Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
See detailDo evolutionary floras exist?
Cleal, Christopher J.; Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg

Conference (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo excitatory and inhibitory conditioning processes underlie psychomotor sensitization to amphetamine? An analysis using simple and multiple regressions
Brabant, Christian ULg; Tambour, Sophie; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2011), 221

Excitatory or inhibitory conditioning processes have been proposed to account for the context-dependent establishment of amphetamine psychomotor sensitization in rodents. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Excitatory or inhibitory conditioning processes have been proposed to account for the context-dependent establishment of amphetamine psychomotor sensitization in rodents. The purpose of this study was to test the predictions of these theories in mice. We first assessed the consequence of the extinction of post-sensitization conditioned activity (CR) on the ulterior expression of sensitization. We also assessed the relations between several measures of sensitization and conditioned hyperactivity revealed on a saline challenge using simple and multiple regression analyses. Context-dependent sensitization was induced via 7 amphetamine injections in the test context given alternately with 7 saline injections in another context in paired mice, unpaired mice receiving the converse pretreatment. Context-dependent sensitization (drug challenge) and the CR (saline challenge) were revealed subsequently. After CR extinction (over 7 every-other-day repetition of the saline challenge), mice were tested again for context-dependent sensitization. Against the excitatory conditioning model, CR extinction spared context-dependent sensitization in paired mice, and regression analyses revealed no significant correlations between the size of the CR and several measures of sensitization. In apparent agreement with the inhibitory conditioning model, unpaired mice expressed higher levels of sensitization in the test context after extinction than before. However, regression analyses did not indicate that activity on the saline challenge was related to measures of sensitization in unpaired mice. Therefore, the present results support neither the excitatory nor the inhibitory conditioning models of context-dependent sensitization, but remain compatible with theories proposing that other inhibitory mechanisms modulate sensitization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo faces capture attention in a bottom-up fashion? An eye-movement study
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

Conference (2010)

Due to their high social and biological significance, faces should be able to capture attention in a bottom-up fashion. Accordingly, a recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright ... [more ▼]

Due to their high social and biological significance, faces should be able to capture attention in a bottom-up fashion. Accordingly, a recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows down the search for a butterfly target while the presence of a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face (Langton et al., 2008). To further test whether upright faces automatically capture attention we recorded eye movements during a cued target search task. We show that when the search alternates between a face and a butterfly target (Experiment 1), faces are found faster and with less saccades than butterflies. The presence of the opposite distractor within the display (e.g. a face during a butterfly search) slows down the search but to a higher extent when the distractor is a face. Similarly, faces capture the eyes more frequently than butterflies. In a control experiment inverted face targets were also found more efficiently than inverted butterfly targets and captured the eyes more frequently than butterflies when presented as distractors (Experiment 2). However, when upright or inverted faces were always presented as irrelevant distractors (Experiment 3), we could not found any sign of disruption caused by their presence during a search for butterfly or flower targets. These results challenge the view that faces capture attention automatically. Rather, they suggest that faces only attract attention when their processing is relevant during the search task and that they can otherwise be ignored. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo fluid intelligence and executive functioning protect from age-related decline in cognitive control?
Manard, Marine ULg; Lorant, Caroline ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2013, July)

Age-related studies on cognitive control suggest a decline in proactive control whereas reactive control remains intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007). This study was designed to investigate the ... [more ▼]

Age-related studies on cognitive control suggest a decline in proactive control whereas reactive control remains intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007). This study was designed to investigate the potential influence of fluid intelligence (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices) and general executive functioning (Executive composite score from executive assessment) on cognitive control abilities during normal aging. Cognitive control was assessed using a computerized version of the Stroop paradigm in which proactive and reactive control processes were pseudo randomly engaged by varying the amount of interference across the task. Thirteen young and 27 older adults were included in this study. In the whole sample, results confirmed a significant age-related decline in proactive control. However, when older adults were divided in high- and low fluid intelligence subgroups, only older adults with low fluid intelligence showed a significant decline in proactive control compared to younger adults and this difference disappeared for older adults with high fluid intelligence level. When older adults were distinguished according to high and low executive capacities, the analysis revealed that, compared to the young ones, older adults with low executive functioning showed a general cognitive control decline (proactive and reactive processes). However, differences disappeared when young adults were compared to older adults with a high executive functioning. Accuracy results suggested that older adults have a slower but spared access to goal-representations that are necessary to correctly manage interference. So, this study confirmed the previous results obtained by Braver et al. (2007), but also suggest an influence of fluid intelligence and executive resources that seems important to take into account to investigate age-related decline in reactive and proactive cognitive control processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo general practitioners and psychiatrists agree about defining cure from depression? The DEsCRIBE (TM) survey
Demyttenaere, Koen; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Constant, Eric et al

