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See detailEffect of histamine on lung contractile elements in growing cattle
Jolly, Sandra ULg; Robinson, Edward; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2003), 64

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of histamine on the contractile elements of the respiratory tract in neonatal calves and young adult cattle. SAMPLE POPULATION: Samples of trachealis muscle, bronchi ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of histamine on the contractile elements of the respiratory tract in neonatal calves and young adult cattle. SAMPLE POPULATION: Samples of trachealis muscle, bronchi, and intrapulmonary arteries and veins dissected from the respiratory tracts of healthy bovids (2 to 8 days and 16 to 20 months old). PROCEDURE: Histamine cumulative concentration-effect curves (10(-6) to 10(-3) M) were constructed in duplicate smooth muscle samples mounted in organ baths. Contractile responses to histamine were compared with reference contractions elicited by methacholine (10(-5) M) for airways or KCl (127 mM) for vessels. RESULTS: In young adult cattle, trachealis muscle had a substantial contractile response to histamine (84% of methacholine-induced contraction), whereas bronchi reacted slightly (15 and 20% for large and small bronchi, respectively). Although contractile responses to KCl were comparable in arteries and veins, histamine-induced contractions were greater for intrapulmonary veins than for arteries (202 vs 48% of KCl-induced contraction). In neonatal calves, histamine-induced contraction of veins also exceeded that of arteries (230 vs 54% of KCl-induced contraction); however, unlike in young adult cattle, histamine produced notable contraction of large and small bronchi (48 and 60% of methacholine-induced contraction, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Compared with intrapulmonary arteries, intrapulmonary veins have greater contractile responses to histamine in neonatal and young adult cattle. Data suggest loss of histamine responsiveness in bronchial smooth muscle as neonatal calves grow to young adults. Venodilation may be useful in treatment of lung edema in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Histamine on Tumor Necrosis Factor Production by Human Monocytes
Hotermans, G.; Bury, Thierry ULg; Radermecker, Maurice ULg

in International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology (1991), 95(2-3), 278-81

This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of histamine on tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) secretion by purified human blood monocytes. TNF alpha was measured by radioimmunoassay. Histamine caused a ... [more ▼]

This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of histamine on tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) secretion by purified human blood monocytes. TNF alpha was measured by radioimmunoassay. Histamine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF alpha production from human blood monocytes, averaging maximally 50% at 10(-5) M. Preincubation of mononuclear cells with an H2 antagonist (cimetidine), but not with an H1 antagonist (promethazine) prevented this inhibitory effect of histamine. In conclusion, histamine causes, in vitro, a depression of TNF alpha secretion by human monocytes through activation of H2 receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of HLA-matching recipients to donor non-inherited maternal antigens on outcomes after mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy
Rocha, V; Spellman, S; Zhang, MJ et al

in Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation (2012)

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See detailEffect of homologous delayed hypersensitivity testing on specific and non-specific lymphoblastic transformation in cattle latently infected with bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpesvirus 1, BHV 1).
Brochier, B.; Thiry, Etienne ULg; Derboven, G. et al

in Annales de Recherches Vétérinaires = Annals of Veterinary Research (1984), 15(4), 483-90

Two cattle latently infected with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (Bovine herpesvirus 1, BHV 1) were intradermally injected with inactivated BHV 1 antigen (delayed hypersensitivity test, DHT, skin ... [more ▼]

