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See detailDirect analysis of the central panel of the so-called Wyts triptych after Jan van Eyck
Deneckere, A.; Hocquet, François-Philippe ULg; Born, A. et al

in Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2010), 41(11), 1210-1219

The applicability of mobile, non-destructive techniques such as energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, which reveals the elemental composition, and fibre-coupled Raman spectroscopy, offering ... [more ▼]

The applicability of mobile, non-destructive techniques such as energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, which reveals the elemental composition, and fibre-coupled Raman spectroscopy, offering molecular information, is applied to the central panel of the Wyts triptych, after Jan van Eyck. Using a combination of these direct techniques, vermilion (HgS), lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), anatase (TiO2), massicot (PbO), zinc white (ZnO) and lead-tin yellow type I (Pb2SnO4) could be identified. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements also confirmed the presence of cobalt. Also, copper was detected in different blue and green areas. For the brown and red colour, iron oxides were used. Apart from identifying pigments, the combination of these analytical techniques also gave information about restored parts and the layered structure of the panel. XRF maps of three different areas of the panel painting were recorded to get an idea of the changes the painting underwent during its past history. This research confirms the results of the visual analysis that the painting is a heavily restored copy of a lost original by Jan van Eyck. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and indirect costs attributable to osteoarthritis in active subjects
Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Manette, C.; Lemmens, R. et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (2006), 33(6), 1152-1158

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in an active population, and to identify factors significantly influencing these expenditures. METHODS: A cohort of 3,440 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in an active population, and to identify factors significantly influencing these expenditures. METHODS: A cohort of 3,440 subjects employed by the Liege City Council was followed prospectively for 6 months. Subjects were asked to report monthly OA related health resource utilization (contacts with health professionals, medical examinations, drug consumption, etc.) and absence from work. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated at baseline using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 36 (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with the probability that the individual incurred costs, and multiple regression identified factors influencing the magnitude of these costs. RESULTS: A total of 1,811 subjects filled in at least one questionnaire (response rate 52%). The mean duration of followup was 3.46 months. Self-reported prevalence of OA was 34.1%. The mean total direct costs were 44.5 euros per OA patient-month. Contacts with health professionals, medical examinations, drugs, and hospital stays accounted for 23.7 euros, 8.7 euros, 6.7 euros, and 4.9 euros, respectively, per OA patient-month. The average number of sick-leave days was 0.8 per OA patient-month. From a payer's perspective, this loss of productivity represented a mean cost of 64.5 euros per OA patient-month. We also recorded 0.02 mean days off work per active subject-month due to informal care by relatives, yielding a mean cost of 1.8 euro per active subject-month for the employer. Poorer scores for most of the dimensions of the SF-36 at baseline were significantly associated with greater likelihood of incurring direct and indirect costs and with higher costs among subjects who reported costs. If we consider the overall cohort of active subjects, the burden of OA related to the direct and indirect costs was 15.2 euros and 23.8 euros, respectively, per active subject-month. CONCLUSION: Direct and indirect costs attributable to OA are substantial, with productivity related costs being predominant. Poorer HRQOL was a major determinant of these expenditures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe direct and indirect costs of the chronic management of osteoporosis: a prospective follow-up of 3440 active subjects
Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Manette, C.; Lemmens, R. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2006), 17(9), 1346-1352

Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs attributable to osteoporosis (OP) from a societal and a payer's perspective among active subjects living in Belgium ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs attributable to osteoporosis (OP) from a societal and a payer's perspective among active subjects living in Belgium and employed in the public workforce. Materials and methods: A cohort of 3440 subjects employed by the Liege City Council was followed for 6 months. The City Council employees were invited to fill a monthly log of the data related to their utilization of health resources ( contacts with health professionals, medical examinations, drug use,...) due to OP. Information on work disability ( number of days of sick leave) and on informal care ( number of days off work incurred by active subjects in helping relatives or friends suffering from OP) was also collected. Results: Of those asked to participate in the study, 1,811 subjects filled in at least one questionnaire. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.46 months. Self-reported prevalence of OP at inclusion was 5.3%. OP subjects were significantly older (52.7 +/- 6.1 years) than normal subjects (45.5 +/- 9.8 years) ( p< 0.05) and included more women (85.3 vs. 55.9%). Direct costs came to E44.6 per OP patient-month: E10.9 was spent on contact with health professionals, E19.0 on medical examinations, E12.1 on drugs and E2.6 on hospitalizations. During this 6-month study, a total of 140 days of sick leave was recorded ( mean: 0.4 per OP patient-month). From a payer's perspective, this loss in productivity yielded a mean cost of E34.05 per OP patient-month. A mean number of days off work of 0.018 per active subject-month, attributable to informal care, was recorded. These days of inactivity represented, for the employer, a mean cost of E1.8 per active subject-month. Conclusion: The results of this survey of a large sample of active subjects confirm that OP-related expenditures, both for medical care and for loss of productivity, are significant. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and indirect pCO2 measurements in a wide range of pCO2 and salinity values
Frankignoulle, Michel; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Aquatic Geochemistry (2001), 7

