)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) appears progressively as a promising solution to recover waste heat energy from thermal processes for electricity generation. A prototype of small-scale ORC has been built ... [more ▼]

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) appears progressively as a promising solution to recover waste heat energy from thermal processes for electricity generation. A prototype of small-scale ORC has been built and successfully tested at the University of Liège. It uses R-245fa and R-123 as working fluid, and an oil-free scroll compressor adapted to run in expander mode. Thermodynamic model of the system was derived and validated for performance prediction. The validated thermodynamic model is used to optimize the operation of the small ORC in waste heat recovery application (ORC-WHR). For exhaust gases at 180 ºC and a mass flow rate of 0.21 kg/s, a maximum net power output of 2 kWe is obtained for an evaporator pressure of 11.84 bar. The cycle thermal efficiency is 8.23 and the recuperation efficiency, 66.32%. Based on the aforementioned conditions, the economic assessment of small scale ORC-WHR was carried out using economic criteria such as levelized electricity cost (LEC), Net present value (NPV) and depreciated payback period (DPP). For a 2kWe ORC-WHR, the specific installed cost is 5775 €/kW with a LEC of 13.27 c€/kWh while for a 50 kWe, the specific installed cost is about 3034 €/kW and the LEC, 7c€/kWh. For an electricity unit price of 20 c€/kWh, the payback period of a 2 kWe system is 6 years while it is 2.5 years for a 50 kWe system. It is concluded from the study that recovering the waste heat by way of ORCs is technically and economically feasible. As recycled energy, waste heat has the same advantages as renewable energy and should benefit from the same legislative conditions (Feed-in-Laws). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 639 (23 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEconomic Geography
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg; Vlassenbroeck, Walter

in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Etudes Géographiques = Tijdschrift van de Belgische Vereniging voor Aardrijkskundige Studies (1995), 1995(2), 101-106

Identification and classification of 180 publications published in economic themes of geography in Belgium from 1984 to 1995

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic growth and exchange rate uncertainty
Tharakan, Joseph ULg

in Applied Economics (1999)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic impact of RVF outbreaks
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Chevalier, Véronique; Peyre, Marisa et al

Conference (2012, November)

Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past ... [more ▼]

Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countries on livestock products coming from the Horn of Africa in 1998-1999 and 2000-2002 highlighted this interdependence. Both bans caused an abrupt stop in exportations from IGAD countries. Nevertheless, the impact of the outbreaks motivating these bans differed due to their unique timing with regard to the Muslim celebrations that trigger the main flow of livestock from the Horn of Africa to Mecca. Hence, in 2000, the worst impact was observed on pastoralist households because the ban was imposed in September, prior to the Haj festival, when the main seasonal export flow had not been realized yet. Regarding the 1997 outbreak, the ban was implemented only in February 1998, after the main trade flow had occurred. The impacts of the bans on Somalia were particularly severe, due to the high specialization of the concerned region in an export-oriented livestock sector, benefitting from a niche market organized around the above-mentioned religious festivals and Arab consumers preferences. The country was all the more affected, as they own two main ports involved in this trade, i.e. Berbera (Somaliland) and Bossaso (Puntland). Prior to the bans, the size of the export market from Somalia to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates was estimated around US$600 million, with Saudi Arabia representing 66% of the total. The bans led the Somali livestock market to collapse. Losses for the livestock industry were estimated at US$109 million and US$326 million, for the first and second ban respectively. The government also directly incurred an important loss around US$45 million from foregone export taxes and docking fees. In the same time, livestock exporters lost a net cumulative profit of US$330 million, whereas producers estimated their annual losses at over US$8 million. Hence, the successive RVF-related trade bans impacted the employment rate, the public treasury, the exchange rate of national currency and thus, the price of imported goods, inducing a general inflationary pressure and important socio-economic upheavals. More generally, the livestock market in the whole East Africa was affected, due to the fall in prices caused by the loss of outlets for livestock. Using market equilibrium models taking these shocks into account, the impact of the trade bans on the Somali region of Ethiopia were estimated at a 36% fall of the GDP. Other impacts originated in the closure of markets inside East Africa, being part of national control strategies. In Kenya, e.g., the closure of the Garissa Market, which is a major outlet for Somali and Ethiopian livestock, resulted in a more than 25% decrease in the price of cattle, inducing a total loss of US$10 million for the value chain. The emergency destocking response of distressed households also participated to the fall in prices and worsening of terms of trade. Together with flock mortality and abortion, destocking moreover affects the herds’ dynamics on the long run and the commercial potential of households. These mechanisms show greater impact on smallholders, due to threshold effects in livestock capitalisation and the loss in risk management ability in such variable environmental conditions. In the Middle East too, the bans showed drastic economic impacts. In Yemen, e.g., the bans caused a loss of US$15 million from foregone custom taxes and US$27 million profit losses for traders. The two bans, combined with the prolonged ban maintained till 2009 by Saudi Arabia on Somalia, contributed to a restructuration of trade within and between the two regions. Indeed, trade actors soon reorganized their activity, as highlighted through official figures, notwithstanding the importance of informal trade. Hence, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates appeared as major alternative entry points on Arab Peninsula for Somali livestock. The latter could also transit through Djibouti or Sudan to reach Saudi Arabia. Benefitting from the prolonged bans on Somalia, the port of Djibouti emerged as a major player in the region between 2006 and 2009, thanks to massive investment in port infrastructures and agreements with Saudi importers. Therefore the private sector played a considerable role in adapting to new risks. The Djibouti port diverted much of the livestock trade previously handled at the Berbera and Bossaso ports. On this occasion, as it has been the case in Somalia after ban lifting in 2009, the Middle East has been a source of investment for the Horn of Africa for biosecurity infrastructure. Finally, the second ban led to the emergence of Australia as a major livestock supplier for Saudi Arabia from 2000 till now, and to a certain a point Australia has been a country of major Saudi investments which is seen as another way of adapting for some major value chain agents. In the two last decades, the intraregional livestock trade grew rapidly in East Africa, spurred by the urban demand. Most of this trade is informal, thus lacking official figures. It nevertheless shows a great importance regarding poverty alleviation aspects, the small to medium actors being the main operators of this trade. In recent years, a considerable growth in recorded intraregional trade is noticed, mainly due to a growth of recorded exports from Ethiopia to neighboring countries, as a result of a policy aiming at the facilitation of registration procedures through the CAC/AP-system. As a conclusion, livestock export to Middle East and the growing intraregional East-African livestock trade are both threatened by RVF-linked bans due to loss of outlets and price volatility. Thus, stability of the livestock sector being crucial to human and economic development in the region, a high priority must be given to RVF prevention and control, as supported by figures of impact of past outbreaks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailECONOMIC IMPACT OF USING AN ANTIVIRAL IN THE CONTROL OF A FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE EPIZOOTIC IN SOUTHERN BELGIUM
Dal Pozzo, Fabiana ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an ... [more ▼]