in BMC Psychiatry (2011), 11

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to document the outcome dimensions that physicians see as important in defining cure from depression. The study also aimed to analyse physicians' attitudes about depression ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to document the outcome dimensions that physicians see as important in defining cure from depression. The study also aimed to analyse physicians' attitudes about depression and to find out whether they affect their prescribing practices and/or the outcome dimensions that they view as important in defining cure. METHODS: A 51-item questionnaire based on six validated scales was used to rate the importance of several depression outcome dimensions. Physicians' attitudes about depression were also assessed using the Depression Attitude Scale. Overall, 369 Belgian physicians (264 general practitioners [GPs]; 105 psychiatrists) participated in the DEsCRIBE survey. RESULTS: GPs and psychiatrists strongly agreed that functioning and depressive symptomatology were most important in defining cure; anxious and somatic symptomatology was least important. GPs and psychiatrists differed in their attitudes about depression (p <0.001). Logistic regression revealed that the attitudes of GPs - but not psychiatrists - were significantly associated with their rates of antidepressant prescription (p < 0.001) and that certain attitudes predicted which outcome dimensions were seen as important in defining cure. CONCLUSIONS: Belgian GPs and psychiatrists strongly agreed on which criteria were important in defining cure from depression but differed in their attitudes about depression. The outcome dimensions that were considered important in defining cure were influenced by physicians' attitudes - this was more pronounced in GPs than in psychiatrists. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo global warming-induced circulation pattern changes affect temperature and precipitation over Europe during summer?
Belleflamme, Alexandre ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

in International Journal of Climatology (2014)

Future climate change projections are not limited to a simple warming, but changes in precipitation and sea level pressure (SLP) are also projected. The SLP changes and the associated atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Future climate change projections are not limited to a simple warming, but changes in precipitation and sea level pressure (SLP) are also projected. The SLP changes and the associated atmospheric circulation changes could directly mitigate or enhance potential projected changes in temperature and precipitation associated with rising temperatures. With the aim of analysing the projected circulation changes and their possible impacts on temperature and precipitation over Europe in summer [June–July–August (JJA)], we apply an automatic circulation type classification method, based on daily SLP, on general circulation model (GCM) outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) database over the historical period (1951–2005) and for climate under two future scenarios (2006–2100). We focus on summer as it is the season when changes in temperature and precipitation have the highest impact on human health and agriculture. Over the historical observed reference period (1960–1999), our results show that most of the GCMs have significant biases over Europe when compared to reanalysis data sets, both for simulating the observed circulation types and their frequencies, as well as for reproducing the intraclass means of the studied variables. The future projections suggest a decrease of circulation types favouring a low centred over the British Isles for the benefit of more anticyclonic conditions. These circulation changes mitigate the projected precipitation increase over north-western Europe in summer, but they do not significantly affect the projected temperature increase and the precipitation decrease over the Mediterranean region and eastern Europe. However, the circulation changes and the associated precipitation changes are tarnished by a high uncertainty among the GCM projections. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo good and poor readers make use of morphemic structure in English word recognition?
Duncan, Lynne; Grey, Elaine; Quemart, Pauline ULg et al

in Journal of Portuguese Linguistics (2010), 9/10

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo Higher Education syllabi and oral course introduction affect student’s motivation to study ? Measuring the impact of syllabi from specifically trained Faculties on students’ perceptions of controllability, course value and competency
Leduc, Laurent ULg

