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See detailEffect of sodium nitroprusside on complement activation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass: A clinical and experimental study
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Duchateau, J.; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (1996), 111(4), 882-892

Complement activation and leukocyte stimulation were prospectively studied during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 children receiving sodium nitroprusside-a nitrovasodilator releasing nitric oxide ... [more ▼]

Complement activation and leukocyte stimulation were prospectively studied during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 children receiving sodium nitroprusside-a nitrovasodilator releasing nitric oxide-for vasodilation during the cooling and rewarming periods of extracorporeal circulation. Results were compared with those in 29 patients who were not treated with sodium nitroprusside during the operation. Patients treated with sodium nitroprusside had significantly less C3 conversion during cardiopulmonary bypass as measured by the ratio C3d/C3 (p < 0.05) and significantly less C5a liberation immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass (p < 0.005) than patients not treated with sodium nitroprusside. C4 was not overtly consumed in our series. Leukocyte count during the rewarming period of cardiopulmonary bypass, but not leukocyte elastase release during cardiopulmonary bypass, was significantly reduced in patients treated with sodium nitroprusside (p < 0.05). In vitro experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of sodium nitroprusside on complement hemolytic activity initiated by the classic and the alternate pathways and on zymosan-induced C3 conversion by the activation of the alternate pathway. The in vitro experiments clearly demonstrate inhibition of complement hemolytic activity by sodium nitroprusside in the sera tested. The 50% inhibitory concentration of sodium nitroprusside on the available complement hemolytic activity was less through the alternate pathway than through the classic one (4.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L and 14.0 ± 2.88 mmol/L, respectively). The decrease of complement hemolytic activity measured was dose-dependent and was enhanced by the sodium nitroprusside preincubation of the sera tested. This effect was related to the duration of preincubation. Sodium nitroprusside photodegradation (enhancing nitric oxide release) increased the anticomplementary effect of the drug, reducing the 50% inhibitory concentration on complement hemolytic activity to 0.24 to 0.02 mmol/L for the alternate pathway and 2.74 o 0.3 mmol/L for the classic pathway. The zymosan-induced C3 conversion was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. Nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate (other nitric oxide donors) had in vitro effects on complement hemolytic activity similar to those of nonphotodegraded sodium nitroprusside at similar concentrations (1 mmol/L). Our results suggest that sodium nitroprusside, both in vitro and in vivo, has an inhibiting effect on complement activation initiated by both classic and alternate pathways and that this effect is mediated by nitric oxide release from sodium nitroprusside. This is the first report on the anticomplementary effect of sodium nitroprusside by nitric oxide release. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of soft sulfidization Ore : Kansanshi (Zambia) : HG5
Bastin, David ULg; Kottgen, Axel

Report (2009)

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See detailEffect of somatic growth on pulmonary function values in healthy Friesian cattle
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Hajer, R.; Breukink, H. J.

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1984), 45(10), 2003-2007

Growth-related changes in pulmonary function values (PFV) of cattle were investigated by a cross-sectional study of 40 healthy Dutch Friesian cattle, 3 days to 13 years of age and weighing 37 to 660 kg ... [more ▼]

Growth-related changes in pulmonary function values (PFV) of cattle were investigated by a cross-sectional study of 40 healthy Dutch Friesian cattle, 3 days to 13 years of age and weighing 37 to 660 kg. Technical and methodologic procedures and body conformation and condition were standardized. A regression analysis was done with 4 independent variables (body weight, thoracic perimeter, body surface area, and age) and with PFV measured in this study. Ventilation values, dynamic lung compliance, and viscous work of breathing changed linearly with somatic growth. Respiratory frequency, total pulmonary resistance, and arterial oxygen tension showed an exponential relationship with all the independent variables. On the other hand, intrapleural pressure values were weakly correlated with body size indexes. The most important growth-related changes in PFV occurred at approximately 1 year of age. A significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) difference between immature and mature cattle was shown for the blood-gas values and the specific values of the breathing mechanics. The dynamic lung compliance/lung weight was lower and the total pulmonary resistance X minute volume was higher in cattle than in other domestic mammals. The regression equation, giving the best fit of the data, was selected for each PFV. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of somatic growth, strain and sex on double-chamber plethymosgraphic respiratory function values in healthy mice
Flandre, Th.; Leroy, Pascal ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Applied Physiology (2003), 94(3), 1129-1136

