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See detailDistantly related lipocalins share two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues: use in homology modeling.
Adam, Benoit; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Beaufays, Jérôme ULg et al

in BMC structural biology (2008), 8(1-2), 1-18

BACKGROUND: Lipocalins are widely distributed in nature and are found in bacteria, plants, arthropoda and vertebra. In hematophagous arthropods, they are implicated in the successful accomplishment of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Lipocalins are widely distributed in nature and are found in bacteria, plants, arthropoda and vertebra. In hematophagous arthropods, they are implicated in the successful accomplishment of the blood meal, interfering with platelet aggregation, blood coagulation and inflammation and in the transmission of disease parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Borrelia burgdorferi. The pairwise sequence identity is low among this family, often below 30%, despite a well conserved tertiary structure. Under the 30% identity threshold, alignment methods do not correctly assign and align proteins. The only safe way to assign a sequence to that family is by experimental determination. However, these procedures are long and costly and cannot always be applied. A way to circumvent the experimental approach is sequence and structure analyze. To further help in that task, the residues implicated in the stabilisation of the lipocalin fold were determined. This was done by analyzing the conserved interactions for ten lipocalins having a maximum pairwise identity of 28% and various functions. RESULTS: It was determined that two hydrophobic clusters of residues are conserved by analysing the ten lipocalin structures and sequences. One cluster is internal to the barrel, involving all strands and the 310 helix. The other is external, involving four strands and the helix lying parallel to the barrel surface. These clusters are also present in RaHBP2, a unusual "outlier" lipocalin from tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This information was used to assess assignment of LIR2 a protein from Ixodes ricinus and to build a 3D model that helps to predict function. FTIR data support the lipocalin fold for this protein. CONCLUSION: By sequence and structural analyzes, two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues in interactions have been identified in lipocalins. Since the residues implicated are not conserved for function, they should provide the minimal subset necessary to confer the lipocalin fold. This information has been used to assign LIR2 to lipocalins and to investigate its structure/function relationship. This study could be applied to other protein families with low pairwise similarity, such as the structurally related fatty acid binding proteins or avidins. [less ▲]

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See detailDistemper in seals stranded on the Belgian coast during 1998 summer
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Desmecht, M.; Van Gompel, J. et al

in annual proceeding (1999)

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See detailThe distensibility of the central bronchial system in calves measured by means of the monofrequency oscillation technique
Reinhold, P.; Barnikol, W. K. R.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1993), 40

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See detailDistillation Simulated on Molecular Level
Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Molecular Simulation (2004), 30(6), 361-366

See detailDistillation Simulated on Molecular Level
Pfennig, Andreas ULg

Conference (2003)

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See detailDistinct behavior of mutant triosephosphate isomerase in hemolysate and in isolated form: molecular basis of enzyme deficiency
Orosz, F.; Olah, J.; Alvarez, M. et al

in Blood (2001), 98(10), 3106-12

In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu ... [more ▼]

In a Hungarian family with severe decrease in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity, 2 germ line-identical but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers inherited 2 independent (Phe240Leu and Glu145stop codon) mutations. The kinetic, thermodynamic, and associative properties of the recombinant human wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes were compared with those of TPIs in normal and deficient erythrocyte hemolysates. The specific activity of the recombinant mutant enzyme relative to the wild type was much higher (30%) than expected from the activity (3%) measured in hemolysates. Enhanced attachment of mutant TPI to erythrocyte inside-out vesicles and to microtubules of brain cells was found when the binding was measured with TPIs in hemolysate. In contrast, there was no difference between the binding of the recombinant wild-type and Phe240Leu mutant enzymes. These findings suggest that the missense mutation by itself is not enough to explain the low catalytic activity and "stickiness" of mutant TPI observed in hemolysate. The activity of the mutant TPI is further reduced by its attachment to inside-out vesicles or microtubules. Comparative studies of the hemolysate from a British patient with Glu104Asp homozygosity and with the platelet lysates from the Hungarian family suggest that the microcompartmentation of TPI is not unique for the hemolysates from the Hungarian TPI-deficient brothers. The possible role of cellular components, other than the mutant enzymes, in the distinct behavior of TPI in isolated form versus in hemolysates from the compound heterozygotes and the simple heterozygote family members is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct carbohydrate recognition domains of an invertebrate defense molecule recognize Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
Bilej, M.; De Baetselier, P.; Van Dijck, E. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(49), 45840-7

Coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms (Oligochaeta, Annelida) contains a 42-kDa defense molecule named CCF for coelomic cytolytic factor. By binding microbial antigens, namely the O-antigen of ... [more ▼]

Coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms (Oligochaeta, Annelida) contains a 42-kDa defense molecule named CCF for coelomic cytolytic factor. By binding microbial antigens, namely the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), beta-1,3-glucans, or N,N'-diacetylchitobiose present, respectively, on Gram-negative bacteria or yeast cell walls, CCF triggers the prophenoloxidase activating pathway. We report that CCF recognizes lysozyme-predigested Gram-positive bacteria or the peptidoglycan constituent muramyl dipeptide as well as muramic acid. To identify the pattern recognition domains of CCF, deletion mutants were tested for their ability to reconstitute the prophenoloxidase cascade in E. foetida coelomic fluid depleted of endogenous CCF in the presence of LPS, beta-1,3-glucans, N,N'-diacetylchitobiose, and muramic acid. In addition, affinity chromatography of CCF peptides was performed on immobilized beta-1,3-glucans or N,N'-diacetylchitobiose. We found that the broad specificity of CCF for pathogen-associated molecular patterns results from the presence of two distinct pattern recognition domains. One domain, which shows homology with the polysaccharide and glucanase motifs of beta-1,3-glucanases and invertebrate defense molecules located in the central part of the CCF polypeptide chain, interacts with LPS and beta-1,3-glucans. The C-terminal tryptophan-rich domain mediates interactions of CCF with N,N'-diacetylchitobiose and muramic acid. These data provide evidence for the presence of spatially distinct carbohydrate recognition domains within this invertebrate defense molecule. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct expression patterns of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindroma and malignant cylindroma.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in International Journal of Molecular Medicine (2005), 15(1), 27-31

Cutaneous cylindromas are considered to derive from cells of the sweat gland apparatus. The composition of the thick hyaline eosinophilic basement membrane (BM)-like zone surrounding epithelial aggregates ... [more ▼]

Cutaneous cylindromas are considered to derive from cells of the sweat gland apparatus. The composition of the thick hyaline eosinophilic basement membrane (BM)-like zone surrounding epithelial aggregates in cylindromas is similar to that of the dermo-epidermal junction. The presence of type IV collagen has been documented, but the distribution of the different constitutive a chains of collagen IV has not been studied so far. Alterations in the expression of these alpha chains have been described in some other conditions including basal cell carcinomas, testes with spermatogenic dysfunction and colorectal carcinomas. The aim was to study the distribution of the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindromas and malignant cylindroma, and to compare it with the BM of sweat glands. Seven cylindromas and one malignant cylindroma were studied. They were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded before processing for immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was assessed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with antibodies directed to the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains. In all cylindromas, a thin continuous and sharply limited immunolabelling for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain was abutted to the tumoral cell aggregates. A speckled immunoreactivity was found in the rest of the hyaline sheath. Globular structures encased in the cell aggregates also exhibited a thin peripheral rim positive for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain. The immunoreactivity was faint and granular in the center of the globules. With the antibody directed against the alpha5 (IV) collagen chain, 3 cylindromas did not show any staining, 2 cases presented discrete focal positivity in the mid-part of the BM-like zone, and 2 cases exhibited a positive staining pattern similar to that observed for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain, but with a focal and more discrete intensity. The malignant cylindroma showed a linear immunoreactivity for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain undistinguishable from the pattern seen in the benign cylindromas. No immunoreactivity was present for the alpha5 (IV) collagen chain in the malignant neoplasm. As reported for other BM components, the expressions of the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains are altered in the BM-like zone surrounding the epithelial clumps in cylindromas. The molecular alteration is probably related to the ultrastructural particularities of this structure. The distinctive patterns of expression of the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains may be related to the histogenic sudoral origin of cylindromas without any relationship with the benign or malignant nature of the neoplasm. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct Neuroendocrine mechanisms control neural activity underlying sex differences in sexual motivation and performance
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Corbisier de Méaultsart, Céline; Ball, Gregory et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2013), 37(5), 735-42