Conference (2009, August)

As defined by Altman and Cashin (1992), “the primary purpose of a syllabus is to communicate to one’s students what the course is about, why the course is taught, where it is going, and what will be ... [more ▼]

As defined by Altman and Cashin (1992), “the primary purpose of a syllabus is to communicate to one’s students what the course is about, why the course is taught, where it is going, and what will be required of the students for them to complete the course with a passing grade”. According to several authors, one of the functions of the syllabus is to motivate students: it “conveys enthusiasm for the subject and sparks student interest and motivation” (Hammons & Shock, 1994), “warm syllabi explain expectations in a clear and friendly fashion, encourage and motivate students” (Slattery & Carlson, 2005), “the course syllabus should generate interest and motivate students to take responsability to learn the contents of the course” (Johnson, 2006), “we studied teachers who have enormous success in helping and encouraging their students to achieve remarkable learning and found they usually produce a certain kind of syllabus” (Bain, 2004). Some researchers (Thompson, 2007) have also pointed out different oral strategies used by teachers when presenting their courses for the first time to students in order to positively affect them on this aspect. But the question is: can this very early written / oral transmission of information really impact students’motivation for learning in some courses? In the University of Liège, professors have to submit every year for each of their courses a one page (at least) standardized syllabus (called engagement pédagogique). In addition, they usually start their first lesson with introductory speeches that plays the same role. In 2008, IFRES (Institute for Training and Research in Higher Education) has delivered pedagogical training and guidelines to new faculties in order to promote these two kinds of motivating communications especially with their freshmen and sophomores audiences. As the person in charge with that training, I focused on Viau’s model of motivation dynamics (1997). The specific suggestions I gave consisted in taking into account various kinds of students’ perceptions (1) of competency (“a perception that a student has about him(her)self and through which he/she assesses his/her ability to suitably accomplish an activity that he/she is not sure to carry off”), (2) of controlability (“the perception of the control that a student has on the course of an activity and on its consequences”) and (3) of activities value (“the opinion that a student expresses on the interest and the usefulness of a pedagocical activiy according to the goals he/she pursues”) in one’s written and oral communication with students about pedagogical and practical aspects of a course. At the beginning of the academic year following the delivery of those guidelines and training sessions, the wording of syllabi and oral speeches produced by 10 of those new faculties was analysed from their motivational potential’s point of view. In the same time, questionnaires were submitted to the 1400 students of their 12 introductory courses, in order to investigate the corollary impact of those information transmissions on learners’ motivational dynamics. Before and after their reception of the oral and written messages from their respective teachers, student’s levels of perception concerning the value of the course, concerning their own competency to succeed in it and concerning their controlability, have been compared in order to measure hypothetical gains due to syllabi and face-to-face course introduction. We have studied relations between students who have actualy read / not read syllabi, or who have actually listened / not listened to oral presentation of the course, and their level of perception of Viau’s three motivational factors. Other relations between variables like students’ perceptions of their own teacher (resulting from the content and tone of his/her messages) or the presence / absence of a rationale for some particular items of information have also been studied. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (1 ULg)
See detailDo Identities Matter More than Party Interests in Ethno-Territorial Politics? Conceptual and Empirical Insights from Multilevel and Deeply Divided Belgium
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Sinardet, Dave

Conference (2012, April)

In territorial politics, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the political dynamics of several highly ... [more ▼]

In territorial politics, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the political dynamics of several highly divided societies. In most cases, the institutional design is in fact adapted or has been adapted to the ethno-linguistic divisions of the country. According to quite a few scholars, it is especially true for political elites who are not only shaped by this variable but also use this variable to legitimate their attitudes and actions. Therefore political elites of each ethno-linguistic group appeared to behave as monolithic blocks, standing against each other along ethno-linguistic lines. Nonetheless, this view neglects the role of party interests in explaining the behaviors of political elites. An important question for ethno-territorial politics should be raised: do identities matter more that party interests? The current reform of the – multilevel and deeply-divided – Belgian state provides a fertile ground to test this hypothesis. To what extent, party interests can account for political elites’ position in the debate about the 6th Belgian constitutional reform? To explore these questions, we surveyed every representative of Belgium’s seven legislative assemblies with a standardized questionnaire (Summer 2011). This research will help us apprehend the rationale behind political elites’ attitudes – be it identities, party interests or a mix of them – negotiating the new boundaries of the state and above all shed light on territorial politics in Europe. So doing, this paper aims at contributing to the debate that explores the possibility of a unified analytical approach bridging ethno-territorial politics and party politics. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (3 ULg)
See detailDo Identities Matter More than Party Interests in Territorial Politics? Insights from Belgium
Reuchamps, Min ULg; Dave, Sinardet; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2012, June)