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See detailEffect of somatic growth, strain and sex on double-chamber plethysmographic respiratory function values in healthy mice
Flandre, Thierry; Leroy, Pascal ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Applied Physiology (2003), 94

Double-chamber plethysmography has been recognized since 1979 as a reference technique to measure pulmonary function values in guinea pigs, but it has not gained attention for use in mice. Theoretically ... [more ▼]

Double-chamber plethysmography has been recognized since 1979 as a reference technique to measure pulmonary function values in guinea pigs, but it has not gained attention for use in mice. Theoretically, however, this technique combines the advantages of single-chamber plethysmography with a quantitative assessment of flow and/or volume and a calculated resistance, the interpretation of which in terms of bronchoconstriction is not disputed. Here we show that, when appropriately preconditioned, mice are able to gradually grow accustomed to the apparatus and display extremely stable nasal and thoracoabdominal flow tracings. Overall, strain, sex, and somatic growth had a significant effect on pulmonary function values. The changes in specific airway resistance (sRaw) and enhanced pause (Penh) values were never in the same direction, indicating that they measure different things. The respiratory frequency was far higher in C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c mice. Peak flows, minute volume, specific tidal and minute volumes, and sRaw were also higher, but Penh was smaller. Males breathed at a higher frequency than females, leading to a higher minute volume. Nevertheless, the specific volumes were considerably higher among females. Penh was lower in males, whereas sRaw was identical in both sexes. Changes associated with somatic growth were rapid and important between 5 and 9 wk, then slowed down between 9 and 12-13 wk and became almost imperceptible after. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of some extrusion parameters on ruminal and intestinal in sacco disappearance of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins ans starch.
Thewis, André ULg; Walhain, P.; Foucart, M.

in First European Conference of Grain Legumes, Angers (Fr), June 1-3, 1992 (1992, June)

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See detailEffect of some insecticides on acetylcholinesterase from beneficial insects: Coccinella septempunctata, Chrysoperla carnea and Forficula auricularia
Boszic, Andras; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Gaspar, Charles et al

in Med. Fac. Landbouw. Univ. Gent (2002), 67(3), 671-677

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See detailEffect of some organophosphate insecticides on acetylcholinesterase of adult Coccinella septempunctata (Coccinellidae)
Bozsik, Andras; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles

in Journal of Environmental Science & Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, & Agricultural Wastes (1996)

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See detailEffect of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Regional Myocardial Perfusion Assessed by Positron Emission Tomography
de Landsheere, Christian ULg; Mannheimer, C.; Habets, A. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (1992), 69(14), 1143-9

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can relieve symptoms in patients with severe angina pectoris refractory to conventional medical or surgical therapy. This symptomatic improvement may result from decreased ... [more ▼]

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can relieve symptoms in patients with severe angina pectoris refractory to conventional medical or surgical therapy. This symptomatic improvement may result from decreased myocardial ischemia. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomography (PET) and potassium-38 as a flow tracer were used in 8 patients for the quantitative evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion at rest and after exercise, before and during SCS. Potassium uptake was evaluated as myocardial clearance (flow times net extraction) in ml/min/100 g. Tomographic segments were categorized as nonaffected and affected on the basis of the absence or presence of arterial stenosis on coronary angiography and on the basis of thallium scintigraphic data. In nonaffected segments, before SCS, regional myocardial clearance significantly increased from rest (28 +/- 4) to exercise (47 +/- 13 clearance units; p less than 0.004). A similar increase occurred after SCS. In affected segments, before SCS, regional myocardial clearance barely increased (p = 0.065) from rest (26 +/- 6) to exercise (33 less than or equal to 12). In comparison, after SCS, the resting regional myocardial clearance was slightly elevated (29 +/- 8) reflecting an increased double product, but did not increase (p = 0.192) with exercise (34 +/- 12). However, the magnitude and duration of ST-segment depression decreased during treatment with SCS. Anginal pain occurred in all patients during control exercise, but was attenuated in all but one with SCS. These results indicate that SCS improves exercise-induced angina and electrocardiographic signs of ischemia but this influence does not appear to be mediated by changes in regional myocardial perfusion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of spontaneous self-reference on memory: a replication
Brédart, Serge ULg; François, Sarah; Guimond, Serge

in Année Psychologique (L') (2013), 113(2), 161-167

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See detailEffect of steam explosion pre-treatment on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic material
Meyer, Laurence ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