Two cattle latently infected with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (Bovine herpesvirus 1, BHV 1) were intradermally injected with inactivated BHV 1 antigen (delayed hypersensitivity test, DHT, skin test). Another animal, free of BHV 1 infection was similarly treated. Two latent carriers of the virus, intradermally injected with Phosphate-Buffered Saline solution were used as control. The evolution of spontaneous multiplication of lymphocytes and lymphoblastic transformation in vitro induced by three phytomitogens (con A, PHA, PWM) and BHV 1 antigen was followed in all animals. The delayed hypersensitivity test provoked an increase in spontaneous lymphocyte multiplication in latent carriers as well as an increase in mitogen- and antigen-induced blastogenesis on the 2nd and the 9th day following the treatment. A similar increase occurred on the 9th day in the BHV 1-free animal. Therefore, in latent carriers of BHV 1, delayed hypersensitivity testing induces an anamnestic lymphocyte reaction corresponding to the cutaneous one. This first lymphocyte activity is followed, one week later, by a new reaction which occurs both in infected and uninfected animals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of homologous prostatic fluid on the parameters of dog semen extended and frozen in Tris-egg yolk and INRA Freeze: preliminary results
Stanescu, Pascal; Van Den Berghe, Femke ULg; Aissi, Adel et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2012, August), 47(s4), 431

Recent studies showed that the cryoprotector component of egg yolk for the freezing of canine semen is represented by the low density lipoproteins (LDL), while the others components of egg yolk have a ... [more ▼]

Recent studies showed that the cryoprotector component of egg yolk for the freezing of canine semen is represented by the low density lipoproteins (LDL), while the others components of egg yolk have a number of detrimental effects on the frozen-thawed canine semen. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a LDL commercial extender used for stallion semen – INRA FreezeÒ (IMV Technologies, L¢Aigle, France) with a standard extender for dog semen containing Tris, fructose, glycerol and 20% egg yolk (TFG-EY). Since there are some conflicting reports concerning the effect of prostatic fluid on sperm function, we also investigated if the effect of post-thaw dilution with autologous prostatic fluid on viability, motility and acrosome status of frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa is correlated with the composition of the extender. Semen was collected from six Beagle dogs and each sperm rich fraction was divided in two parts: one was diluted with INRA FreezeÒ and the other with TFG-EY and frozen with the same protocol. The third fraction of each ejaculate was collected separately, centrifuged at 1118 · g for 10 min and the supernatant was frozen at )18°C until use. For each extender, two straws were thawed: one straw was diluted 1:2 with autologous prostatic fluid, while the other was not diluted at all. Motility (CASA, IVOS; Hamilton Thorne, USA), viability and acrosome status (Guava EasyCyteÒ flow cytom- eter; IMV Technologies, L¢Aigle, France), morphology (Diff-Quick stain) were assessed at 5 min, 1 h and 2 h post-thaw (T0, T1, T2). Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS software (ver. 19 for Windows; IBM, New York, NY, USA). The results are presented as mean values and a p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Viability, total and progressive motility and the percentage Ó 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH 432 Abstracts of intact acrosomes were higher (p < 0.05) for the TFG-EY group with or without the addition of the prostatic fluid. The results for motility in the INRA Freeze group were dramatically low compared to the TFG-EY group. There were no significant differences regarding the morphology of fresh and frozen semen for any of the four groups. Addition of prostatic fluid for the TFG-EY group significantly reduced the total and progressive motility at T0, T1 and T2 (p < 0.05), but showed no influence for the INRA Freeze group. This data show that the effect of prostatic fluid regarding motility differs between the two extenders. This may illustrate either an inhibitory effect of some components of the INRA FreezeÒ on the noxious effects of the prostatic fluid or conversely an enhancing effect of the TFG-EY on those. Alternatively, it could be that low values obtained with INRA FreezeÒ did not permit highlighting the effects of prostatic fluid. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of host plants on the abundance of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera : Aphididae) and it parasitism by three parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae, ) in green space of Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku(USTM, Franceville), Gabon
Poligui, René Noël ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2010, May 05)

The cow pea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch were studied on tree wield weeds of lawn (Paspalum sp, Poaceae), Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. (Poaceae), Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Poaceae) and ... [more ▼]