In territorial politics, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the federal dynamics of several highly divided ... [more ▼]

In territorial politics, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the federal dynamics of several highly divided societies. In most cases, the institutional design is in fact adapted or has been adapted to the ethno-linguistic divisions of the country. According to quite a few scholars, it is especially true for political elites who are not only shaped by this variable but also use this variable to legitimate their attitudes and actions. Therefore political elites of each ethno-linguistic group appeared to behave as monolithic blocks, standing against each other along ethno-linguistic lines. Nonetheless, this view neglects the role of party interests in explaining the behaviors of political elites. An important question for territorial politics can be raised: do identities matter more that party interests? The current reform of the Belgian state provides a fertile ground to test this hypothesis. To what extent, party interests can account for political elites’ position in the debate about the 6th Belgian constitutional reform? To explore these questions, we surveyed every representative of Belgium’s seven legislative assemblies with a standardized questionnaire (Summer 2011). This research will help us apprehend the rationale behind political elites’ attitudes – be it identities, party interests or a mix of them – negotiating the new boundaries of the state and above all shed light on territorial politics in Europe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (3 ULg)
See detailDo Informal Initiatives in the South Share a Capitalist Logic or Are They the Seeds of a Solidarity Economy? The Case of Santiago de Chile
Bauwens, Thomas ULg; Lemaître, Andreia

in UNRISD Think Piece Series on Social and Solidarity Economy (2013)

The problem of informality represents one of the major challenges in the fight against poverty. To address this issue, the traditional response has often been to apply Western entrepreneurial rationality ... [more ▼]

The problem of informality represents one of the major challenges in the fight against poverty. To address this issue, the traditional response has often been to apply Western entrepreneurial rationality to informal actors and consider small informal productive units as pre-capitalist firms whose growth potential can be realized, it is supposed, by providing them with adequate tools such as credit or training. But do informal initiatives really share the capitalist spirit of entrepreneurship or do they develop other rationales, such as the ones which spread in a "solidarity economy"? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail. Do innervation of germinal centre and contacts between FDC and nerve fibers be keys to understand the susceptibility difference between bovines and humans to the BSE agent?
Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Dorban, G.; Antoine, Nadine ULg et al

Poster (2008, October)

Background: In regard to BSE and vCJD, the agent tropism for lymphoid tissues is completely different even if the infectious strain responsible and the way of inoculation are identical. During vCJD, the ... [more ▼]

Background: In regard to BSE and vCJD, the agent tropism for lymphoid tissues is completely different even if the infectious strain responsible and the way of inoculation are identical. During vCJD, the infectious agent crosses the digestive barrier and multiplies in lymphoid organs, before progressively reaching the brain. Indeed, in vCJD, it accumulates in the ileum, tonsils, spleen and appendix of infected individuals. In contrast, in cattle, the BSE agent has a low affinity for lymphoid tissues and mainly accumulates in the nervous system. During preclinical stages, infectivity, other than that in the peripheral nervous system or central nervous system, is confined in the distal ileum of orally infected cattle. So, it appears that, at least in the case of BSE and vCJD, host properties can influence the accumulation of the infectious agent in lymphoid organs. Objectives and methods: In this study, we analysed by confocale microscopy the mucosal innervation and the interface between nerve fibres and FDC in bovine and human tonsils using a panel of antibodies. Since differences in the innervation of lymphoid organs depending on species and on age have been reported, we analysed two categories of bovines (calves less than 12 months old and bovines older than 24 months) and two categories of humans (patients less than 5 years old and patients older than 25 years). Results: In both species, ways of innervation by-passing germinal centres could be postulated: nerve fibres are widely distributed in antigen/cell traffic area: the lamina propria, the interfollicular zone and the lymphoepithelial area. We pointed out that, only in tonsils of bovines older than 24 months, nerve fibres are observed to be in contact with FDC. In contrast, in human tonsils, no nerve fibres established contacts with FDC, whatever the age. Discussion: Innervation of germinal centres can be said to be an age-dependent dynamic process in bovines. The weak innervation of the secondary lymphoid organs could thus be a rate-limiting step to neuroinvasion in humans. This species difference could influence the way of neuroinvasion and thus, the susceptibility of bovines and humans to the BSE agent. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDo it like Andhra Pradesh
Maiorano, Diego ULg