Poster (2011, September 08)

Taking into account the sharp rise in prices and the depletion of resources of petroleum, an alternative to fossil resources is needed. A probable alternative is the use of lignocellulosic raw material to ... [more ▼]

Taking into account the sharp rise in prices and the depletion of resources of petroleum, an alternative to fossil resources is needed. A probable alternative is the use of lignocellulosic raw material to produce biofuels. The “first generation” biofuels are highly controversial because of the use of food plant material. The aim of the “second generation” biofuels is to take lignocellulosic non-food plant material as raw material. Lignocellulosic biomass has a very complex structure made of linkages between lignins, cellulose and hemicelluloses. The saccharification of these lignocellulosic materials requires the fractionation of its constituents. Research has lead to many lignocellulosic biomass fractionation pre-treatments. This study particularly focuses on the steam explosion pretreatment followed by an enzymatic saccharification. Steam explosion is a thermomechanical process which allows the breakdown of the lignocellulosic material structure by the combined action of steam heating, hydrolysis induced by the organic acids formed during the process and shear stress resulting from the pressure rough drop. This treatment leads to modification of the physical parameters such as water retention capacity, cristallinity rate of the cellulosic fraction, hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction and rearrangement in the lignin structure. Such modifications are supposed to make cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis from complex lignocellulosic material easier. In order to verify this hypothesis, different lignocellulosic raw materials have been pre-treated by steam explosion. These materials were sugar beet pulp, corn straw and miscanthus. In order to check the effect of steam explosion pre-treatment on cellulose, a microcrystalline cellulose was also treated. Steam explosion was performed at a vapor pressure of 18 bars and with a retention time of 2 minutes. The steam exploded lignocellulosic materials and the untreated one were submitted to a hydrolysis with a mixture of enzymes composed of cellulases and cellobiase activities during 24 hours. The quantification of glucose in the hydrolysates at different times was performed by HPAEC-PAD. Rate of cellulose converted into glucose were better with steam exploded raw material showing that steam explosion allows improvement of lignocellulosic material for enzymatic saccharification. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of stellar rotation on oscillation frequencies
Ouazzani, R. M.; Goupil, M. J.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg et al

in Astrophysics & Space Science (2010), 328

We investigate whether the rotational splittings of β Cephei stars can give some clue about the existence of a differential rotation in latitude, and if they are contaminated by the cubic order effects ... [more ▼]

We investigate whether the rotational splittings of β Cephei stars can give some clue about the existence of a differential rotation in latitude, and if they are contaminated by the cubic order effects of rotation on oscillation frequencies. We also study some properties of splitting asymmetries and axisymmetric mode frequencies which provide seismic constrains on the distortion of the star. We find that only non-perturbative methods are able to reproduce those two seismic characteristics within 0.01% error bars for stars when they rotate faster than 3.3% Ω [SUB] k [/SUB]. If error bars of 1% are acceptable, the threshold of validity of perturbative methods is extended to 10% Ω [SUB] k [/SUB]. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of stocking density on the dynamics of cannibalism in sibling larvae of Perca fluviatilis under controlled conditions
Baras, E.; Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg

in Aquaculture (2003), 219(1-4), 241-255

The effect of stocking density (10, 31.6 and 100 larvae 1(-1); three replicates per treatment) on the day-by-day dynamics of survival, growth and cannibalism was examined in sibling perch larvae reared ... [more ▼]

The effect of stocking density (10, 31.6 and 100 larvae 1(-1); three replicates per treatment) on the day-by-day dynamics of survival, growth and cannibalism was examined in sibling perch larvae reared from eyed-egg stage in 100-1 cages (16L:8D, 20.0 +/- 0.5 degreesC, O-2 greater than or equal to 6.0 mg 1(-1); feeding in excess with live Artemia nauplii during the photophase) during the first 3 weeks of exogenous feeding. Larvae unable to achieve the transition to exogenous feeding died in between 7 and I I days post-hatch. Later, mortality from causes other than cannibalism never exceeded 1% day(-1). Cannibalism did not start before days 10 - 11 and first consisted in the incomplete ingestion of prey attacked tail first, exclusively. This type of cannibalism never caused losses higher than 2.0% of the initial stock, and ceased after days 16-18. From days 12-14 onwards, differential growth was apparent, and cannibals turned to complete cannibalism of small prey ingested head first, which caused greater losses (28-53% of the stock). Increasing the stocking density did not compromise growth and decreased the overall impact of cannibalism through several complementary mechanisms: (i) a postponed emergence of cannibalism, (ii) a lower proportion of cannibals in the population, and (iii) probably a lower rate of cannibalism per capita as predation was complicated and less directed at high stocking density. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of strain rate on the forming behaviour of sheet metals
Verleysen, Patricia; Peirs, Jan; Van Slycken, Joost et al

