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See detailEffect of estradiol supplementation on superovulation in swamp buffalo
Uoc, N. T.; Nguyen, B. X.; Ty, L. V. et al

in Theriogenology (1992), 38(3), 471-478

The effect of estradiol-17β (E2) supplementation on superovulation with (PMSG) or (FSH) was investigated in Swamp buffalo. Sixty-eight buffalo were treated in seven groups. Group 1 served as control and ... [more ▼]

The effect of estradiol-17β (E2) supplementation on superovulation with (PMSG) or (FSH) was investigated in Swamp buffalo. Sixty-eight buffalo were treated in seven groups. Group 1 served as control and was superovulated by standard PMSG or FSH treatment used in routine bovine embryo transfer protocols. Group 2 was superovulated by standard PMSG regimen plus two injections of E2 at a 48 h interval beginning one day before the onset of gonadotropin treatment (short-term supplementation) for a total dosage of 2.5 mg E2; Groups 3 and 4 received the same regimen as Group 2, but in doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg E2, respectively. Group 5 received the standard FSH regimen (40% LH). Group 6 received short-term E2 (7.5 mg) supplementation of FSH-p. Group 7 was superovulated by standard FSH regimen (40% LH) plus three injections of E2 at 48–72 h intervals beginning five days before the onset of gonadotropin treatment (long-term supplementation) for a total dosage of 7.5 mg E2. The number of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles ≥ 8 mm in diameter were recorded by palpation per rectum and after slaughter. The mean numbers of CL and follicles were 0.99, 5.8, 8.0, 10.6, 4.0, 3.9, 8.1 and 0.25, 6.8, 6.2, 6.2, 1.6, 0.0, 4.1 for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, respectively. In Group 7, the rates of nonsurgical and postmortem embryo recovery were 46 and 90.4%, respectively and 54.4% of the collected ova were fertilized. These results indicate the possibility of producing viable embryos in buffalo by using E2 supplementation for the gonadotropin treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of eutrophication on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the coastal Southern North Sea: a model study of the past 50 years
Gypens, N.; Borges, Alberto ULg; Lancelot, C.

in Global Change Biology (2009), 15(4), 1040-1056

The RIVERSTRAHLER model, an idealized biogeochemical model of the river system, has been coupled to MIRO-CO2, a complex biogeochemical model describing diatom and Phaeocystis blooms and carbon and ... [more ▼]

The RIVERSTRAHLER model, an idealized biogeochemical model of the river system, has been coupled to MIRO-CO2, a complex biogeochemical model describing diatom and Phaeocystis blooms and carbon and nutrient cycles in the marine domain, to assess the dual role of changing nutrient loads and increasing atmospheric CO2 as drivers of air–sea CO2 exchanges in the Southern North Sea with a focus on the Belgian coastal zone (BCZ). The whole area, submitted to the influence of two main rivers (Seine and Scheldt), is characterized by variable diatom and Phaeocystis colonies blooms which impact on the trophic status and air–sea CO2 fluxes of the coastal ecosystem. For this application, the MIRO-CO2 model is implemented in a 0D multibox frame covering the eutrophied Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea and receiving loads from the rivers Seine and Scheldt. Model simulations are performed for the period between 1951 and 1998 using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Model results suggest that the BCZ shifted from a source of CO2 before 1970 (low eutrophication) towards a sink during the 1970–1990 period when anthropogenic DIN and P loads increased, stimulating C fixation by autotrophs. In agreement, a shift from net annual heterotrophy towards autotrophy in BCZ is simulated from 1980. The period after 1990 is characterized by a progressive decrease of P loads concomitant with a decrease of primary production and of the CO2 sink in the BCZ. At the end of the simulation period, the BCZ ecosystem is again net heterotroph and acts as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. R-MIRO-CO2 scenarios testing the relative impact of temperature, wind speed, atmospheric CO2 and river loads variability on the simulated air–sea CO2 fluxes suggest that the trend in air–sea CO2 fluxes simulated between 1951 and 1998 in the BCZ was mainly controlled by the magnitude and the ratio of inorganic nutrient river loads. Quantitative nutrient changes control the level of primary production while qualitative changes modulate the relative contribution of diatoms and Phaeocystis to this flux and hence the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of excavation induced fractures on radionuclide migration through the Boom Clay (Belgium)
Huysmans, Marijke; Berckmans, Arne; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Applied Clay Science (2006), 33(3-4), 207-218