Sexual behavior can be usefully parsed into an appetitive and a consummatory component. Both appetitive and consummatory male-typical sexual behaviors (respectively, ASB and CSB) are activated in male ... [more ▼]

Sexual behavior can be usefully parsed into an appetitive and a consummatory component. Both appetitive and consummatory male-typical sexual behaviors (respectively, ASB and CSB) are activated in male Japanese quail by testosterone (T) acting in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), but never observed in females. This sex difference is based on a demasculinization (= organizational effect) by estradiol during embryonic life for CSB, but a differential activation by T in adulthood for ASB. Males expressing rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (RCSMs; a form of ASB) or allowed to copulate display increased Fos expression in POM. We investigated Fos brain responses in females exposed to behavioral tests after various endocrine treat- ments. T-treated females displayed RCSM, but never copulated when exposed to another female. Accordingly they showed an increased Fos expression in POM after ASB but not CSB tests. Females treated with the aromatase inhibitor Vorozole in ovo and T in adulthood displayed both male-typical ASB and CSB, and Fos expression in POM was increased after both types of tests. Thus, the neural circuit mediating ASB is present or can develop in both sexes, but is inactive in females unless they are exposed to exogenous T. In contrast, the neural mechanism mediating CSB is not normally present in females, but can be pre- served by blocking the embryonic production of estrogens. Overall these data confirm the difference in endocrine controls and probably neural mechanisms supporting ASB and CSB in quail, and highlight the complexity of mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct pathological signatures after lethal avian H5N1 and swine H1N1 influenza infections suggest variable pathogenesis.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Habyarimana, Adélite; Van de Paar, Els et al

in International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2010)

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See detailDistinct pathways in the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human fibroblasts by relaxation of mechanical tension.
Lambert, Charles ULg; Colige, Alain ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Matrix Biology (2001), 20(7), 397-408

The aim of the work was to analyze, on a comparative basis, the signaling pathways operating in the regulation of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expressed by human dermal fibroblasts submitted ... [more ▼]

The aim of the work was to analyze, on a comparative basis, the signaling pathways operating in the regulation of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expressed by human dermal fibroblasts submitted to mechanical stress relaxation by cytochalasin D (CD) and in a retracting collagen gel (RCG). The mRNA steady-state level of MMPs was measured by a quantitative RT-PCR procedure using a synthetic RNA as internal standard. In monolayer, most MMPs were barely detected, except MMP-2. Disruption of the actin stress fibers by CD induced a moderate increase of MMP-2 mRNA and a much larger stimulation of MMP-3, -9, -13 and -14 mRNAs. In RCG, a significant up-regulation of these MMPs was also observed although to a lower extent than in CD-treated monolayers. Among the investigated MMPs, the MMP-8 and -11 were not reproducibly detected. MMP-2 was processed to its active form both by CD and in RCG. The CD-induced up-regulation of gene expression was largely repressed by blocking protein synthesis by cycloheximide for all the MMPs, by inhibiting the tyrosine-kinases of the src family by herbimycin A for all MMPs, except MMP-2, and by inhibiting the TPA-inducible PKC isoforms by bisindoyl maleimide for all MMPs, except MMP-14. The up-regulation induced by stress relaxation in RCG was protein synthesis-dependent for MMP-2 and MMP-13, tyrosine kinases-dependent for MMP-3 and MMP-13, as previously described for MMP-1. Inhibiting TPA-inducible PKC did not affect any MMP in RCG except MMP-13, which was strongly induced. The processing of MMP-2 was tyrosine kinases-dependent but PKC-independent. Inhibitors of the ERK1,2 and p38 MAP kinases pathways diversely affected the MMPs expression. Inhibiting the Rho-kinase activity by Y-27632 was inactive. These results point to the potent regulation operated by the status of the cytoskeleton on the cell phenotype, and to distinct regulatory pathways involved in the control of different MMPs expression. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct regions of the medial prefrontal cortex are associated with self-referential processing and perspective taking
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Ruby, Perinne; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2007), 19(6), 935-944

