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See detailEfficiency and productivity of the insurance industry in the OECD countries
Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg; Donni, Olivier

in Geneva Papers on Risk & Insurance - Issues & Practice (1997), 22(No. 85, October 1997), 523-535

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See detailEfficiency and recommendations for osteoporosis screening strategy
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2008, April), 19(S1), 116

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See detailEfficiency measurement, multiple-output technologie and distance functions: With application to European Railways
Coelli, Tim; Perelman, Sergio ULg

Report (1996)

The single-output production function has long been regarded as one of the principle limitations of the econometric approach to technical efficiency measurement. If one wished to investigate efficiency in ... [more ▼]

The single-output production function has long been regarded as one of the principle limitations of the econometric approach to technical efficiency measurement. If one wished to investigate efficiency in a multiple-output industry using econometric methods one would usually either: (a) aggregate outputs into a single index of output (e.g., total revenue or a multilateral Tornqvist output index); or (b) attempt to model the technology using a dual cost function. The first of these methods require that output prices be observable (and reflect revenue maximising behaviour), while the latter approach requires an assumption of cost-minimising behaviour. There are a number of instances, however, when neither of these requirements are met (the public sector contains many examples). In this study we outline the recently developed distance function solution to the multi-output problem. The method is illustrated using data on European railways. Output-orientated, input-orientated and constant returns to scale distance functions are estimated using corrected ordinary least squares. The distance function estimates are also compared with production function estimates involving aggregate output measures. These comparisons indicate that, for the case of European railways, a production function involving a multilateral Tornqvist output index exhibits substantially less aggregation bias relative to a production function that uses total revenue as a measure of aggregate output. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency measurement, multiple-output technologies and distance functions: with application to European Railways
Coelli, Tim; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Applied Economics (2000), (32), 1967-1976

The single-output production function has long been regarded as one of the principle limitations of the econometric approach to technical efficiency measurement. If one wished to investigate efficiency in ... [more ▼]

The single-output production function has long been regarded as one of the principle limitations of the econometric approach to technical efficiency measurement. If one wished to investigate efficiency in a multiple-output industry using econometric methods one would usually either: (a) aggregate outputs into a single index of output (e.g., total revenue or a multilateral Tornqvist output index); or (b) attempt to model the technology using a dual cost function. The first of these methods require that output prices be observable (and reflect revenue maximising behaviour), while the latter approach requires an assumption of cost-minimising behaviour. There are a number of instances, however, when neither of these requirements are met (the public sector contains many examples). In this study we outline the recently developed distance function solution to the multi-output problem. The method is illustrated using data on European railways. Output-orientated, input-orientated and constant returns to scale distance functions are estimated using corrected ordinary least squares. The distance function estimates are also compared with production function estimates involving aggregate output measures. These comparisons indicate that, for the case of European railways, a production function involving a multilateral Tornqvist output index exhibits substantially less aggregation bias relative to a production function that uses total revenue as a measure of aggregate output. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Blockade as Therapeutic Measure During Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Double-Muscled Cattle
Genicot, Bruno; Mouligneau, Frédéric; Lindsey, J. K. et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1993), 40(3), 185-193

During this investigation, which involved 58 Belgian White and Blue double-muscled calves affected by a naturally occurring Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, the clinical efficiency of a 5-HT2 receptor ... [more ▼]