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an outbreak vary in function of the disease-free or disease-enzootic status. Vaccination depends on the prior identification of the involved viral serotype and subtype, it confers an immunity limited to 6 months and it requires between 4 to 7 days to trigger the immune response (i.e. immunity-gap). The use of anti-FMD drugs has been discussed as an alternative or supplementary method to be used in previously FMD-free countries/zones. Such an antiviral treatment could protect against the viral dissemination to fill the gap between vaccination and the rise of a protective immunity. Apart from broad spectrum antiviral agents, such as ribavirin, specific anti-FMDV molecules have been identified in vitro, but none of them has been used in clinical studies involving ruminants or pigs. Next to the anti-FMDV activity, the absence of toxicity and the withdrawal period influencing the food safety, the cost of the treatment would be another important parameter influencing the potential use of an antiviral agent in the control of a FMD outbreak. The aim of this study was to assess the economic impact of using an antiviral in the control of a FMD epizootic in southern Belgium (Walloon Region). This work was based on the results of previous investigations concerning the epidemiological and economic data of a FMD outbreak in Southern Belgium. In the considered scenario, the epizootic was caused by the introduction of an infected cow (during the incubation time) in a beef cattle farm during winter. During the two weeks between the brood cow introduction and the official declaration of the outbreak, animal movements occurred between other beef cattle farms. The economic effects of the epidemic were evaluated taking into account the air-borne transmission of FMDV, the occurrence of animal movements (two scenarios were considered, with a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 17 movements), the presence of bovine and small ruminant farms, as well as pig farms in the protection and surveillance zones around the initial and secondary outbreaks. The wild fauna was not involved in the epidemic. In order to integrate in the above scenario the application of an antiviral agent in the control of the disease, it was assumed that the efficacy of the anti-FMDV drug was proven by reducing viral excretion in infected animals as well as by preventing the infection in animals at risk. Two hypothetical prices were used to introduce in the model the costs related to the administration of the antiviral drug (5€ and 10€ per dose). Furthermore, different strategies of control could be envisaged, such as the administration of the drug to both domestic ruminants and pigs, or depending on the epidemiological role of these species in the FMD transmission and their density in the territory, the administration of the drug to only one of them. Other scenarios could be characterized by the use of the antiviral in the control of the epizootic within the protection and surveillance zones or in only one of them. The costs associated with the use of antivirals in the different proposed scenarios are compared to the costs and socio-economic losses associated with the FMD outbreak and the implementation of control measures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEconomic Optimization of Small Scale Organic Rankine Cycles
Tchanche, Bertrand; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg et al

(2010, June)

The present paper focuses on the economic optimization of a small scale ORC in waste heat recovery application with specific investment cost as objective function. First, a pre-design model of the ORC was ... [more ▼]

The present paper focuses on the economic optimization of a small scale ORC in waste heat recovery application with specific investment cost as objective function. First, a pre-design model of the ORC was built and simulations run with different working fluids to evaluate their technical performance. In a second step, components and system cost models were built and simulations carried out to evaluate the cost effectiveness of systems associated with different fluids. The working fluids considered are R245fa, R123, R113, n-Pentane and n-Butane. Results indicate that for the same fluid, the point of high performance and that f cost-effectiveness do not match. The operating point for maximum power doesn’t correspond to that of the minimum specific investment cost. For n-Pentane, the maximum net power of 1.98 kW is obtained for an evaporator pressure of 5.14 bar and the specific investment cost is 5450 €/kW. For this same fluid, a minimum specific investment cost of 4440 €/kW is obtained for an evaporator pressure of 8.5 bar and the corresponding power output is 1.745 kW. The mismatch aforementioned is due to the thermodynamic properties such as liquid/vapour densities, which significantly influence system performance and components sizes. Seeking for profitable environmental solutions, economic optimization as a necessary step in the optimization of any thermodynamic system is highly advised. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 473 (22 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Economic performance of self-managed firms: a comparative perspective
Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (1986), (1), 3-9

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULg)