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See detailEffects of the electrode positions on the dynamical behaviour of electrostatically actuated MEMS resonators
Pustan, Marius ULg; Paquay, Stéphane; Rochus, Véronique et al

(2011, April 18)

The influence of the lower electrode positions on the dynamic response of polysilicon MEMS resonators is studied and presented in this paper. The change in the frequency response of investigated MEMS ... [more ▼]

The influence of the lower electrode positions on the dynamic response of polysilicon MEMS resonators is studied and presented in this paper. The change in the frequency response of investigated MEMS resonators as function of the lower electrode positions is measured using a vibrometer analyzer. The decrease in the amplitude and velocity of oscillations if the lower electrode is moved from the beam free-end toward to the beam anchor is experimental monitored. The measurements are performed in ambient conditions in order to characterize the forced-response Q-factor of samples. A decrease of the Q- factor if the lower electrode is moved toward to the beam anchor is experimental determined. Different responses of MEMS resonators may be obtained if the position of the lower electrode is modified. Indeed the resonator stiffness, velocity and amplitude of oscillations are changed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the H(3) receptor inverse agonist thioperamide on cocaine-induced locomotion in mice: role of the histaminergic system and potential pharmacokinetic interactions.
Brabant, Christian ULg; Alleva, Livia ULg; Grisar, Thierry ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (2009), 202(4), 673-87

RATIONALE: Previous studies have shown that intraperitoneal injections of thioperamide, an imidazole-based H(3) receptor inverse agonist that enhances histamine release in the brain, potentiate cocaine ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Previous studies have shown that intraperitoneal injections of thioperamide, an imidazole-based H(3) receptor inverse agonist that enhances histamine release in the brain, potentiate cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. The present study examined the involvement of the histaminergic system in these effects of thioperamide in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated whether immepip, a selective H(3) agonist, could reverse the potentiating effects of thioperamide. Moreover, the non-imidazole H(3) inverse agonist A-331440 was tested on the locomotor effects of cocaine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, cocaine plasma concentrations were measured to study potential drug-drug interactions between thioperamide and cocaine. Finally, thioperamide was tested on the locomotor effects of cocaine in histamine-deficient knockout mice in order to determine the contribution of histamine to the modulating effects of thioperamide. RESULTS: Thioperamide potentiated cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion in normal mice, and to a higher extent, in histamine-deficient knockout mice. A-331440 only slightly affected the locomotor effects of cocaine. Immepip did not alter cocaine-induced hyperactivity but significantly reduced the potentiating actions of thioperamide on cocaine's effects. Finally, plasma cocaine concentrations were more elevated in mice treated with thioperamide than in mice that received cocaine alone. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that histamine released by thioperamide through the blockade of H(3) autoreceptors is not involved in the ability of this compound to potentiate cocaine induced-hyperactivity. Our data suggest that thioperamide, at least at 10 mg/kg, increases cocaine-induced locomotion through the combination of pharmacokinetic effects and the blockade of H(3) receptors located on non-histaminergic neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the H-3-receptor inverse agonist thioperamide on the psychornotor effects induced by acutely and repeatedly given cocaine in C57BL/6J mice
Brabant, Christian ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2006), 83(4), 561-569

Previous studies have shown that histamine H(3) blockers potentiate the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. The present study examined the influence of thioperamide, an inverse H(3) receptor ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have shown that histamine H(3) blockers potentiate the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. The present study examined the influence of thioperamide, an inverse H(3) receptor agonist, on the development of psychomotor sensitization and stereotyped activity induced by acute or intermittent cocaine in C57BL/6J mice. In the first experiment, mice were injected i.p. with saline, 10 or 20mg/kg thioperamide and saline or 8mg/kg cocaine, 10min apart, before being tested for their locomotor activity (providing data on the acute effects of thioperamide on cocaine-induced activity). Subsequently, mice were treated in the same manner every other day over six additional sessions. Sensitization was assessed by the responsiveness to a cocaine challenge (8mg/kg, i.p.) given 2 and 14days following the intermittent treatment. In experiments 2 and 3, we tested the effects of thioperamide (10 or 20mg/kg, i.p.) on gnawing and sniffing induced or affected by relatively high doses of cocaine (24 or 32mg/kg, s.c.), the drugs being given 10min apart. In the first experiment, both doses of thioperamide amplified cocaine-induced psychomotor hyperactivity almost on all experimental sessions. However, the histamine inverse agonist did not affect the induction of a psychomotor sensitization. All cocaine-treated mice showed similar levels of sensitized activity 2 and 14days after the intermittent treatments, whether they received thioperamide or not. The second and the third experiments showed that thioperamide did not affect gnawing and sniffing induced by cocaine. Taken together, these results indicate that H(3) receptors clearly contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms of the locomotor component of cocaine-induced psychomotor activation, but less likely to those underlying the development of cocaine behavioral sensitization or the expression of cocaine-induced oro-facial stereotypies. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the interaction between habitat properties and disturbance characteristics on the interior/edge ratio.
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Verbeeck, A; Impens, I

in Farina, A (Ed.) Proceedings of the VII International Congress of Ecology (1998)

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See detailEffects of the lenght of the grazing period on animal performances in fattening bulls finished indoor
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Limbourg, Pierre; Gauthier, Sabine et al

in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of E.A.A.P. (1994)

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See detailEffects of the MMP inhibitor GM-6001 on emphysema development, infllammation and MMPs activity induced by cadmium in rats
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Kirschvinck, N.; Belleflamme, N. et al

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (2006), 20

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See detailEffects Of The Nature Of Nitrogen Supplementation On Voluntary Intake, Rumen Parameters And Ruminal Degradation Of Dry Matter In Sheep Fed Oat Silage-Based Diets
Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Haddad, L.; Kayouli, Chedly et al

in Small Ruminant Research (2003), 48(3), 181-187

The effects of nature of nitrogen supplementation on silageDMintake (SDMI), totalDMintake (TDMI), rumen parameters and ruminal degradation of DM of silage and wheat straw were studied using four adult ... [more ▼]

The effects of nature of nitrogen supplementation on silageDMintake (SDMI), totalDMintake (TDMI), rumen parameters and ruminal degradation of DM of silage and wheat straw were studied using four adult Noire de Thibar rams. Silage was made from predominantly oats harvested at milk stage and ensiled without preservative. The silage was offered ad libitum as the sole diet (OS) or supplemented with 450 g DM of iso-nitrogen (25.6 g/kg DM) and iso-energy (0.8 Unité Fourragère Lait: UFL/kg DM) concentrate containing soybean meal (SBM), urea (UR) or poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen supplements. SDMI (g/kgW0.75 × day) and TDMI (g/kgW0.75 × day) were affected (P < 0.001) by the type of supplement and averaged 63.9, 60.1, 54.9, 51.1 and 63.9, 81.4, 74.8, 72.2 for OS, SBM, PL and UR diets, respectively. In comparison with other diets, SBM diet systematically decreased (P < 0.05) the pH of the rumen after the morning feeding and reduced the rumen concentration of total VFA at 1 h after feeding. SBM diet decreased DM disappearance of the oat silage incubated in nylon bags for 72 h (P < 0.05), but not of wheat straw. The three supplements increased the ammonia-N concentrations in the rumen for several hours after feeding in comparison with the OS diet. However, only the SBM diet kept this difference just before the next meal. It is concluded that despite its low nutritive value (0.62 UFL and 108 g crude protein/kg DM), the oat silage is well consumed by the local ruminants accustomed to use poor forages for a long time. In Tunisia, poultry litter may be used as a nitrogen source to supplement the oat silage for sheep. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the Nonsteroidal Inhibitor R76713 on Testosterone-Induced Sexual Behavior in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Evrard, L.; Surlemont, C.

in Hormones & Behavior (1990), 24(4), 510-31

A new triazole derivative, R76713 (6-[4-chlorophenyl)(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]-1-methyl-1H- benzotriazole), was recently shown to inhibit aromatase selectively without affecting other steroid ... [more ▼]

A new triazole derivative, R76713 (6-[4-chlorophenyl)(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]-1-methyl-1H- benzotriazole), was recently shown to inhibit aromatase selectively without affecting other steroid-metabolizing enzymes and without interacting with estrogen, progestin, or androgen receptors. This compound was tested for its capacity to intefere with the induction of copulatory behavior by testosterone (T) in castrated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In a first experiment, R76713 inhibited (range 0.01 to 1 mg/kg) the activation of sexual behavior by T silastic implants and hypothalamic aromatase activity in castrated male quail in a dose-dependent manner. The 5 alpha- and 5 beta- reductases of T were not systematically affected. Stereotaxic implantation of R76713 in the medial preoptic area similarly blocked the behavior activated by systemic treatment with T, demonstrating that central aromatization of androgen is implicated in the activation of behavior. These inhibiting effects of R76713 on behavior were observed when implants were placed in the medial part of the nucleus preopticus medialis, confirming the implication of this brain area in the control of male copulatory behavior. Finally, the behavioral inhibition produced by R76713 could be reversed by simultaneous treatment with a dose of estradiol, which was not behaviorally effective by itself. This suggests that the behavioral deficit induced by the inhibitor was specifically due to the suppression of estrogen production. This also shows that the activation of copulatory behavior probably results from the interaction of androgens and estrogens at the brain level, as the two treatments separately providing these hormonal stimuli (T with the aromatase inhibitor on one hand and a low dose of estradiol on the other hand) had almost no behavioral effects but they synergized to activate copulation when given concurrently. These data confirm the critical role of preoptic aromatase in the activation of reproductive behavior and demonstrate that R76713 is a useful tool for the in vivo study of estrogen-dependent processes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the Noradrenergic Neurotoxin Dsp-4 on Luteinizing Hormone Levels, Catecholamine Concentrations, Alpha 2-Adrenergic Receptor Binding, and Aromatase Activity in the Brain of the Japanese Quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, G. F.

in Brain Research (1989), 492(1-2), 163-75

Previous investigations have established that DSP-4 reliably enhances the activating effects of testosterone on copulatory behavior in adult male quail. In the present study, we wanted to clarify the ... [more ▼]

Previous investigations have established that DSP-4 reliably enhances the activating effects of testosterone on copulatory behavior in adult male quail. In the present study, we wanted to clarify the neurochemical changes that parallel these behavioral effects and to determine whether DSP-4 also affects non-behavioral steroid-dependent sexually dimorphic reproductive processes. We first showed using the Palkovits microdissection technique combined with assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that DSP-4 specifically depletes norepinephrine in several nuclei of the brain such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus or the intercollicular nucleus but leaves intact the noradrenergic innervation in other areas such as the infundibulum or nucleus accumbens. Other amines such as dopamine and serotonin were not affected by the drug. Surprisingly DSP-4 did not decrease the binding of tritiated p-aminoclonidine in any of the brain areas which were studied by quantitative autoradiography. This suggests that most of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptors are located at the postsynaptic level but alternative interpretations are discussed. Testosterone treatment of castrated birds specifically reduced the density of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the dorsal infundibulum and in the medial mammillary nucleus. The possible relations of this receptor change to the control of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion are discussed. Finally it was shown that DSP-4 treatment decreases plasma LH levels (which reveals the stimulatory effect of norepinephrine on LH secretion) but increases the testosterone-induced aromatase activity in the preoptic area. This latter effect could be one of the mechanisms by which DSP-4 potentiates copulatory behavior in testosterone-treated quail. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the roll forming process on the mechanical properties of thin-walled sections made of non linear metallic materials
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Degée, Hervé ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Thin Walled Structures: ICTWS2011, Timisoara 5-7 September 2011 (2011, September 05)

It is well known that the cold-forming process is likely to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of the profile by strain hardening leading to increased resistance compared to a resistance ... [more ▼]

