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See detailLes déclinaisons de l'identité en Wallonie. Couplage et divorces entre électorats, appartenances et prises de position en matière communautaire et institutionnelle
Jacquemain, Marc ULg; Vandekeere, Michel; Doutrelepont, René

in Frognier, André-Paul; Aish-Van Vaerenberghe, Anne-Marie (Eds.) Elections, la fêlure : enquête sur le comportant électoral des Wallons et des Francopohnes (1994)

The paper synthesizes how different kinds of national/regional affiliations among frenchspeaking belgian public, measured by surveys can affect their electora behaviour and their policy preferences

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See detailLes déclinatoires de compétence
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in L'instance (2013)

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See detailDecline of antibiotic use in primary care.
Frippiat, Frédéric ULg; Chandrikakumari, Kavitha; Moutschen, Michel ULg

in Lancet Infectious Diseases (2008), 8(5), 272273

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See detailDecline Of Endemic Oncocyclus Irises (Iridaceae) Of Lebanon: Survey And Conservation Needs
Saad, Layla ULg; Talhouk, Salma; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in Oryx (2009), 43(1), 91-96

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See detailDecline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory
Capet, Arthur ULg; Stanev, Emil; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2016), 13

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See detailThe decline of weorðan in English versus the grammaticalization of werden in German
Petré, Peter ULg

Conference (2010, August 27)

The passive construction consitutes a marked difference between English, which uses the auxiliary be, and German, which uses werden ‘become’. Zieglschmid (1931), however, showed that that originally both ... [more ▼]

The passive construction consitutes a marked difference between English, which uses the auxiliary be, and German, which uses werden ‘become’. Zieglschmid (1931), however, showed that that originally both languages used both verbs. I argue that English lost weorðan (the cognate of werden) when it abandoned the bounded construal of narratives, inherited from Germanic, while German further grammaticalized this system, with the further grammaticalization of werden as a consequence. The original variation is illustrated for Old High German in (2), where sein functions as actional passive auxiliary (next to the frequent occurrence of werden), a choice no longer available in Middle High German (3). Similarly, Old English (4) still has passive weorðan (next to be), but this verb has disappeared from Middle English (5). (1) Latin Ecce aperti sunt ei caeli “See: opened are him:DAT heavens” (Mt. 3.16) (2) Old High German Senu tho aroffonota warun imo himila “See, then opened were him:DAT heavens” (c830) (3) Middle High German Und secht die himel wurden im auf getan “And see the heavens got him:DAT open made” (c1466) (4) Old English & him wurdon þærrihte heofenas ontynede “and him:DAT got immediately heavens opened” (c1025) (5) Middle English and lo! heuenes weren openyd to hym (c1384) I argue that Germanic was a moderately bounded language. Bounded languages construe situations as completed sub-events, emphasizing narrative progress, and make abundant use of time adverbials (Carroll, Stutterheim & Nuese 2004), which split up an event chronologically and often take up the first position in a verb-second system. In German the bounded system became further grammaticalized, for instance through the fixation of the verb-second system. The concomitant grammaticalization of werden is explained by its bounding change-of-state semantics that denotes completed events. In English the bounded system disappears, as can be seen from the heavy decrease of time adverbials of narrative progress (þærrihte ‘immediately’ in (4), but mostly þa ‘then’: Kemenade & Los 2006) and the confusion of verb-second-syntax (Los 2009). Weorðan, being highly entrenched in these constructions, disappears with them. By appealing to the bounded-unbounded distinction, it is thus possible to account for a major difference in the auxiliary system between English and German. References Carroll, Mary, Christiane von Stutterheim & Ralf Nuese. 2004. The language and thought debate: A psycholinguistic approach. In Thomas Pechmann and Christopher Habel (eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to language production (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 157), 183-218. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Kemenade, Ans van & Bettelou Los. 2006. Discourse adverbs and clausal syntax in Old and Middle English. In Ans van Kemenade & Bettelou Los (eds.), The Handbook of the History of English, 224–48. Oxford: Blackwell. Los, Bettelou. 2009. The consequences of the loss of verb-second in English: Information structure and syntax in interaction. English Language and Linguistics 13(1), 97-125. Zieglschmid, A. J. Friedrich. 1931. Werdan and wesan with the passive in various Germanic languages. Germanic Review 6(4). 389-396. [less ▲]

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See detailDécloisonner l'art contemporain à partir des cultures vernaculaires
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Article for general public (2015)