During this investigation, which involved 58 Belgian White and Blue double-muscled calves affected by a naturally occurring Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, the clinical efficiency of a 5-HT2 receptor blockade with metrenperone (group A) was compared to the efficiency of a non-steroidal (flunixine meglumine--group B) and a steroidal (prednisolone sodium succinate--group C) antiinflammatory drug. Each animal of this trial was treated with ceftiofur sodium as antimicrobial agent. A clinical score and a breathing score were calculated at each step of the investigation period, i.e. before (T0) and 1 hour (T1), 12 hours (H), 24 H, 48H and 168 H (T3) after the first treatment, the interval 12H-48H being considered as period T2. Three clinical parameters were also taken into account separately: rectal and peripheral temperatures and heart rate. A significant improvement of the clinical score was registered at T2 in group A and at T3 in groups A and B, while this score did not significantly change in group C. In group A, the breathing score was significantly improved at T2 and T3, but not in groups B and C. Peripheral and rectal temperatures recorded at T1 were, in group A, significantly increased and decreased respectively, but not significantly changed in groups B and C. The proportions requiring change of treatment during the investigation period were significantly (P = 0.022) different in the three groups, being 5.6, 21.4 and 50.0% in groups A, B and C respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of a French-language triage algorithm in the Emergency Department
JOBE, Jérôme ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; GERARD, P et al

in Critical Care Medicine (2011), 15(suppl 1), 455

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See detailEfficiency of a Lactobacillus plantarum-xylanase combination on growth performances, microflora populations, and nutrient digestibilities of broilers infected with Salmonella Typhimurium
Vandeplas, Sabrina ULg; Dubois Dauphin, Robin ULg; Thiry, Christophe ULg et al

in Poultry Science (2009), 88(8), 1643-1654

Three experiments were performed to assess the ability of a Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic combined with a xylanase to reduce the effects of S. typhimurium infection in broiler chickens from 1- to 30 ... [more ▼]

Three experiments were performed to assess the ability of a Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic combined with a xylanase to reduce the effects of S. typhimurium infection in broiler chickens from 1- to 30- or 42-d-old. Chicks were challenged at 3-d-old with 108 or 105 cfu S. typhimurium/chick. Four diets were studied: a wheat-based diet (C+) supplemented with 0.1 g/kg xylanase (E), or 106 cfu/g or L. plantarum (P), or both (PE). Uninfected chicks fed the C diet were used as negative control (C-). Six or 8 chicks were housed per cage with 9 cages/treatment. Growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded weekly. In experiment 1, bacterial enumeration in caeca was achieved using the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. Salmonella enumeration was realized in excreta by microbiological cultures (Exp. 2 and 3). Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn were determined in experiment 3 from d 35 to d 39. Infection with S. typhimurium led to a significant decrease in the daily weight gain (DWG) by 23.6% to 32.8%, whereas FCR was increased by 1.0% to 19.7%. Chickens fed the PE diet showed significantly improved performance in comparison with C+ birds (DWG: +12.5% in Exp. 1; FCR: -2.1-8.6%), and in comparison with the P and E treatments (DWG: +6.3-8.3% in Exp. 1; FCR: -2.7-6.4%). In experiment 3, the FCR was significantly improved by 3% with the PE diet in comparison with C- chickens. The PE combination tended to restore a microflora similar to that of uninfected broilers, whereas the P and E diets had less of an effect on the profile of bacterial communities. At slaughter age, Salmonella contamination was reduced by 2.00 and 1.85 log cfu for the E and PE treatment, respectively. The PE diet significantly reduced the crude fat digestibility by 9.2%, in comparison with the C+ chickens. These results suggest that combination between L. plantarum and a xylanase as feed additive could be effective for reduction of detrimental effect following S. typhimurium infection of broilers. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of Acanthamoeba castellanii uncoupling protein in energy-dissipating processes
Jarmuszkiewicz, W.; Hryniewiecka, L.; Sluse-Goffart, C. et al

in Hofmeyr, J.; Rohwer, J. M.; Snoops, J. L. (Eds.) Biothermokinetic 2000 : Animating the cellular map (2000)

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See detailEfficiency of an autobiographical memory remediation therapy in schizophrenia patients
Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Neumann, Aurore; Philippot, Pierre

Conference (2006, May 19)

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See detailEfficiency of Belgian hospitals: a frontier approach based on financial and clinical minimum basic data sets
Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg; Closon, Marie-Christine; Pouplier, Isabelle

Report (1996)

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See detailEfficiency of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in the management of osteoporosis
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2008, April), 19(S1), 113