It is well known that the cold-forming process is likely to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of the profile by strain hardening leading to increased resistance compared to a resistance assessment based on nominal properties. It is thus necessary to accurately determine the mechanical properties after the cold process of fabrication. The knowledge on these enhanced properties is rather good for profiles made of traditional construction steel (carbon steel with yield strength between 200 and 400 MPa) characterized by an elasticplastic behaviour. However less information is available for profiles made of materials exhibiting a non linear stress-strain relationship. In this context, the paper presents a parametric study on roll-profiled channel sections. For that purpose, the finite element code METAFOR developed at the LTAS division of the University of Liège is used to simulate the forming process of profiles made of high strength steel and of stainless steel. In the simulations, different values of the radius to thickness ratio of the corners are considered. The results of the numerical simulations are expressed in terms of resulting proof strength in the corners versus the radius to thickness ratio for the different materials. They are finally compared to existing predictive formulations. Additional considerations are also given on the forming process itself (i.e. on the configuration of the rolls or on the springback). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the social conditions of housing through testing on cocaine-induced contextual sensitisation and conditioned locomotion in C57BL/6J mice
Michel, Alexa ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (2002), 26(6), 1185-1191

The potential differential effects of isolated and collective housing through the testing phase on sensitisation to cocaine-induced locomotion, the subsequent conditioned locomotion and the context ... [more ▼]

The potential differential effects of isolated and collective housing through the testing phase on sensitisation to cocaine-induced locomotion, the subsequent conditioned locomotion and the context-dependent expression of sensitisation were examined in C57BL/6J male mice. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels
Happi Emaga, Thomas ULg; Andrianaivo, Rado; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2007), 103(2), 590-600

A study of the chemical composition of six varieties of fruit peels of the banana and plantain: dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) cooking banana (Musa ABB) and hybrid (Musa AAAB) at three ... [more ▼]

A study of the chemical composition of six varieties of fruit peels of the banana and plantain: dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) cooking banana (Musa ABB) and hybrid (Musa AAAB) at three stages of ripeness, was carried out in order to explore their potential applications. The varieties did not affect chemical constituents in a consistent manner. Peel of the six varieties was rich in total dietary fibre (TDF) (40-50%). The protein content in peel of the banana and plantain was 8-11%. Leucine, valine, phenylalanine and threonine were essential amino acids in significant quantities: Lysine was the limiting amino acid. The content of lipid varied from 2.2% to 10.9% and was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Potassium was the most significant mineral element. Peel of plantain was richer in starch than were the banana peels. Maturation of fruits involved increase in soluble sugar content and, at the same time, decrease in starch. The degradation of the starch under the action of the endogenous enzymes, may explain the increase in the soluble sugar content. Further investigations on the composition and the physiological functions (using animal-feeding experiments) of these dietary fibres must be considered. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of therapeutic measures taken during the aura
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Amery, W. K.; Wauquier, A. (Eds.) The Prelude of the Migraine Attack (1986)

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See detailEffects of thiazolidinediones on tumor necrosis factor R alpha induced inflammatory cytokine expression
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Warsée, Barbara; Mélotte, D. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailEffects of thiol reagents on Streptomyces K15 DD-peptidase-catalysed reactions
Leyh-Bouille, Mélina; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine ULg; Bellefroid-Bourguignon, Catherine et al

in Biochemical Journal (1987), 241(3), 893-897

The 26,000-Mr DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 binds one equivalent of thiol reagents as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) or p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB). Derivatization of the DD-peptidase by pCMB ... [more ▼]

The 26,000-Mr DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 binds one equivalent of thiol reagents as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) or p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB). Derivatization of the DD-peptidase by pCMB decreases the efficacy of the initial binding of the ester carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate to the enzyme (K), the rate of enzyme acylation by the donor (K+2) and the rate of enzyme deacylation (k+3). However, the value of the k+2/k+3 ratio, and therefore the percentage of total enzyme which, at saturating concentrations of the donor, is present as acyl-enzyme at the steady state of the reaction, are not modified. The enzyme's binding sites for pCMB and benzylpenicillin are not mutually exclusive. But, when compared with the native enzyme, the pCMB-derivatized enzyme undergoes acylation by benzylpenicillin with a decreased second-order-rate constant (k+2/K) value and gives rise to a penicilloyl adduct of increased stability. Since the acyl-enzyme mechanism is not annihilated by pCMB derivatization, it is proposed that basically, and like all the other DD-peptidases/penicillin-binding proteins so far characterized, the Streptomyces K15 DD-peptidase is an active-site-serine enzyme. [less ▲]

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