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2011), 211

The strain rate dependence of plastic yield and failure properties displayed by most metals affects energies, forces and forming limits involved in high speed forming processes. This paper investigates ... [more ▼]

The strain rate dependence of plastic yield and failure properties displayed by most metals affects energies, forces and forming limits involved in high speed forming processes. This paper investigates the influence of the strain rate on the forming properties of one laboratory made and three commercial steel grades: a CMnAl TRIP steel, the ferritic structural steel S235JR, the drawing steel DC04 and the ferritic stainless steel AISI 409. First, split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) experiments are carried out to assess the influence of the strain rate on the materials’ stress–strain curves. Subsequently, the obtained SHTB results, together with static tensile test results, are used to model the constitutive behaviour of the investigated steels using the phenomenological Johnson–Cook (JC) model and the Voce model, thus allowing dynamic modelling of forming processes. Finally, forming limit diagrams (FLDs) are calculated using the Marciniak–Kuczynski method. The results clearly show that the effect of the strain rate on forces and energies involved in a forming process, and the forming limits is non-negligible and strongly material dependent. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of strenuous exercise and ex-vivo TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation on inflammatory gene expression in equine pulmonary leukocytes
Mignot, Clémence; Pirottin, Dimitri ULg; de Moffarts, Brieuc et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2012), 147

The effects of strenuous exercise and ex-vivo stimulation of TLR3 and TLR4 pathways on the expression of six inflammatory genes in equine pulmonary leukocytes were investigated. The genes tested were ... [more ▼]

The effects of strenuous exercise and ex-vivo stimulation of TLR3 and TLR4 pathways on the expression of six inflammatory genes in equine pulmonary leukocytes were investigated. The genes tested were interferon-beta (IFN-β), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 5 (RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). We hypothesized that strenuous exercise would modulate basal gene expression on one hand and modulate the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) on the other hand. Eight young Thoroughbred mares were selected for the experiment. Bronchoalveolar lavages were performed on horses 48h before and 24h after the completion of treadmill exercise until fatigue. Differential counts were performed on the bronchoalveolar lavage cells. Real-time PCR was used to quantify cytokine expression in pulmonary leukocytes. Target gene expression was normalized to the expression of three housekeeping genes(HKG). There were no significant differences in the mRNA expression of the six cytokines between pre-exercise and post-exercise cells. LPS and Poly IC induced respectively significant increases of TNF-α, IFN-β, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, IFN-β, IP-10 and RANTES, both before and after exercise. However, exercise induced a significant decrease of the genes response to LPS and Poly IC. These findings may suggest that strenuous treadmill exercise exerts a deleterious effect on part of the pulmonary immune response in horses 24h following an intense physical activity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of stress path on the miniaturizatio size effect for nickel polycrystals
Keller, Clement; Hug, Eric; Duchene, Laurent ULg et al

Conference (2015, January 04)

The mechanical behavior of mettalic materials deeply depends on the size of samples. For specimen dimensions de creasing from a few millimeters to a few micrometers, the general observed trend is a ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of mettalic materials deeply depends on the size of samples. For specimen dimensions de creasing from a few millimeters to a few micrometers, the general observed trend is a softening of the mechanical behavior in tension which affects the stress level and the strain hardening. This effect is triggered by the derease of the number of grains across the thickness ( also called thickness"t" over grain size "d" ratio). The objective of this work is to provide new experimental results in order to analyse the miniaturization size effects for various stress paths without strain gradients across the thickness of the samples. To this aim, experimental tensil tests, large tensile tests and shear tests have been performed on Ni sheets ( 0.5mm) with various grain sizes ensuring different t/d ratios. Results show that the miniaturization softening is affected by triaxiality, the larger is this parameter, the lower is the mechanicval softening. These features seem to be linked to surface effects which are larger for low triaxiality stress paths. Attempts of numerical simulations using strain gradient crystal plasticity model are also performed to confirm the role played by surface effects. [less ▲]