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See detailEfficiency of day seven collection of bovine embryosafter superovulation by flushing the oviducts and the uterin horns.
Havlicek, V.; Kuzmany, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Reproduction, Fertility and Development (2010), 22(1), 363

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See detailEfficiency of elisa : a new french-language triage algorithm
JOBE, Jérôme ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Gerard, P. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2011)

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See detailEfficiency of embryonic development after Intra-Follicular and Intra-Oviductal transfer of in vitro and in vivo matured horse oocytes
Deleuze, Stefan ULg; Goudet, Ghylène; Caillaud, Maud et al

in Theriogenology (2009), 72(2), 203

In vivo techniques, such as intra-oviductal Oocyte Transfer (OT) and Intra-Follicular Oocyte Transfer (IFOT) can be considered as alternatives to bypass the lack of efficient superovulation treatments and ... [more ▼]

In vivo techniques, such as intra-oviductal Oocyte Transfer (OT) and Intra-Follicular Oocyte Transfer (IFOT) can be considered as alternatives to bypass the lack of efficient superovulation treatments and the inadequacy of conventional in vitro fertilization techniques in the horse. We compared embryo production following transfer of in vivo recovered oocytes (1) into a recipient’s oviduct or (2) into her preovulatory follicle either immediately after ovum pick up or (3) after in vitro maturation. Recipients were inseminated with fresh semen of a stallion with a known normal fertility. Ten days after surgery, rates of embryos collected in excess to the number of ovulations were calculated and compared for each group. Embryo collection rates were 32.5% (13/40), 5.5% (3/55) and 12.8% (6/47) for OT, post-IVM and immediate IFOT respectively. OT significantly yielded more embryos than immediate and post-IVM IFOT did. We also showed that in vitro matured oocytes could succesfully be used for IFOT. Our results also suggest that improvement of the IFOT technique could turn it into an inexpansive and easy to perform procedure that could be an answer to the inefficiency of superovulation treatments in the mare. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Efficiency of In vitro Ovine Embryo Production Using an Undefined or a Defined Maturation Medium is Determined by the Source of the Oocyte.
Cocero, M.; Alabart, J.; Hammami, S. et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2011), 46(3), 463-470

In vitro oocyte maturation can be influenced by oocyte source and maturation media composition. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of a defined in vitro maturation medium (TCM199 ... [more ▼]

In vitro oocyte maturation can be influenced by oocyte source and maturation media composition. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of a defined in vitro maturation medium (TCM199 supplemented with cysteamine and epidermal growth factor; Cys + EGF) with an undefined medium (TCM199 supplemented with follicle-stimulating hormone and follicular fluid; FSH + FF) for in vitro production (IVP) of ovine embryos, using oocytes obtained by laparoscopic ovum pick-up from FSH-stimulated [n = 11; 158 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)] and non-stimulated (n = 16; 120 COCs) live ewes, as well as abattoir-derived oocytes (170 COCs). The produced blastocysts were vitrified and some of them were transferred to synchronized recipients. The best and the worst final yields of embryo IVP observed in this study were obtained using oocytes from FSH-stimulated ewes matured in FSH + FF (41.3%; 33/80) and in Cys + EGF (19.2%; 15/78) medium, respectively (p < 0.01). No significant differences between both media were attained in the blastocyst development rate or in the final yield of embryo IVP using oocytes from non-stimulated ewes or abattoir-derived oocytes. The overall in vivo survival rate of the transferred vitrified blastocysts was 13.1% (8/61), without significant differences between oocyte sources or maturation media. In conclusion, under the experimental conditions of the present study, TCM199 supplemented with cysteamine and EGF is a convenient defined maturation medium for IVP of embryos from oocytes of live non-stimulated ewes or from oocytes of abattoir-derived ovaries. However, the best final yield of embryo IVP observed in this study was attained when oocytes came from FSH-stimulated donors and TCM199 was supplemented with FSH and follicular fluid [less ▲]

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