In Belgium, the Boom Clay is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. In order to investigate this option, an underground research facility composed of ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, the Boom Clay is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. In order to investigate this option, an underground research facility composed of two access shafts and 200m of galleries was excavated. Excavation induced fractures were observed in a zone of approximately 1 m around the galleries. In this study, the potential effect of these fractures on radionuclide migration in the Boom Clay is investigated. Therefore, a hydrogeological model of the clay is built with a radionuclide source in the middle of the clay layer surrounded by different fracture configurations. Two types of fracture configurations are inserted in the model. The first type of fracture properties is drawn stochastically from the probability distributions of the properties of the fractures observed around previously excavated galleries. These fracture patterns are considered to be realistic although in this study it is conservatively assumed that no self-sealing occurs. The model is run for a large number of stochastically drawn fracture configurations and the results are compared to a model without fractures. These calculations show that the radionuclide fluxes through the clay are not significantly influenced by these fractures. For the second type of fracture configurations, the fracture properties are varied over a much larger range. Hypothetical fractures with much higher values of fracture extent, aperture, dip and frequency than observed are modeled, With these hypothetical fracture configurations, the critical values of the fracture parameters are determined that must be exceeded to have a significant effect on the radionuclide fluxes through the clay. These calculations show that the extent of the fractured zone has the largest effect on radionuclide migration. The other fracture parameters (aperture, spacing and dip) have a limited effect on the radionuclide fluxes. To obtain a total radionuclide flux through the lower clay boundary that is respectively 10%, 50% and 100% larger than without a fractured zone, the extent of the hypothetical fractured zone should be respectively 27.97 m, 43.86 m and 46.92 m. Such fractures are not expected to be generated by mechanical excavation in the Boom Clay. The obtained critical extent values of the hypothetical fractures are a factor 30 to 40 higher than the measured values of the extent of the excavation disturbed zone. These calculations thus indicate that it is very unlikely that the extent of the fractured zone around the galleries will be large enough to have a significant effect on the radionuclide fluxes through the Boom Clay. This conclusion is further supported by the conservative assumption that no self-sealing occurs. These calculations can function as a preliminary robustness test in ongoing safety analysis studies. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of exchange rate variability on us shareholder wealth
Muller, Aline ULg; Verschoor, Willem

Conference (2006, July 05)

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See detailThe effect of exchange rate variability on US shareholder wealth
Muller, Aline ULg; Verschoor, Willem

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2009), 33(11), 1963-1972

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See detailEffect of exercise and COPD crisis on isoprostane concentration in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in horses
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Art, Tatiana ULg; Smith, Nicola et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (1999), 30

To test whether isoprostanes could be used as markers of oxidative stress in horses, their concentration was determined in plasma and in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) in 3 models of oxidative ... [more ▼]

To test whether isoprostanes could be used as markers of oxidative stress in horses, their concentration was determined in plasma and in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) in 3 models of oxidative stress: (1) strenuous exercise, (2) acute COPD crisis and (3) exercise combined with COPD crisis. Four horses were investigated twice, once in crisis and once in remission. The animals underwent a standardised treadmill exercise test. Isoprostane assessment was performed in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h before and 1 h after exercise and in plasma also immediately after exercise. Exercise in remission induced a significant increase of isoprostanes in plasma and in PELF. In horses in crisis, the isoprostane concentrations did not increase in plasma, while they did increase in PELF. Lastly, exercise in crisis increased plasma levels of isoprostanes, but did not change PELF isoprostanes. In conclusion, 1) isoprostanes are increased by systemic oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise in COPD horses in remission either in PELF or in plasma; 2) only PELF and not plasma isoprostanes are increased by pulmonary oxidative stress induced by COPD crisis and 3) unexpectedly, exercise in crisis increased plasma but not PELF isoprostanes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of exercise and training on oxygen transport in healthy standardbred horses
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Cambier, Carole ULg; de Moffarts, Brieuc et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2007), 21

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See detailEffect of exercise on blood glutathione in healthy race horses
De Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailEffect of exercise on blood oxidant/antioxidant markers in standardbred horses: comparison between treadmill and race track tests.
de Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2006), (36), 254-257