The cow pea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch were studied on tree wield weeds of lawn (Paspalum sp, Poaceae), Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. (Poaceae), Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Poaceae) and Brachiara decumbens Stapf (Poaceae). 120 infloscences of each host plant specie were examined. The hymenopteran parasitism was based on mummified aphids. In the ascending order of infestation, A.craccivora colonies were less abundant on S.indicus (192 aphids), abundant on C.aciculatus (1546) and highly abundant on B.decumbens (2986). Parasitism on aphids is very low on B.decumbens (7,57%), high on C.aciculatus(57,12%) and very high on S.indicus (82,05%). 410 hymenopteran parasitoids hatch from 500 mummufied aphids taken on S.indicus, for 153 Aphidius sp(Braconidae) individuals ,160 (39,02%) Ceroplastes sp (Pteromalidae) and 97(23, 66%) non identified encyrtid(encyrtidae). Aphidophagous larva of Cheilomenes sulfurea (Coccinelidae) and Platynaspsis capicola Crotch (Coccinellidae) were observed predatoring aphids respectively on C.aciculatus and S.indicus.This study highlight the presence of native beneficials that can be used as biological control agents. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hot N(4S) atoms on the NO solar cycle variation in the lower thermosphere
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1993), 98

The variation of the nitric oxide peak density near 110 km with solar activity is calculated using a photochemical diffusive model of thermospheric odd nitrogen. This model includes the reaction of ... [more ▼]

The variation of the nitric oxide peak density near 110 km with solar activity is calculated using a photochemical diffusive model of thermospheric odd nitrogen. This model includes the reaction of translationally excited ('hot') nitrogen atoms with O2 as a source of nitric oxide, in addition to the classical photochemistry. It is confirmed that the dissociation of N2 by energetic photoelectrons due to the ionization of atmospheric constituents by solar soft X-rays is an important source of atomic nitrogen which controls the observed NO maximum near 110 km. The consideration of the hot N(4S) source increases the NO peak density by 45 to 60 percent dependent on the solar activity level considered. The calculated NO peak density increases by a factor of about 3.5 from low to high solar activity conditions, in agreement with the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite observations. The absolute concentrations calculated in the model with an N(2D) effective yield of 54 percent from N2 electron impact dissociation are midway between the two sets of solar cycle NO variation measurements currently available. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hot oxygen on thermospheric O I UV airglow
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cotton, D. M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1999), 104

The role of nonthermal oxygen atoms in the vertical distribution of the O I 989 Å EUV multiplet intensity is investigated using a thermospheric radiative transfer code. The superthermal oxygen ... [more ▼]

The role of nonthermal oxygen atoms in the vertical distribution of the O I 989 Å EUV multiplet intensity is investigated using a thermospheric radiative transfer code. The superthermal oxygen concentration and temperatures are derived from the energy distribution functions of the O([SUP]3[/SUP]P) atoms calculated by a Monte Carlo stochastic model, and their effect on UV radiative transfer is compared to sounding rocket observations. The calculated intensity increase associated with the perturbation of the Doppler profile by the presence of hot O([SUP]3[/SUP]P) atoms is shown to be insufficient to account for the set of sounding rocket EUV intensity data. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of humic substances on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of Alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn).
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Druart, Philippe et al

Poster (2012)

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Present every where in the nature; they are taking part in basic ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Present every where in the nature; they are taking part in basic functionalities in any ecosystems involving soils, sediments, waterand landfills. They are heterogeneous and complex carbon macromolecules. Our study aims to compare the effect of HS on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of the Alder species (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn) as tree growing on river banks or wasted areas. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of humic substances on in vitro rooting of alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth)
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Druart, Philippe et al

Poster (2013)

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Present everywhere in the nature; they are taking part in basic ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Present everywhere in the nature; they are taking part in basic functionalities in any ecosystems involving soils, sediments, water and landfills. They are heterogeneous and complex carbon macromolecules. Our study aims to compare the effect of HS from différent sources on in vitro rooting of woody plants. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hydroxyethylstarch on renal function in cardiac surgery: A large scale retrospective study
Wiesen, Patricia ULg; Canivet, Jean-Luc ULg; Ledoux, Didier ULg et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2005), 56(3), 257-263

BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicated negative effects of hydroxyethylstarch (HES) on renal function. The goal of this large scale retrospective study was to detect whether there was an association between ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicated negative effects of hydroxyethylstarch (HES) on renal function. The goal of this large scale retrospective study was to detect whether there was an association between postoperative deterioration of renal function and the use of HES 200 kD, 0.5 DS in the cardiac surgery setting. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of daily collected data in 3124 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and/or valvular surgery. Three groups were compared according to differences in fluid therapy: --GEL: gelatin was used as priming fluid of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and for postoperative filling (n = 1276). --MIX: HES was used as priming fluid of ECC an gelatin was used for postoperative filling (n = 1008). --HES: HES was used as priming fluid of ECC and for postoperative filling (n = 840). MAIN RESULTS: There were no significant differences in postoperative serum creatinine concentrations between the 3 groups: GEL: 12,2 +/- 0,5 mg/l; MIX: 12,3 +/- 0.5 mg/l; HES: 12,3 +/- 0.6 mg/l. The need for postoperative extrarenal epuration was not significantly different between the 3 periods: GEL: 2,9%; MIX: 3,1%; HES: 3,8%. CONCLUSION: The use of HES 200 kD, 0.5 DS in cardiac surgery does not seem to be associated with a clinically significant deterioration of postoperative renal function. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrins on the pharamacokinetics of albendazole in sheep
Evrard, Brigitte ULg; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Proceedings of 26th International Symposium on Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials (1999)

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See detailEffect of hyonate administration on pulmonary function and indices of oxidative stress in COPD horses in clinical remission at rest and after exercise
Art, Tatiana ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Le Sueur, C. et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (1999), 19

Pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavages, and venous blood samplings were performed 24 hours before and one hour after a standardized strenous treadmill exercise test on six horses suffering from ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavages, and venous blood samplings were performed 24 hours before and one hour after a standardized strenous treadmill exercise test on six horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in clinical remission. Pulmonary function test consisted of the measurement of the mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gases analyses. During the exercise tests, heart and respiratory rates, and venous plasma lactate, pH and packed cell volume were controlled. Venous blood was analyzed for some markers of the oxidative stress, i.e., hemolysate glutathione redox ratio and oxidized glutathione, and plasma uric acid. BAL was analyzed for cell cytology as well as for markers of oxidative stress, i.e., glutathione redox ratio, and isoprostanes concentration. The procedure was repeated twice, i.e., before and after two IV injections of 40mg hyaluronate administered at seven day intervals. The results were compared to assess a possible influence of the treatment on the pulmonary and systemic inflammatory and/or oxidative status of these horses. Hyaluronate did not influence the pulmonary function test or the physiological parameters recorded during exercise. There was a decrease in the percentage of BAL neutrophils after the treatment, suggesting a possible anti-inflammatory effect at the pulmonary level. As well, the concentration of isoprostanes in the pulmonary epithelium lining fluid was significantly lower after the treatment, which might be either a consequence of the decrease of the BAL neutrophils, or related to a possible antioxidant effect of the treatment. Lastly, the exercise-induced increase in plasma uric acid was significantly less marked after the treatment, which could be due to a systemic antioxidant effect of the hyaluronate. In conclusion, this preliminary study brings some evidence that hyaluronate could have some antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects at the pulmonary—and systemic—level in COPD horses in remission. However, it does not help to understand the possible mechanisms underlying these observations. Further studies are now necessary to better understand its action, to assess the effect of the product on the pulmonary function of horses suffering from other respiratory problems as well as to assess the efficiency of other ways of administration, i.e., nebulization [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hypoxia and reoxygenation on gene expression and response to interleukin-1 in cultured articular chondrocytes.
Martin, G.; Andriamanalijaona, R.; Grassel, S. et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2004), 50(11), 3549-60