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) appears to play a prominent role in two fundamental aspects of social cognition, that is, self-referential processing and perspective taking. However, it is currently ... [more ▼]

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) appears to play a prominent role in two fundamental aspects of social cognition, that is, self-referential processing and perspective taking. However, it is currently unclear whether the same or different regions of the MPFC mediate these two interdependent processes. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study sought to clarify the issue by manipulating both dimensions in a factorial design. Participants judged the extent to which trait adjectives described their own personality (e.g., 'Are you sociable?') or the personality of a close friend (e.g., 'Is Caroline sociable?') and were also asked to put themselves in the place of their friend (i.e., to take a third-person perspective) and estimate how this person would judge the adjectives, with the target of the judgments again being either the self (e.g., 'According to Caroline, are you sociable?') or the other person (e.g., 'According to Caroline, is she sociable?'). We found that self-referential processing (i.e., judgments targeting the self vs. the other person) yielded activation in the ventral and dorsal anterior MPFC, whereas perspective taking (i.e., adopting the other person's perspective, rather than one's own, when making judgments) resulted in activation in the posterior dorsal MPFC; the interaction between the two dimensions yielded activation in the left dorsal MPFC. These findings show that self-referential processing and perspective taking recruit distinct regions of the MPFC and suggest that the left dorsal MPFC may be involved in decoupling one's own from other people's perspectives on the self. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct Signal Transduction Pathways Mediate Nuclear Factor-Kappab Induction by Il-1beta in Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Piette, Jacques ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (1997), 159(11), 5264-72

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells ... [more ▼]

We previously demonstrated that IL-1beta-mediated induction of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor proceeds through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in lymphoid cells, while it occurs independently of any oxidative stress in epithelial transformed cells. Indeed, inhibition of receptor internalization as well as NH4Cl and chloroquine blocked IL-1beta-mediated induction of NF-kappaB in OVCAR-3 and in other epithelial cell lines but not in lymphoid cells, indicating that distinct pathways are involved. Conversely, while we observed phospholipase A2 activity in both cell types following IL-1beta stimulation, specific inhibitors of this enzyme inhibited NF-kappaB induction only in lymphoid cells. Moreover, expression of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme was not detected in epithelial cells, and inhibition of this enzyme blocked NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta only in lymphoid cells. This study thus indicates that the activation of NF-kappaB following IL-1beta treatment involves the activation of phospholipase A2 and 5-LOX and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in lymphoid cells, while in epithelial cells, another pathway predominates and could involve the acid sphingomyelinase. Moreover, arachidonic acid could induce NF-kappaB in epithelial and lymphoid cells, but this activation involved the 5-LOX enzyme and the production of ROIs only in lymphoid cells. The inefficiency of the ROI pathway in epithelial cells is probably the consequence of both low ROI production due to undetectable expression of 5-LOX and rapid degradation of hydrogen peroxide due to high catalase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct T cell subsets and cytokine production in cultures derived from transformation zone and squamous intraepithelial lesion biopsies of the uterine cervix.
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Renard, Isabelle; Al-Saleh, Walid et al

in American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2003), 49(1), 6-13

PROBLEM: The characterization of lymphocytes issued from squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and from the transformation zone (TZ), where the majority of SIL occur, is important to understand the role ... [more ▼]

PROBLEM: The characterization of lymphocytes issued from squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and from the transformation zone (TZ), where the majority of SIL occur, is important to understand the role of immunity in SIL development. METHOD OF STUDY: We compared lymphocyte populations of the TZ and SIL with those of normal exocervix, using a technique allowing for the isolation of lymphocytes, either from the epithelium or from the underlying stroma of small biopsies. RESULTS: The majority of cells derived from the epithelium of all biopsies were CD8+ T cells. Some SIL-derived cultures were characterized by an increased proportion of activated TCRgammadelta+. The production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was significantly higher in lymphocyte cultures from the normal TZ in comparison with the exocervix. A decreased percentage of effector T cells was observed in cultures derived from the stroma of normal TZ (TCRgammadelta+) or SIL (CD8+) in comparison with the exocervix. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a low proportion of effector T cells and IL10 production could contribute to the predisposition of the TZ to the development of SIL and to the progression of SIL to cervical cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct tissue cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in canine sino-nasal aspergillosis and idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Peters, I. R.; Helps, C. R. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2007), 117