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Interest in establishing oxidant/ antioxidant profiles in competition horses is increasing. Earlier studies performed in horses have mainly been performed under laboratory ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Interest in establishing oxidant/ antioxidant profiles in competition horses is increasing. Earlier studies performed in horses have mainly been performed under laboratory conditions using a treadmill and it is not known to what extent laboratory results of oxidant/antioxidant studies might be transposed to field conditions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact on the blood oxidant/ antioxidant status of a standardised exercise test including a run up to fatigue performed on a treadmill (TM) and on a racetrack (RT) in healthy and trained Standardbred horses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During TM and RT tests the following blood antioxidant markers were analysed in jugular venous blood at rest and 15 mins (E15) after an intense bout of exercise: uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (reduced: GSH and oxidised: GSSG), glutathione redox ratio (GRR) and protein thiol (PSH). Running time to fatigue (RTF), velocity during the last exercise stage (Vmax), final heart rate (HRfinal) and venous lactic acid (LA) were also recorded. RESULTS: Vmax was significantly (P<0.05) higher during the RT, whereas LA was significantly lower. HRfinal and RTF did not differ significantly between TM and RT. Exercise induced a significant increase (R vs. E15) of UA and AA in both tests, whereas GSH and PSH decreased significantly. GPx, SOD, GSSG and GRR remained unchanged. Differences between TM and RT were significant at E15 for UA, AA and PSH. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of oxidant/antioxidant profiles from laboratory and field studies are difficult to standardise and should be interpreted with caution. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: For the same RTF and final HR, the TM induced stronger changes in blood lactate and in blood oxidant/antioxidant balance than did RT. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of exercise on equine alveolar ventilation
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Proceedings of the Eleventh Veterinary Respiratory Symposium, Champaign, Illinois (1992, September 27)

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See detailEffect of exercise on innate immunity in horses
Art, Tatiana ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th Congress of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine (ECEIM): ACVIM, Le Touquet France (2013)

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See detailEffect of Exercise on the Partitioning of Equine Respiratory Resistance
Art, Tatiana ULg; Serteyn, Didier ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1988), 20(4), 268-273

Pleural, tracheal, pharyngeal and mask pressures as well as airflow and tidal volume of five ponies on a treadmill (incline 8.3 degrees) were recorded simultaneously while resting, walking, trotting ... [more ▼]

Pleural, tracheal, pharyngeal and mask pressures as well as airflow and tidal volume of five ponies on a treadmill (incline 8.3 degrees) were recorded simultaneously while resting, walking, trotting slowly, trotting fast, after standing for 30 secs and 5 mins after the end of the exercise. The curves obtained were used to calculate total pulmonary resistance (RL), lower airway resistance (RLA) and upper airway resistance (RUA). The latter was also divided into nasal resistance (Rnas) and laryngeal plus extrathoracic tracheal resistance (Retr + lar). Furthermore, the inspiratory and expiratory components of each of these R values were estimated. Levels of RL, RLA and RUA were increased significantly during exercise but, during the recovery period, the values were significantly lower than those pre-exercise. RUA represented 82 per cent of RL at rest and this percentage did not change significantly during and after exercise. The nasal resistance to RUA ratio was always higher than 0.5. The fact that RL increased with exercise intensity was due to the increase of RUA during inspiration, and mainly a result of the increase of RLA during expiration. At fast trot, RLA represented 5 and 50 per cent of RL during inspiration and expiration respectively. It was concluded that heavy exercise induces in ponies an increase of RL, one reason for which could be the partial collapse of the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways during inspiration and expiration respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of exogenous circulating anti-bPL antibodies on bovine placental lactogen measurements in foetal samples.
Alvarez Oxiley, Andrea Vivian ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (2010), 52

BACKGROUND: The involvement of placental lactogen (PL) in the regulation of foetal growth has been investigated in different species by in vivo immunomodulation techniques. However, when circulating ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The involvement of placental lactogen (PL) in the regulation of foetal growth has been investigated in different species by in vivo immunomodulation techniques. However, when circulating antibodies are present together with the hormone, the procedure for hormonal measurement becomes considerably complex. The aim of this study was the immunoneutralization of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) concentrations in bovine foetal circulation by direct infusion of rabbit anti-bPL purified immunoglobulins (IgG) via a foetal catheter (in vivo study). The ability of a RIA based on guinea pig anti-bPL antiserum, for the measurement of bPL concentrations in samples containing exogenous rabbit anti-bPL immunoglobulins, was also analyzed in in vitro and in vivo conditions. METHODS: Six bovine foetuses were chronic cannulated on the aorta via the medial tarsal artery. Infusion of rabbit anti-bPL IgG was performed during late gestation. Pooled rabbit anti-bPL antisera had a maximal neutralization capacity of 25 microg bPL/mL of immunoglobulin. Interference of rabbit anti-bPL immunoglobulin with radioimmunoassay measurement using guinea pig anti-bPL as primary antibody was first evaluated in vitro. Polyclonal anti-bPL antibodies raised in rabbit were added in foetal sera to produce 100 samples with known antibodies titers (dilutions ranging from 1:2,500 till 1:1,280,000). RESULT(S): Assessment of the interference of rabbit anti-bPL antibody showed that bPL concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in samples added with dilutions of rabbit antiserum lower than 1:80,000 (one foetus) or 1:10,000 (four foetuses). It was also shown that the recovery of added bPL (12 ng/mL) was markedly reduced in those samples in which exogenous rabbit anti-bPL were added at dilutions lower than 1:20,000. Concentrations of foetal bPL were determined in samples from cannulated foetuses. In foetuses 1 and 6, bPL concentrations remained almost unchanged (<5 ng/mL) during the whole experimental period. In Foetus 3, bPL concentrations decreased immediately after IgG infusion and thereafter, they increased until parturition. CONCLUSION(S): The use of a bPL RIA using a guinea pig anti-bPL as primary antiserum allowed for the measurement of bPL concentrations in foetal plasma in presence of rabbit anti-bPL IgG into the foetal circulation. Long-term foetal catheterization allowed for the study of the influence of direct infusion of anti-bPL IgG on peripheral bPL concentrations in bovine foetuses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of experimentally induced acute pneumonia on diaphragmatic strength generation in neonatal calves
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1992)