Multipliant les formats et décloisonnant les genres, Nil Yalter revendique pour ses projets plastiques une dimension ethnographique. La démarche documentaire adoptée par l'artiste depuis les années 1970 ... [more ▼]

Multipliant les formats et décloisonnant les genres, Nil Yalter revendique pour ses projets plastiques une dimension ethnographique. La démarche documentaire adoptée par l'artiste depuis les années 1970 constitue pour elle l'occasion de transformer des éléments traditionnels vernaculaires et de les actualiser dans une perspective engagée - qui ouvre un régime de visibilité aux minorités. Pour un art contemporain branché sur des cultures populaires où le nomade, la femme, l'exilé, l'étranger, trouvent une voix nouvelle. [less ▲]

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See detailLe décodage de l’œuvre d’art selon Arsène Soreil
Delhalle, Nancy ULg

in Art&Fact (1989)

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See detailDécoder les hiéroglyphes. De l'antiquité tardive à l'Expédition d'Egypte
Winand, Jean ULg

Book published by Académie royale de Belgique (2014)

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See detailDécoder les nouveaux instruments de gestion de l’enseignement supérieur
Fallon, Catherine ULg

in Charlier Jean Emile, Croché Sarah (Ed.) Contrôler la qualité dans l’enseignement supérieur (2012)

L’européanisation de l’enseignement supérieur a connu une accélération brutale avec le lancement du processus de Bologne, à la fin du XXe siècle. Avec lui, les différences entre les modèles d’enseignement ... [more ▼]

L’européanisation de l’enseignement supérieur a connu une accélération brutale avec le lancement du processus de Bologne, à la fin du XXe siècle. Avec lui, les différences entre les modèles d’enseignement supérieur générés par l’histoire ont été estompées pour multiplier les possibilités d’échanges de professeurs, d’étudiants et de chercheurs. Toutes les universités ne sont pourtant pas ouvertes à n’importe quel étudiant ou chercheur. La standardisation des structures appelle des moyens de différencier les établissements et d’estimer la valeur de la formation offerte par chacun d’eux. Dans un monde ouvert, où les responsables ne se connaissent pas suffisamment, l’assurance qualité devient l’imparable substitut à la confiance. Les textes rassemblés dans ce volume cherchent à instruire le dossier de la qualité en croisant des points de vue contrastés. Loin des discours de la propagande autant que de ceux de la dénonciation, chaque contribution présente des éléments factuels et des analyses qui sont autant de points d’appui proposés à la réflexion. Certains textes sont critiques par rapport à la manière dont l’assurance tend à s’imposer et au projet de société auquel elle est associée, d’autres montrent comment fonctionne concrètement la logistique de l’assurance qualité, ou en quoi elle peut être utile. [less ▲]

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See detailDécoder les nouveaux instruments de gestion de l’enseignement supérieur
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 09)

Les processus de gestion de la qualité sont relativement récents dans l'enseignement universitaire en Belgique francophone. Sous la pression européenne, avec le soutien des responsables des universités ... [more ▼]

Les processus de gestion de la qualité sont relativement récents dans l'enseignement universitaire en Belgique francophone. Sous la pression européenne, avec le soutien des responsables des universités, les autorités ont mis en places des dispositifs d''évaluation tout à fait nouveaux. Après quelques années de rodage, ces instruments semblent se stabiliser, bien qu'ils continuent encore à susciter çà et là des réactions de rejet. Pour mieux comprendre ces dynamiques, c'est par la base qu'il convient de démarrer l'analyse, pour suivre au plus près les instruments d'évaluation, leur mode d'emploi et comprendre leurs effets inattendus au sein des universités, mais pour observer l'émergence de nouveaux modes de coordination entre universités, avec l'administration, ou avec les autres acteurs sociaux. Ce chapitre présente en détail le processus d'évaluation, après un bref rappel de ses origines et du contexte qui a favorisé son émergence. Ensuite, il proposera un analyse transversale de cet instrument d'action publique : en quoi les nouvelles formes de coopération qui se mettent en place sont emblématiques à la fois d'un nouveau rapport entre gouvernants et gouvernés mais aussi entre les universités et la société qui les nourrit tout en lui fiant leurs enfants. [less ▲]

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See detailDécoder les verrous d’apprentissage d’une discipline
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Devyver, Julie ULg; Duchâteau, Dominique ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 21)

