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See detailEFFECTS OF SUBLIMINAL PRIMING ON NONCONSCIOUS GOAL PURSUIT AND EFFORT-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE
Capa, Rémi ULg; Cleeremans, Axel; Bustin, Gaëlle ULg et al

in Social Cognition (2011), 29(4), 430-444

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See detailEffects of sunshine/rain cycles on the behaviour of repairing systems
Courard, Luc ULg; Degeimbre, Robert ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg et al

in Ohama, Y.; Puterman, M. (Eds.) Adhesion between polymers and concrete (1999)

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See detailEffects of superthermal particles on waves in magnetized space plasmas
Hellberg, M.; Mace, R.; Cattaert, Tom ULg

in Space Science Reviews (2005), 121(1-4), 127-139

Distributions with excess numbers of superthermal particles are common in space environments. They are well modelled by the isotropic kappa distribution, or, where magnetic effects are important, the ... [more ▼]

Distributions with excess numbers of superthermal particles are common in space environments. They are well modelled by the isotropic kappa distribution, or, where magnetic effects are important, the kappa-Maxwellian. This paper presents a review of some studies of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves in such plasmas, based on the associated generalized plasma dispersion functions, Z(kappa) and Z(kappa M). In particular, the effects of low values of kappa are considered, i.e. strongly accelerated distribution functions. Recently the full susceptibility tensor for oblique propagation of electromagnetic waves in a kappa-Maxwellian magnetoplasma has been established and has been applied to the study of whistler waves. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of surfactin on membrane models displaying lipid phase separation.
Deleu, Magali ULg; Lorent, Joseph; Lins, Laurence ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2013), 1828(2), 801-815

Surfactin, a bacterial amphiphilic lipopeptide is attracting more and more attention in view of its bioactive properties which are in relation with its ability to interact with lipids of biological ... [more ▼]

Surfactin, a bacterial amphiphilic lipopeptide is attracting more and more attention in view of its bioactive properties which are in relation with its ability to interact with lipids of biological membranes. In this work, we investigated the effect of surfactin on membrane structure using model of membranes, vesicles as well as supported bilayers, presenting coexistence of fluid-disordered (DOPC) and gel (DPPC) phases. A range of complementary methods was used including AFM, ellipsometry, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence measurements of Laurdan, DPH, calcein release, and octadecylrhodamine B dequenching. Our findings demonstrated that surfactin concentration is critical for its effect on the membrane. The results suggest that the presence of rigid domains can play an essential role in the first step of surfactin insertion and that surfactin interacts both with the membrane polar heads and the acyl chain region. A mechanism for the surfactin lipid membrane interaction, consisting of three sequential structural and morphological changes, is proposed. At concentrations below the CMC, surfactin inserted at the boundary between gel and fluid lipid domains, inhibited phase separation and stiffened the bilayer without global morphological change of liposomes. At concentrations close to CMC, surfactin solubilized the fluid phospholipid phase and increased order in the remainder of the lipid bilayer. At higher surfactin concentrations, both the fluid and the rigid bilayer structures were dissolved into mixed micelles and other structures presenting a wide size distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of surgery on ischaemic mitral regurgitation: a prospective multicentre registry (SIMRAM registry).
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Donal, Erwan; Cosyns, Bernard et al

in European Journal of Echocardiography (2008), 9(1), 26-30

AIMS: Functional ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is common in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Although the presence of IMR negatively ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Functional ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is common in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Although the presence of IMR negatively affects prognosis, the additional benefit of valve repair is debated, particularly with mild IMR at rest. Exercise echocardiography may help identify a subset of patients at higher risk of cardiovascular events by revealing the dynamic component of IMR. METHODS: A large prospective, multicentre, non-randomized registry is designed to evaluate the effects of surgery on IMR at rest and on its dynamic component at exercise (z). SIMRAM will enrol approximately 550 patients with IMR in up to 17 centres with clinical and exercise follow-up for 1 year. Three sets of outcomes will be prospectively assessed and several hypotheses will be tested including determinants of adverse outcome and progressive left ventricular remodeling, efficacy of treatment and role of ischaemia on the dynamic consequences of IMR. Enrolment began in November 2006 and is expected to end by early 2008. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of synthetic polycations on erythrocyte membrane analyzed by optical methods
Relancio, F; Riquelme, B; Dumas, D et al

Poster (2006, September 02)

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See detailEffects of synthetic tripeptide on the differentiation of dissociated cerebral hemisphere nerve cells in culture.
Sensenbrenner, M.; Jaros, G. G.; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Neurobiology (1975), 5(4), 207-213

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See detailEffects of systemic versus local gentamicin on the inner ear in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.), relevance for fish hearing investigations.
Faucher, Karine ULg; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Damsgard, B. et al

in Hearing Research (2008), 240(1-2), 12-21

Fish models are increasingly being used for hearing research investigations. Aminoglycoside antibiotics that are used for damaging the inner ear hair cells can have systemic side effects leading to death ... [more ▼]