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See detailThe effect of exposure to drugs on the processing of natural rewards
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (2009), 33(3), 314-335

Why does moderate exposure to a drug reward make natural rewards increasingly attractive to organisms, whereas prolonged exposure to the same drug reward has the opposite effect? The paradox behind that ... [more ▼]

Why does moderate exposure to a drug reward make natural rewards increasingly attractive to organisms, whereas prolonged exposure to the same drug reward has the opposite effect? The paradox behind that question remains unsatisfactorily captured by current theories of addiction. The incentivesensitisation theory is viewed as a promising approach to this paradox, although it provides no mechanism to explain the decrease in interest of natural rewards as time exposure to a drug increases. To attempt to remedy this problem, I describe a model called the anticipatory dynamics model (ADM) that suggests a pivotal role of anticipation and attention inmotivational interactions. In addition to relying on strong neuropsychopharmacological data, the ADM provides an original conception of motivational specificity. The ADM is an extension of the incentive-sensitisation theory that hypothesizes how drugs interact with natural rewards. It has not been tested empirically, although a possible experiment to test two predictions in the field of addiction is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of extraction conditions on the yied and purity of ulvan extracted from Ulva lactuca
Yaich, Hela; Garna, Haikel; Besbes, Souhail et al

in Food Hydrocolloids (2013)

A study of the influence of extraction conditions (pH: 1.5 and 2; temperature: 80 °C and 90 °C; extraction time: 1-3 h), on the yield, chemical composition and purity of the sulphated cell wall ... [more ▼]

A study of the influence of extraction conditions (pH: 1.5 and 2; temperature: 80 °C and 90 °C; extraction time: 1-3 h), on the yield, chemical composition and purity of the sulphated cell wall polysaccharides ulvan, extracted from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca and precipitated by alcohol is carried out. The alcohol precipitate yields varied from 21.68% to 32.67% (%dw/dw) depending on the pH. At pH 2, the alcohol precipitate yields and the uronic acid recovery from extract juice are higher than those obtained at pH 1.5. Other compounds than ulvan such as cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins and ash are solubilized from the cell walls of Ulva lactuca at both pH, and they are precipitated with alcohol. The alcohol precipitate obtained from different extraction conditions has high uronic acid (20.37%-23.60%) and neutral sugar content (20.09%-29.12%), especially when the conditions (pH, temperature) are drastic. It contains rhamnose (13.35%-15.59%), glucose (2.90%-10.97%), and xylose (2.36%-2.73%). A decrease in the molecular weight of ulvan was observed at acid pH, and for long extraction times. The presence of proteins (1.94%-2.32%) and inorganic material (33.36%-47.15%) in alcohol precipitate prove the lower purity of ulvan extracted and shows that ulvan precipitation with ethanol is not specific. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of extraction conditions on the yield and purity of apple pomace pectin precipitated but not washed by alcohol
Garna, Haikel; Mabon, Nicolas; Robert, Christelle et al

in Journal of Food Science (2007), 72(1), 1-9

A study of the influence of extraction condition (pH: 1.5 to 2; temperature: 80 to 90 degrees C; extraction time: 1 to 3 h), on the yield and purity of apple pomace pectin without elimination of ... [more ▼]