L’ULg a conduit une expérience pilote avec quelques enseignants. Elle vise à estimer le potentiel didactique et pédagogique d’un travail sur les « verrous d’apprentissage » (traduction délibérément ... [more ▼]

L’ULg a conduit une expérience pilote avec quelques enseignants. Elle vise à estimer le potentiel didactique et pédagogique d’un travail sur les « verrous d’apprentissage » (traduction délibérément adaptée de « bottleneck ») pour lutter contre l’échec, ou plutôt pour relever le défi de l’intégration intellectuelle du plus grand nombre. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding Directed Brain Activity in fMRI using Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Processes
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Kussé, Caroline ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

Poster (2011, June 26)

Predicting a particular cognitive state from a specific pattern of fMRI voxel values is still a methodological challenge. Decoding brain activity is usually performed in highly controlled experimental ... [more ▼]

Predicting a particular cognitive state from a specific pattern of fMRI voxel values is still a methodological challenge. Decoding brain activity is usually performed in highly controlled experimental paradigms characterized by a series of distinct states induced by a temporally constrained experimental design. In more realistic conditions, the number, sequence and duration of mental states are unpredictably generated by the individual, resulting in complex and imbalanced fMRI data sets. This study tests the classification of brain activity, acquired on 16 volunteers using fMRI, during mental imagery, a condition in which the number and duration of mental events were not externally imposed but self-generated. To deal with these issues, two classification techniques were considered (Support Vector Machines, SVM, and Gaussian Processes, GP), as well as different feature extraction methods (General Linear Model, GLM and SVM). These techniques were combined in order to identify the procedures leading to the highest accuracy measures. Our results showed that 12 data sets out of 16 could be significantly modeled by either SVM or GP. Model accuracies tended to be related to the degree of imbalance between classes and to task performance of the volunteers. We also conclude that the GP technique tends to be more robust than SVM to model unbalanced data sets. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding implicit information from the soil map of Belgium and implications for spatial modelling and soil classification
Dondeyne, Stefaan; Legrain, Xavier ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2014, April 29)

A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. Soil surveyors were ... [more ▼]

A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. Soil surveyors were classifying soils in the field according to physical and morphogenetic characteristics such as texture, drainage class and profile development. Mapping units are defined as a combination of these characteristics but to which modifiers can be added such as parent material, stoniness or depth to substrata. Interpretation of the map towards predicting soil properties seems straight forward. Consequently, since the soil map has been digitized, it has been used for e.g. hydrological modelling or for estimating soil organic carbon content at sub-national and national level. Besides the explicit information provided by the legend, a wealth of implicit information is embedded in the map. Based on three cases, we illustrate that by decoding this information, properties pertaining to soil drainage or soil organic carbon content can be assessed more accurately. First, the presence/absence of fragipans affects the soil hydraulic conductivity. Although a dedicated symbol exits for fragipans (suffix “...m”), it is only used explicitly in areas where fragipans are not all that common. In the Belgian Ardennes, where fragipans are common, their occurrence is implicitly implied for various soil types mentioned in explanatory booklets. Second, whenever seasonal or permanent perched water tables were observed, these were indicated by drainage class “.h.” or “.i.”, respectively. Stagnic properties have been under reported as typical stagnic mottling – i.e. when the surface of soil peds are lighter and/or paler than the more reddish interior – were not distinguished from mottling due to groundwater gley. Still, by combining information on topography and the occurrence of substratum layers, stagnic properties can be inferred. Thirdly, soils with deep anthropogenic enriched organic matter (Anthrosols) are distinguished for their specific profile development (code “..m”). Obviously, when assessing soil organic carbon content these soil types need particular consideration. Soils in the Campine region with anthropogenic layers only 30 to 40 cm thick, not being Anthrosols, got a specific suffix code (“. . . 3”). Still, as these soils may have a buried Ah horizon of up to 20 cm, their soil organic carbon content can be comparable to those of Anthrosols. The buried Ah horizon is however not explicitly mapped; its presence needs to be inferred from other environmental information. In conclusion, conventional soil maps convey more information than what transpires from just the explicit legend’s semantics. Although a challenge, decoding the implicit information should be particularly useful for spatial modeling. The cases also point to the importance of classifying soil characteristics explicitly, wherever possible, and in particularly when soil maps are integrated into geographical information systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding intracranial EEG data with multiple kernel learning method
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2016), 261

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced ... [more ▼]