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on the metabolism of chondrocytes and their response to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The study included activation of hypoxia-inducible ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on the metabolism of chondrocytes and their response to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The study included activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), NF-kappaB, and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors, expression of matrix components and metalloproteases and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and TGFbeta receptors, and production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). METHODS: Bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs) were cultured to confluency in either 5% O(2) (hypoxia) or 21% O(2) (normoxia) in media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). BACs were preincubated for 18 hours in media with 1% FCS only and then incubated for 24 hours in the presence of IL-1beta. For reoxygenation experiments, cells were treated in the same way in 5% O(2), except that cultures were transferred to normal atmospheric conditions and used after 4 hours for RNA extraction or after 30 minutes for cytoplasmic or nuclear protein extraction. RESULTS: In hypoxic and reoxygenated chondrocytes, we observed strong DNA binding of HIF-1. IL-1beta-induced DNA binding of NF-kappaB and AP-1 was significantly higher in hypoxic and reoxygenated cultures than in normoxia. Greater activation of the MAPKs was also observed with IL-1beta treatment in hypoxia compared with normoxia. Steady-state levels of type II collagen and aggrecan core protein messenger RNA (mRNA) were decreased by IL-1beta in all instances. Matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 mRNA were increased by IL-1beta in normoxia and hypoxia, whereas only MMP-3 mRNA was enhanced in reoxygenated cultures. The MMP-2 mRNA level was not significantly affected by IL-1beta in normoxia or hypoxia, whereas it was enhanced in reoxygenated cultures. MMP-9 mRNA was dramatically decreased by IL-1beta only in low oxygen tension. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) message was significantly enhanced by the cytokine in most instances, whereas TIMP-2 message was markedly decreased by IL-1beta in reoxygenated cultures. Stimulation of TGFbeta1 expression by IL-1beta was observed only in normal atmospheric conditions. One of the more striking findings of the study was the greater stimulating effect of IL-1beta on NO production observed in hypoxia, which was much higher than in normoxia, whereas the reverse was observed for IL-1beta-induced PGE(2) production. CONCLUSION: Oxygen level and reoxygenation stress significantly modulate gene expression and the response of articular chondrocytes to cytokines such as IL-1beta. In hypoxic conditions, which mimic the in vivo condition of cartilage, the effects of IL-1beta on both synthesis and degradative processes are significantly different from those in normoxia, conditions that are unlikely encountered by chondrocytes in a normal state. In low oxygen tension, high IL-1beta-induced NO production is associated with a significant decrease in PGE(2) synthesis. These data should influence our concept of the role of oxygen in the pathophysiology of joint disease and may help define the best conditions in which to develop bioartificial cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ice-nucleating bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae Van Hall) on insect susceptibility to sub-zero temperatures
Mignon, Jacques ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles ULg

in Journal of Stored Products Research (1998), 34(1), 81-86

Many stored product insect pests are termed "freeze-intolerant" because they cannot survive ice formation in their extracellular body fluid. In grain silos, the progressive decrease in temperature permits ... [more ▼]

Many stored product insect pests are termed "freeze-intolerant" because they cannot survive ice formation in their extracellular body fluid. In grain silos, the progressive decrease in temperature permits the acclimation of insects and enhances their cold tolerance. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the concentration of the ice-nucleating-active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (10, 100 and 1000 ppm), temperature and duration of sub-zero exposure on the cold tolerance of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) and the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). After an application of 1000 ppm of powdered P. syringae to grain, the mortality of S. granarius and O. surinamensis was increased after 24-h exposure to -4 degrees C. Higher mortality was observed after exposure to colder temperatures and a dose-response relationship was evident. At near-zero (-4 to 0 degrees C) negative temperatures, no dose response was observed, and the mortality in treated grain was the same as that in untreated grain. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Imbalance Between Energy And Nitrogen Supplies On Microbial Protein Synthesis And Nitrogen Metabolism In Growing Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Bulls
Valkeners, Damien; Thewis, André ULg; Piron, Fabien ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2004), 82(6), 1818-1825