A study of the influence of extraction condition (pH: 1.5 to 2; temperature: 80 to 90 degrees C; extraction time: 1 to 3 h), on the yield and purity of apple pomace pectin without elimination of impurities by alcohol washing was carried out. The alcohol precipitate yields varied from 2.9% to 8.9% depending on the pH. At pH 1.5, these yields were higher than those obtained at pH 2 contrary to the galacturonic acid purity (%w/w). Compounds other than pectins were solubilized from the cell walls of apple pomace at pH 1.5, and they were precipitated with alcohol. The apple pectins obtained from the different extraction procedures were highly methylated (54.5% to 79.5%), especially when the conditions (temperature, pH) were drastic. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the neutral sugar content that decreased at pH 1.5 (arabinose, xylose, and galactose) or at the highest temperatures and extraction times (arabinose and galactose). The phenomenon of demethylation and pectin degradation of neutral sugars chains can be observed at acid pH, and long extraction times. The presence of high quantities of mannose or fructose, glucose, and xylose in the alcohol precipitate showed that pectin precipitation with ethanol was not specific. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Extraction Conditions On The Yield, Purity And Surface Properties Of Sugar Beet Pulp Pectin Extracts
Yapo, Marcel Beda; Robert, Christelle; Etienne, Isabelle et al

in Food Chemistry (2007), 100(4), 1356-1364

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See detailEffect of far-infrared radiation assisted drying on microstructure of banana slices: An illustrative use of X-ray microtomography in microstructural evaluation of a food product
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Nimmol, Chatchai et al

in Journal of Food Engineering (2008), 85(1), 154-162

X-ray microtomography coupled with image analysis represents a non-destructive technique, which allows scanning an entire sample to obtain such information as total pore volume and pore size distribution ... [more ▼]

X-ray microtomography coupled with image analysis represents a non-destructive technique, which allows scanning an entire sample to obtain such information as total pore volume and pore size distribution without the need of serial cuts as in the case of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The technique has been applied successfully to obtain reliable microstructural information of many products undergoing different physical and chemical processes. However, the technique has still found limited use in food processing. To illustrate the use of X-ray microtomography the technique was applied to investigate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) assisted drying on microstructure of a food product viz. banana. Two representative drying techniques, i.e., low-pressure superheated steam drying (LPSSD) and vacuum drying (VACUUM) were tested. Banana slices were dried by LPSSD-FIR at two different temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C) at a fixed pressure of 7 kPa. The total pore volume and pore size distribution of dried banana slices were then determined using X-ray microtomography. The results were also compared with those of products dried by LPSSD without FIR. Far-infrared radiation was found to modify the structure of the dried bananas by increasing their final porosity. The same effect of FIR was also observed in the case of vacuum drying with FIR (VACUUM-FIR). An increase of the drying temperature was also found to globally lead to an increase in the final porosity of the products. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect Of Feed N-15 Incorporation Into Solid-Associated Bacteria On The In Situ Nitrogen Degradability Of N-15 Labelled Italian Ryegrass
Kamoun, Mohammed; Lopez, Secundino; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2007), 135(3-4), 353-361

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of microbial contamination of the incubation residue on the in situ nitrogen degradability of Italian ryegrass. Microbial nitrogen in the bag residues ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of microbial contamination of the incubation residue on the in situ nitrogen degradability of Italian ryegrass. Microbial nitrogen in the bag residues was estimated by the feed 15N dilution procedure, and the incorporation of feed 15N into the adherent bacteria was assessed after isolating a bacterial pellet and determining its 15N enrichment. Isotopically labelled Italian ryegrass (fertilized with 15NH4 15NO3) was harvested either in spring (early cut) or in summer (late cut). Forages were incubated in the rumen of two steers for 6, 24 and48 h. The proportion of microbial N per unit of total N in the bag residue increased with incubation time, ranging from 184 to 853 mg microbial N/g totalN at 6 and 48 h, respectively. 15N enrichment in the bacterial pellet was highest after 6 h of incubation (3.6 mg 15N/g N) and then declined steadily (0.8 mg 15N/gN in 48-h residues). Microbial 15N represented up to 0.422 g/g total 15N in the bag residue, but the incorporation of feed 15N into bacterial N did not account for more than 57 mg/g 15N incubated, this incorporation rate decreasing progressively with incubation time. Correction of apparent N disappearance for microbial N resulted in higher values of N degradability, especially for the late cut grass. A further correction considering the amount of microbial 15N had little effect on the estimation of corrected N degradability values. Therefore, some of the feed 15N is incorporated into bacterial N, but this fraction has a minor effect on the estimation of total microbial N in the bag residue by the feed 15N dilution approach, and hence on the estimation of corrected degradability values. [less ▲]

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