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced the field of neuroimaging, their application to electrophysiological data has been less common especially in the analysis of human intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG, also known as electrocorticography or ECoG) data, which contains a rich spectrum of signals recorded from a relatively high number of recording sites. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach to determine the contribution of different bandwidths of EEG signal in different recording sites across different experimental conditions using the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) method. To validate and compare the usefulness of our approach, we applied this method to an ECoG dataset that was previously analysed and published with univariate methods. Our findings proved the usefulness of the MKL method in detecting changes in the power of various frequency bands during a given task and selecting automatically the most contributory signal in the most contributory site(s) of recording. With a single computation, the contribution of each frequency band in each recording site in the estimated multivariate model can be highlighted, which then allows formulation of hypotheses that can be tested a posteriori with univariate methods if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding memory processing from electro-corticography in human posteromedial cortex
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Foster, Brett L.; Rangarajan, Vinitha et al

in International Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Neuroimaging (2014, June)

Recently machine learning models have been applied to neuroimaging data, which allow predictions about a variable of interest based on the pattern of activation or anatomy over a set of voxels. These ... [more ▼]

Recently machine learning models have been applied to neuroimaging data, which allow predictions about a variable of interest based on the pattern of activation or anatomy over a set of voxels. These pattern recognition based methods present clear benefits over classical (univariate) techniques, by providing predictions for unseen data, as well as the weights of each feature in the model. Machine learning methods have been applied to a range of data, from MRI to EEG. However, these multivariate techniques have scarcely been applied to electrocorticography (ECoG) data to investigate cognitive neuroscience questions. In this work, we used previously published ECoG data from 8 subjects to show that machine learning techniques can complement univariate techniques and be more sensitive to certain effects. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding neural correlates of verbal working memory by attention-based visual working memory.
Majerus, Steve ULg; Cowan, N.; Péters, N. et al

Scientific conference (2014)

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See detailDecoding of the light changes in eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binaries. I. A non-classical approach to the solution of light curves
Perrier, C.; Breysacher, J.; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 503

Aims. We present a technique to determine the orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing eccentric Wolf-Rayet + O-star binaries, where one eclipse is produced by the absorption of the O-star light by ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present a technique to determine the orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing eccentric Wolf-Rayet + O-star binaries, where one eclipse is produced by the absorption of the O-star light by the stellar wind of the W-R star. Methods: Our method is based on the use of the empirical moments of the light curve that are integral transforms evaluated from the observed light curves. The optical depth along the line of sight and the limb darkening of the W-R star are modelled by simple mathematical functions, and we derive analytical expressions for the moments of the light curve as a function of the orbital parameters and the key parameters of the transparency and limb-darkening functions. These analytical expressions are then inverted in order to derive the values of the orbital inclination, the stellar radii, the fractional luminosities, and the parameters of the wind transparency and limb-darkening laws. Results: The method is applied to the SMC W-R eclipsing binary HD 5980, a remarkable object that underwent an LBV-like event in August 1994. The analysis refers to the pre-outburst observational data. A synthetic light curve based on the elements derived for the system allows a quality assessment of the results obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding Semi-Constrained Brain Activity from fMRI Using Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Processes
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Kussé, Caroline ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(4),

Predicting a particular cognitive state from a specific pattern of fMRI voxel values is still a methodological challenge. Decoding brain activity is usually performed in highly controlled experimental ... [more ▼]

Predicting a particular cognitive state from a specific pattern of fMRI voxel values is still a methodological challenge. Decoding brain activity is usually performed in highly controlled experimental paradigms characterized by a series of distinct states induced by a temporally constrained experimental design. In more realistic conditions, the number, sequence and duration of mental states are unpredictably generated by the individual, resulting in complex and imbalanced fMRI data sets. This study tests the classification of brain activity, acquired on 16 volunteers using fMRI, during mental imagery, a condition in which the number and duration of mental events were not externally imposed but self-generated. To deal with these issues, two classification techniques were considered (Support Vector Machines, SVM, and Gaussian Processes, GP), as well as different feature extraction methods (General Linear Model, GLM and SVM). These techniques were combined in order to identify the procedures leading to the highest accuracy measures. Our results showed that 12 data sets out of 16 could be significantly modeled by either SVM or GP. Model accuracies tended to be related to the degree of imbalance between classes and to task performance of the volunteers. We also conclude that the GP technique tends to be more robust than SVM to model unbalanced data sets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (22 ULg)