Six double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls (initial weight: 345 ± 16 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in two juxtaposed 3 × 3 Latin squares to study the effect of a lack of ... [more ▼]

Six double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls (initial weight: 345 ± 16 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in two juxtaposed 3 × 3 Latin squares to study the effect of a lack of synchronization between energy and N in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and N metabolism by giving the same diet according to three different feeding patterns. The feed ingredients of the diet were separated into two groups supplying the same amount of fermentable OM (FOM), but characterized by different levels of ruminally degradableN (RDN). The first group primarily provided energy for the ruminal microbes (14.6 g of RDN/kg of FOM), and the second provided N (33.3 g of RDN/kg of FOM). These two groups were fed to the bulls simultaneously or alternately with the aim of creating three different time periods of imbalance (0, 12, or 24 h) between energy and N supplies in the rumen. The introduction of imbalance affected neither microbial-N flow at the duodenum (P = 0.65) nor efficiency of growth (P = 0.69), but decreased (P = 0.016) the NDF degradation in the rumen 12.2% for a 12-h period of imbalance. N retention was not affected by imbalance (P = 0.53) and reached 57.8, 58.5, and 54.7 g/d, respectively, for 0-, 12- and 24-h imbalance. It seems that the introduction of an imbalance of 12 or 24 h between energy and N supplies for the ruminal microbes by altering the feeding pattern of the same diet does not negatively influence microbial protein synthesis or N retention by the animal. Nitrogen recycling in the rumen plays a major role in regulating the amount of ruminally availableNand allows for continuous synchronization of N- and energy-yielding substrates for the microorganisms in the rumen. Therefore, a lack of synchronization in the diet between the energy and N supplies for the ruminal microbes is not detrimental to their growth or for the animal as long as the nutrient supply is balanced on a 48-h basis. Thus, these dietary feeding patterns may be used under practical feeding conditions with minimal effect on the performance of ruminant animals. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of imbalance between energy and nitrogen supplies on microbial protein synthesis in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls.
Valkeners, Damien; Beckers, Yves ULg; Piron, Fabien ULg et al

in Proceeding of the British Society of Animal Science 2003 (2003)

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See detailEffect of improved feeding and housing, Friesian blood level and parity on milk production of Ankole x Friesian cows
Kibwana, Denise Katungu; Makumyaviri, A.M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg

in Pakistan Veterinary Journal (in press)

In North Kivu, D.R. Congo, cattle are raised in extensive systems based on local breeds and crossbreds. This farming method affects the performance of dairy animals and mortgages the level of milk ... [more ▼]

In North Kivu, D.R. Congo, cattle are raised in extensive systems based on local breeds and crossbreds. This farming method affects the performance of dairy animals and mortgages the level of milk consumption in population. An improved farming system, including feed supplementation, Friesian cross-breeding and the sheltering of animals in stalls at night, was studied to evaluate its effect on milk production by Ankole x Friesian crossbreds. The study was performed in Beni, D.R. Congo, on two groups of 15 animals (control group-CoG and improved group-IG), homogeneous according to Friesian blood and parity levels. The improved system, Friesian blood and parity levels increased significantly milk production (P<0.001). Farming system increased milk production by 1.6 l/d (5.2 l/d vs 6.8 l/d respectively in CoG and IG). Milk production ranged from 5.3±0.04 l/d to 6.6±0.02 l/d and from 4.9±0.02 l/d to 7.2±0.02 l/d according, respectively, to Friesian blood level and parity. A significant interaction was observed between farming system and Friesian blood level, and between farming system and parity (P<0.001). The two groups were characterized by a fair adaptation to forage availability associated to climatic factors. The study showed the importance of genetic and environmental factors on the milk production of crossbred dairy cows of the region. [less ▲]

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