Fish models are increasingly being used for hearing research investigations. Aminoglycoside antibiotics that are used for damaging the inner ear hair cells can have systemic side effects leading to death of study animals. This study aimed to compare two methods: (i) systemic (intravenous) and (ii) local (intrasaccular) gentamicin administration for induction of inner ear hair cell damage in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.). Hair cell damage was assessed using scanning electron microscopy; hair cell density, prevalence of immature hair cells and kinocilia length were measured. Gentamicin-treated fish were compared with control and sham fish. Intravenous gentamicin led to dose-dependent mortality caused by nephrotoxicity. The only visible effect after treatment was more immature hair cells and shorter kinocilia, the effect on hair cell density was equivocal. Following intrasaccular gentamicin treatment, fish mortality was negligible, and hair cells were damaged regardless of dose. Here, we observed decreased hair cell density, high prevalence of immature hair cells, and significantly shortened kinocilia. Conclusion: intrasaccular injection is preferable to intravenous injection of gentamicin for the study of ototoxicity in the Atlantic cod. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Target-Controlled Anesthesia with Propofol and Sufentanil on the Hemodynamic Response to Mayfield Head Holder Application
Hans, Pol ULg; Coussaert, E.; Cantraine, F. et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1998), 49(1), 7-11

The effects of target-controlled anesthesia with propofol and sufentanil on the hemodynamic response to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were evaluated in 18 ASA I and II patients undergoing ... [more ▼]

The effects of target-controlled anesthesia with propofol and sufentanil on the hemodynamic response to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were evaluated in 18 ASA I and II patients undergoing scheduled intracranial surgery. Premedication consisted of hydroxyzine, alprazolam and atropine given orally 1 h before surgery. Anesthesia was provided with propofol and sufentanil using a target-controlled infusion device; constant calculated plasma concentrations of 4 micrograms ml-1 propofol and 0.5 ng ml-1 sufentanil were maintained throughout the study. Muscle relaxation was obtained with atracurium and ventilation was controlled with air/oxygen. The MH was fixed 45 +/- 12 min (mean +/- SD) after induction of anesthesia. Heart rate and systolic, diastolic, and mean non invasive arterial pressure were monitored and recorded 5 min before induction of anesthesia (control), 1 min before MH application (MH-1), at MH application, and 1 and 2 min after MH application. Systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate increased significantly during and after MH application when compared with MH-1 values, but remained constantly lower than control. Hemodynamic parameters measured 1 min before MH application were significantly lower than control. The results of the study indicate that target-controlled anesthesia maintained with constant calculated plasma concentrations of 4 micrograms ml-1 propofol and 0.5 ng ml-1 sufentanil prevents the increase in arterial pressure and heart rate beyond control values following MH application but may induce some degree of arterial hypotension in the absence of nociceptive stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the In Vitro and In Vivo Radial Growth of Penicillium italicum and on the Biocontrol Activity of Pichia guilliermondii, Strain Z1
El Guilli, M.; Ibriz, M.; Lahlali, Rachid et al

in Acta Horticulturae (2011), 905

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature (5-25°C) on the ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ growth rates of Penicillium italicum and to determine the combined effect of temperature and ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature (5-25°C) on the ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ growth rates of Penicillium italicum and to determine the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity (45 to 100%) on lesion size of this pathogenic fungus on Valencia late oranges, either alone or in combination with the antagonistic yeast strain Z1 of Pichia guilliermondii Wickerham. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of temperature on the ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ radial growth of P. italicum with the maximum growth observed at temperature of 25°C. In both cases, no growth was observed at a temperature of 35°C. These factors had a significant effect on P. italicum lesion size when it was applied alone on Valencia late oranges and insignificant when yeast strain Z1 was applied 24 h before P. italicum inoculation. Our results confirm previous ‘in vitro’ findings that aw has a greater influence than temperature on P. italicum growth and highlight that the strain Z1 showed high antagonistic potential against this pathogen over a range of temperature-relative humidity regimes favouring P. italicum development. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of temperature on pacemaker activity induced by mechano-electric feedback in a one-dimensional model of a ring-shaped cardiac fiber
Collet, Arnaud ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg

in NCBME (Ed.) 10th Belgian Day on Biomedical Engineering (2011, December 02)

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See detailEffects of temperature on the chemistry of the echinoderm skeleton
Ranner, Herwig; Ladrière, Ophélie ULg; Navez, Jacques et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailEffects of temperature on the protocooperation between plants and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499
Puopolo, G.; Hosni, T.; Pedrotti, L. et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2013), 89

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See detailThe effects of teriparatide on the risk of back pain in men and women with osteoporosis: A meta-analysis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Chen, P.; Dore, R. K. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005, March), 16(Suppl.3), 10-11

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See detailEffects of Testosterone and Its Metabolites on Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Brain: Relationship with the Activation of Male Reproductive Behavior
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1996), 56(1-6 Spec No), 185-200

The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA ... [more ▼]

