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See detailDécentralisation de la gestion des ressources naturelles forestières à Madagascar : Illégitimité des normes, informalités des pratiques et paralysie de l’administration forestière
Rakotosoa, Andrianina ULg; Poncelet, Marc ULg; Rabemananjara, Zo Hasina et al

Conference (2015, December)

Pour appuyer les efforts de conservation de la biodiversité, des processus de transfert de gestion (TG) des ressources naturelles aux communautés locales de base ont été promus à Madagascar depuis 1996 ... [more ▼]

Pour appuyer les efforts de conservation de la biodiversité, des processus de transfert de gestion (TG) des ressources naturelles aux communautés locales de base ont été promus à Madagascar depuis 1996 avec un important financement étranger. Ce p’rocessus était censé stimuler une forte responsabilisation des acteurs en plaçant la prise de décisions dans la sphère locale, ce qui améliorerait l’efficacité. Le transfert de fonds et de capacité ainsi que l’appui des partenaires sont également requis pour rendre la décentralisation effective. Pourtant, un désintérêt et une déresponsabilisation croissants quant à la gestion des ressources par les populations locales ont été souvent constatés et le taux de déforestation est resté élevé. C’est le cas de la zone forestière de Mariarano où nous avons eu l’occasion d’observer la mise en œuvre d’un TG. A travers les perceptions des acteurs clés dans le TG : la communauté locale et l’administration forestière, ce travail consiste à dévoiler les enjeux du processus participatif, les impacts de la dépendance à l’aide, les stratégies de contournement des règles par la population locale et l’évolution des rapports entre l’administration et ses partenaires dans le cadre de l’Etat local. A travers des actions déterminées par des prescriptions légales et des délais, les agents d’appuis activent le processus, négligent les clivages au sein de la population locale et cadrent les décisions résultants des négociations vers l’objectif de conservation. Cette procédure fait naître un sentiment d’imposition et aggrave l’illégitimité des normes promues. Par ailleurs, la population locale adopte un comportement opportuniste. Leur participation au processus fonctionne plus comme un mode de contrôle et d’accès aux ressources qu’un mode de préservation de celles-ci. Pour la réalisation des tâches attribuées à la population locale et des activités alternatives des usages, dont l’accès est désormais réglementé, l’appui des partenaires est nécessaire vu leurs faibles capacités financières et techniques. Toutefois, les appuis restent ponctuels et limités selon la priorité et la disponibilité budgétaire des bailleurs de fonds. La loi n’engage pas non plus les partenaires pour faire l’accompagnement sur le moyen terme, bien que ceci soit important pour provoquer des changements. Ceux qui n’ont pas ressenti les avantages concrets sont allés vers des pratiques illégales. Clandestinité et dissimulation sont les stratégies adoptées pour faire valoir leurs droits. Une amplification de la complicité au sein de la communauté gestionnaire est constatée pour contourner les règles. Quant au rapport de l’administration avec ses partenaires, il s’est détérioré. Dans un contexte marqué par la dépendance financière de l’Etat envers les bailleurs de fonds, l’administration est limitée dans ses fonctions et travaille comme consultant de ces derniers. Aux yeux des paysans, l’administration apparaît comme étant inapte à honorer ses engagements, ce qui nuit à sa crédibilité. Ainsi, elle rencontre des difficultés pour obtenir la confiance et la coopération de la population. Or celle-ci constitue le fondement de la gestion participative. La persistance des activités de déforestation résulte donc de l’illégitimité des normes résultantes du processus participatif, du recours des acteurs aux pratiques informelles et enfin de la paralysie de l’administration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (9 ULg)
See detailLa décentralisation en bref
Kabamba, Bob ULg

Book published by CAPAC (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
See detailLa décentralisation en République démocratique du Congo
Kabamba, Bob ULg

Learning material (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg)
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See detailLa décentralisation et les possibilités de développement locales en RDC : l'intégration des économies locales en RDC par l'approche de filières certifiées "équitables" : l'exemple du CDI-Bwamanda
Duquesne, Brigitte ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Conférence 25èmes Journées Scientifiques ATM 2009 "Attractivité, gouvernance et développement", 3, 4 et 5 juin 2009 : actes du colloque (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 137 (32 ULg)
See detailDécentralisation fiscale en RDC
Kabamba, Bob ULg

Conference (2009, November 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (0 ULg)
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See detailLa décentralisation fiscale et financière en République Démocratique du Congo: éléments économiques et juridiques
Bourgeois, Marc ULg; Uhoda, Maxime ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2011), 3-4

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See detailDecentralized local backup LSP calculation with efficient bandwidth sharing
Mélon, Laurent; Blanchy, François; Leduc, Guy ULg

in 10th IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications (2003, February)

This paper focuses on the protection of virtual circuits (Label Switched Paths, LSPs) in a (G)MPLS (Generalised Multi-Protocol Label Switching) network. The proposed algorithm is designed to protect ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the protection of virtual circuits (Label Switched Paths, LSPs) in a (G)MPLS (Generalised Multi-Protocol Label Switching) network. The proposed algorithm is designed to protect traffic with strong delay requirements such as EF (Expedited Forwarding) ordered aggregates in a DiffServ domain. For this type of application endto- end recovery schemes are usually considered to be far too slow. Local, fast-rerouting is the only solution which can compete with restoration times offered by SONET self-healing ring. However local restoration has a cost in terms of extra bandwidth consumed for the backup paths. Our scheme thus includes a sophisticated resource aggregation mechanism based on the concepts of "backup-backup aggregation" and "backupprimary aggregation". The path selection algorithm is also designed to efficiently reduce the resource usage. Moreover, when considering LSPs at different preemption levels, our algorithm is able to correctly calculate the amount of bandwidth that can be preempted despite the sharing of resource. We show that our approach, though local, can compete with the state-of-theart end-to-end recovery schemes in terms of resource reservation. The major contribution of our scheme, the "backup-primary aggregation", was then also used in the context of end-to-end recovery and improved its performance substantially. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized mechanical ventilation with heat recovery
Aparecida Silva, Cleide; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Hannay, Jules et al

in Proceedings of the 32nd AIVC Conference (2011, October)