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (LPR) and sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) are among the most common causes of nasal discharge in dogs. The pathogenesis of both diseases is poorly understood. Some ... [more ▼]

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (LPR) and sino-nasal aspergillosis (SNA) are among the most common causes of nasal discharge in dogs. The pathogenesis of both diseases is poorly understood. Some have proposed that LPR is a chronic inflammatory response to an inhaled irritant, pollutant or allergen, but others suggest that most cases of LPR constitute undiagnosed cases of SNA. Local immune dysfunction is thought to permit opportunist infection in canine SNA. This study investigates the nature of the local tissue immune response mounted in canine LPR and SNA in order to determine whether these diseases have similar or distinct pathogenesis. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was carried out on RNA isolated from nasal biopsies from diseased and control dogs, using specific assays designed to amplify messenger RNA (mRNA), encoding a panel of cytokines and chemokines. SNA was associated with significantly increased expression of mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p19, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, eotaxin-2 and all four monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) relative to controls. LPR was associated with significantly increased expression of mRNA encoding IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p19, IL12p40, IL-18, TNF-alpha, TGF-(3, MCP-2 and MCP-3 relative to controls. There was significantly more expression of mRNA encoding IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TGF-(3 and all MCPs, and significantly less expression of IL-5 in dogs with SNA than in dogs with LPR. Thus, the profile of cytokine and chemokine gene expression in the nasal mucosa is different in dogs with LPR when compared to dogs with SNA. A partial Th2 immune response appears to be mounted in the nasal mucosa of dogs with LPR, whereas the mucosal immune response in canine SNA is of the Th1 type. Increase in IL-10 and TGF-(3 transcripts in dogs with SNA is thought to be implicated in the failure to clear the Aspergillus infection. These results constitute the first evidence that the pathogenesis of canine LPR and SNA is distinct. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinction
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Glinoer, Anthony; Saint-Amand, Denis (Eds.) Lexique Socius (2014)

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See detailLa distinction auctoriale entre petits : les auteurs de Physiologies
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Scientific conference (2011, March 26)

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See detailDistinction Between Cultivated And Wild Chicory Gene Pools Using Aflp Markers
Van Cutsem, P.; Du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Boutte, C. et al

in Theoretical & Applied Genetics = Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik (2003), 107(4),

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See detailDistinction by micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrical analysis of copper phthalocyanine blue polymorphs in oil-based and acrylic samples
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Learner, Tom et al

in Van den berg, K.J.; Burnstock, A.; de Tagle, A. (Eds.) et al Issues in Contemporary Oil Paints (2014)

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue, commonly named phthalo blue is the most important synthetic organic blue pigment in the 20th and 21st century artists paints. Phthalo blue, which is adopted by artists ... [more ▼]

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue, commonly named phthalo blue is the most important synthetic organic blue pigment in the 20th and 21st century artists paints. Phthalo blue, which is adopted by artists since 1936, is a polymorphous pigment. Currently, the alpha, beta and epsilon CuPc polymorphs are used in artists paint formulations. The identification of the CuPc crystal form provides technical and chronological information relevant for studying artworks. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) is a very valuable technique for the detection of phthalo blue in paint layers. However, the spectral interpretation is not straightforward concerning the CuPc polymorph distinction. To overcome the problem we have previously developed a procedure combining RS and chemometrical analysis. The experimental results that we obtained have demonstrated its efficiency for predicting the CuPc crystal form in unknown paint samples. In the present work, this procedure was applied on oil-based and acrylic paints from Sam Francis’ studio and the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) Reference Collection. [less ▲]

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