The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA) of male Japanese quail is a limiting step in the activation by T of copulatory behavior. Aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells of the POA are specifically localized within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the medial preoptic nucleus(POM), a sexually dimorphic and steroid-sensitive structure that is a necessary and sufficient site of steroid action in the activation of behavior. Stereotaxic implantation of aromatase inhibitors in but not around the POM strongly decreases the behavioral effects of a systemic treatment with T of castrated males. AA is decreased by castration and increased by aromatizable androgens and by estrogens. These changes have been independently documented at three levels of analysis: the enzymatic activity measured by radioenzymatic assays in vitro, the enzyme concentration evaluated semi-quantitatively by immunocytochemistry and the concentration of its messenger RNA quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies demonstrate that T acting mostly through its estrogenic metabolites regulates brain aromatase by acting essentially at the transcriptional level. Estrogens produced by central aromatization of T therefore have two independent roles: they activate male copulatory behavior and they regulate the synthesis of aromatase. Double label immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that estrogen receptors(ER) are found in all brain areas containing ARO-ir cells but the extent to which these markers are colocalized varies from one brain region to the other. More than 70% of ARO-ir cells contain detectable ER in the tuberal hypothalamus but less than 20% of the cells display this colocalization in the POA. This absence of ER in ARO-ir cells is also observed in the POA of the rat brain. This suggests that locally formed estrogens cannot control the behavior and the aromatase synthesis in an autocrine fashion in the cells where they were formed. Multi-neuronal networks need therefore to be considered. The behavioral activation could result from the action of estrogens in ER-positive cells located in the vicinity of the ARO-ir cells where they were produced (paracrine action). Alternatively, actions that do not involve the nuclear ER could be important. Immunocytochemical studies at the electron microscope level and biochemical assays of AA in purified synaptosomes indicate the presence of aromatase in presynaptic boutons. Estrogens formed at this level could directly affect the pre-and post-synaptic membrane or could directly modulate neurotransmission namely through their metabolization into catecholestrogens (CE) which are known to be powerful inhibitors of the catechol- omicron - methyl transferase (COMT). The inhibition of COMT should increase the catecholaminergic transmission. It is significant to note, in this respect, that high levels of 2-hydroxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of estrogens in CE, are found in all brain areas that contain aromatase. On the other hand, the synthesis of aromatase should also be controlled by estrogens in an indirect, transynaptic manner very reminiscent of the way in which steroids indirectly control the production of LHRH. Fibers that are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (synthesis of dopamine), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (synthesis of norepinephrine) or vasotocine have been identified in the close vicinity of ARO-ir cells in the POM and retrograde tracing has identified the origin of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervation of these areas. A few preliminary physiological experiments suggest that these catecholaminergic inputs regulate AA and presumably synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of testosterone and its metabolites on sexual behavior and morphology in male and female Japanese quail.
Schumacher, M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Physiology & Behavior (1983), 30(3), 335-9

Adult Japanese quail are sexually dimorphic. Even when implanted with testosterone (T), ovariectomized females fail to copulate and their cloacal glands are smaller than those of males. This may be due to ... [more ▼]

Adult Japanese quail are sexually dimorphic. Even when implanted with testosterone (T), ovariectomized females fail to copulate and their cloacal glands are smaller than those of males. This may be due to a reduced capacity of the females to transform testosterone into active metabolites (estradiol-17 beta and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone). Indeed, in the male quail, estradiol-17 beta (E2) activates copulation whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) activates crowing, strutting and the development of the cloacal gland. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of in vivo treatments of male and female quail with the different T-metabolites. Forty-one castrated male and female quail were implanted with subcutaneous silastic implants of T, 5 alpha-DHT, E2 and E2 in combination with 5 alpha-DHT. When implanted with these metabolites, females failed to copulate and their cloacal glands remained less developed than those of males. Sexual differences in behavior and morphology thus cannot be entirely explained by sexual dimorphism of the metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of testosterone on Reelin expression in the brain of male European starlings
Absil, Philippe ULg; Pinxten, R.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2003), 312(1), 81-93

Reelin, a large glycoprotein defective in reeler mice, is assumed to determine the final location of migrating neurons in the developing brain. We studied the expression of Reelin in the brain of adult ... [more ▼]

Reelin, a large glycoprotein defective in reeler mice, is assumed to determine the final location of migrating neurons in the developing brain. We studied the expression of Reelin in the brain of adult male European starlings that had been treated or not with exogenous testosterone. Reelin-immunoreactive cells and fibers were widely distributed in the forebrain including areas in and around the song control nucleus, HVC. No labeling was detected in other song control nuclei with the exception of nucleus uvaeformis, which was delineated by a dense cluster of Reelin-immunoreactive perikarya. Reelin is thus expressed in areas incorporating new neurons in adulthood, such as HVC. Reelin expression was sharply decreased by testosterone in HVC, nucleus uvaeformis and dorsal thalamus but not in other brain regions. These results are consistent with the idea that seasonal changes in Reelin expression modulate the incorporation of neurons within HVC. The presence of Reelin in other brain areas that do not incorporate new neurons in adulthood indicates, however, that this protein must play other unrelated roles in the adult brain. Additional studies should now be carried out to determine the specific role played by this protein in the seasonal plasticity of the songbird brain. [less ▲]

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