A new local ventilation device is designed in such a way to procure ventilation “on demand” in each room, with a maximum of effectiveness and a minimum of energy waste. It consists in a parapipedic box to ... [more ▼]

A new local ventilation device is designed in such a way to procure ventilation “on demand” in each room, with a maximum of effectiveness and a minimum of energy waste. It consists in a parapipedic box to be located in one external wall (for example, just above a window) and containing two (injection and extraction) fans and a recovery heat exchanger. The design of the heat exchanger is associated to the selection of the two fans in view of the best compromise between heat recovery effectiveness and “auxiliary” consumptions. Great attention is paid to supply and exhaust air openings on both indoor and outdoor sides of the device, in order to get the highest ventilation effectiveness. A fair compromise is looked for between air flow control “authority” and “auxiliary” consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized Prediction of End-to-End Network Performance Classes
Liao, Yongjun ULg; Du, Wei; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in Proc. of the 7th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT) (2011, December 08)

In large-scale networks, full-mesh active probing of end-to-end performance metrics is infeasible. Measuring a small set of pairs and predicting the others is more scalable. Under this framework, we ... [more ▼]

In large-scale networks, full-mesh active probing of end-to-end performance metrics is infeasible. Measuring a small set of pairs and predicting the others is more scalable. Under this framework, we formulate the prediction problem as matrix completion, whereby unknown entries of an incomplete matrix of pairwise measurements are to be predicted. This problem can be solved by matrix factorization because performance matrices have a low rank, thanks to the correlations among measurements. Moreover, its resolution can be fully decentralized without actually building matrices nor relying on special landmarks or central servers. In this paper we demonstrate that this approach is also applicable when the performance values are not measured exactly, but are only known to belong to one among some predefined performance classes, such as "good" and "bad". Such classification-based formulation not only fulfills the requirements of many Internet applications but also reduces the measurement cost and enables a unified treatment of various performance metrics. We propose a decentralized approach based on Stochastic Gradient Descent to solve this class-based matrix completion problem. Experiments on various datasets, relative to two kinds of metrics, show the accuracy of the approach, its robustness against erroneous measurements and its usability on peer selection. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized reactive power dispatch for a time-varying multi-TSO system
Phulpin, Yannick; Begovic, Miroslav; Petit, Marc et al

in Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-42) (2009)

This paper addresses the problem of reactive power dispatch in a power system partitioned into several areas controlled by different transmission system operators. Previous research has shown that nearly ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of reactive power dispatch in a power system partitioned into several areas controlled by different transmission system operators. Previous research has shown that nearly optimal performance could be achieved in a time-invariant system by using a specific iterative decentralized control scheme with no information exchange. At each iteration of this scheme, every transmission system operator concurrently schedules its own control settings for the next iteration while representing the neighboring areas with external network equivalents. This paper focuses on some parameter tracking techniques to extend the range of application of the decentralized control scheme to time-varying systems, where the time-varying nature of the system is modeled as a succession of steady-state operating conditions with variation of the load demand. Those new techniques are evaluated in the context of IEEE 118 bus system partitioned into three control areas. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized tap changer blocking and load shedding against voltage instability: prospective tests on the RTE system
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Otomega, Bogdan; Lefebvre, Hervé et al

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2009), 31(9), 570-576

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking tap changers and shedding loads in a zone. The emergency actions adjust in magnitude and location to the disturbance. Each controller acts in closed-loop, which guarantees robustness. The method is illustrated on a real-life model of the Western region of the RTE system. The choice of the controller settings is discussed in some detail and examples of performance are given, combining the above remedial action with capacitor switching and secondary voltage control. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 228 (22 ULg)
See detailDeception and the value of truth: a case study from the fifteenth century
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 ULg)
See detailDéception et incertitude en démocratie
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, September 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULg)
See detailDécharge : un bioréacteur biologique.
Thonart, Philippe ULg; Auguste, E.; Rikir, R.

Scientific conference (1991, September)

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See detailLa décharge du débiteur après transfert, sous autorité de justice, de la totalité de son entreprise : les conditions et la procédure en questions
Pasteger, David ULg; Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Revue de Droit Commercial Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Handelsrecht (2016), 9

Comment of the judgment of the Commercial Court of Ghent (Oudenaarde section), October 1st 2015, concerning the discharge of a debtor whose business has been fully transferred on the basis of Article 67 ... [more ▼]

Comment of the judgment of the Commercial Court of Ghent (Oudenaarde section), October 1st 2015, concerning the discharge of a debtor whose business has been fully transferred on the basis of Article 67 of the Law on Business Continuity (LBC), excluding the extraordinary debts in the moratorium secured by a mortgage on the family home. The paper then explains in detail the conditions of the discharge provided under Article 70 LBC and compares it with the similar mechanism of the bankrupt's excusability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg)
See detailLa decharge egale un bioreacteur a gerer.
Dumont, M.; Taillieu, X.; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Tribune de l'Eau (La) (1993), 46(564), 3-10

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)