Article for general public (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo large companies ignore formal sustainability management controls? An exploration amongst corporate practices
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Schaltegger, Stefan

in EMAN (Ed.) Proceedings of the 2014 EMAN conference (2014, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo leaching experiments affect the Sm-Nd signature of deep-sea sediments? The example of the northern North Atlantic
Innocent, Christophe; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Stevenson, Ross

in Canadian Journal of Soil Science (1999), 79

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo local Authorities Face the Dutch Way of Consuming the Ardennes ?
Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Cawley, Mary (Ed.) The sustainability of Rural Systems : Local and Global Challenges and Opportunities (2011, August)

One theoretical recommendation to develop sustainable rural tourism is to base its development on the local resources. This should embed the tourist activity to the local society, avoid an easy ... [more ▼]

One theoretical recommendation to develop sustainable rural tourism is to base its development on the local resources. This should embed the tourist activity to the local society, avoid an easy delocalisation, and help to brand the destination. The Belgian Ardennes is a close recreation spot to Dutch people. The paper examines the local resources that attract Dutch tourists and the way how regional and local authorities deal with this tourist development. Based on key actors’ interviews and on in depth analysis of the promotional material produced both by authorities and commercial companies, the paper underlines seven ways to sell and to consume the Ardennes. Due to the lack of entrepreneurship by locals and because the Dutch tourism enterprises know better the Dutch tourists, these enterprises hold a large share of the tourist activities in the Ardennes. These Dutch investments change the destination as well as the local identity. While at the beginning, the Dutch companies developed a tourism based on nature and rural landscape, they diversified their activities up to offland tourism and the “disneyfication” of the places. If this Belgian case study follows more or less the well known “life cycle tourist destination”, the originality of the paper is to stress the difficulties and the opportunities of authorities to regulate tourism development and to maintain the quality of local resources. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo males and females gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress ?
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

in Aquatic Toxicology (2013), 140-141

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo monitoring and counselling boost the job finding rates of the long-term unemployed ?
Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

Conference (2008, June 13)

In July 2004, the Belgian government launched a new monitoring and counselling program targeted at the long-term unemployed. In this new program, people over 13 months unemployment are warned that their ... [more ▼]

In July 2004, the Belgian government launched a new monitoring and counselling program targeted at the long-term unemployed. In this new program, people over 13 months unemployment are warned that their job-search efforts will be monitored 8 months later. At the same time, they are invited to participate actively in the support (job search, training) programs provided for by the Regional Employment Agencies, whose supply was expanded. This reform has been implemented gradually : it focused the unemployed under 30 years in 2004, then the 30-40 year-old unemployed in 2005, and finally the 40-50 year-old unemployed in 2006. This paper aims at evaluate the effect, in terms of transition from unemployment to employment and/or training, of this new program for the 30-40 years old in Wallonia. Using the fact that the reform was implemented gradually, the effect of the program is estimated by difference-in-differences, based on (single exit and two exits) discrete duration models. The results suggest that the program has had a very large relative effect, although limited in absolute terms, regarding transition to training for almost all the treated unemployed. They also show that the program has had a substantial relative effect, although limited in absolute terms as well, with regard to transition to employment for the majority of the treated unemployed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (18 ULg)