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect ... [more ▼]

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect methods in an estuary where pCO2 values range from 500 to 8500 µatm and salinity from 0 to 30. Our results show that both methods are in excellent agreement in the whole estuary (r2 = 0.999, n = 1075, p < 0.0001). Thus, the NBS (US National Bureau of Standards) scale, although inadequate for seawater samples, is appropriate for estuarine waters and can be applied with confidence to calculate pCO2. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and indirect use of GFP whole cell biosensors for the assessment of bioprocess performances: design of milliliter scale-down bioreactors
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Neubauer, Peter; Twizere, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Biotechnology Progress (2013), 29(1), 48-59

Substrate limitation responsive biosensors have been used for the development of a mini-bioreactor platform that can be used as a scale-down tool. Three green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional ... [more ▼]

Substrate limitation responsive biosensors have been used for the development of a mini-bioreactor platform that can be used as a scale-down tool. Three green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been chosen in Escherichia coli, i.e., uspA::gfp, csiE::gfp and yciG::gfp. Our previous studies have shown that these kinds of promoters are induced in response to substrate limitation and are significantly repressed when cultures are carried out in heterogeneous bioreactors. This sensitivity to substrate limitation has been confirmed in the case of the csiE and yciG biosensors. A mini-scale-down platform is proposed as a high throughput tool to rapidly investigate the usefulness of a given microbial biosensor. This platform is composed of shake flasks able to operate in fed-batch mode either using the slow release or the intermittent feeding principle. Local heterogeneities were reproduced at the level of these mini-bioreactors (operating under the intermittent feeding principle) and caused a decrease in GFP expression as in conventional scale-down reactors. The presence of GFP in supernatants was also noted and seems to be correlated with the substrate limitation signal for the three cultivation systems considered in this work (i.e., chemostat, conventional and mini-bioreactors) and with membrane permeability. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and neurally mediated effects of halothane on pulmonary resistance in vivo.
Warner, David O; Vettermann, Jörg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Anesthesiology (1990), 72(6), 1057-63

It has been suggested that halothane inhibits contraction of airway smooth muscle in vivo mainly by reducing reflex activity in nerves innervating the muscle with only minimal direct effects on the muscle ... [more ▼]

It has been suggested that halothane inhibits contraction of airway smooth muscle in vivo mainly by reducing reflex activity in nerves innervating the muscle with only minimal direct effects on the muscle itself. To examine possible mechanisms of action of halothane at clinically relevant concentrations the authors studied the effect of halothane on increases in pulmonary resistance (RL) produced by either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS, which caused neurally mediated constriction) or the inhalation of nebulized acetylcholine (ACh, which directly stimulated the smooth muscle cell) in nine mongrel dogs. The frequency of bilateral VNS and the dose of nebulized ACh were adjusted to produce approximately equal increases in RL. Halothane reduced the response to both types of stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion. At halothane concentrations greater than or equal to 0.4 MAC, the VNS response was significantly less than the ACh response. When tetrodotoxin was given to block neural activity, the ACh response was unchanged, confirming that neural activation did not contribute significantly to smooth muscle contraction in response to ACh. The authors conclude that in addition to neurally mediated effects, halothane at clinically used concentrations has significant direct effects on airway smooth muscle stimulated by ACh. The relative importance of each factor in vivo should depend on the stimulus that causes contraction of airway smooth muscle. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect block of SK2 and SK3 current by the sigma agonist 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine
Lamy, Cédric; Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Dilly, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2008, November 17)

Sigma receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system where they modulate neurotransmitter release, receptor function, ionic channel activity and calcium homeostasis. Two subtypes of sigma ... [more ▼]

Sigma receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system where they modulate neurotransmitter release, receptor function, ionic channel activity and calcium homeostasis. Two subtypes of sigma receptors have been identified (sigma-1 and sigma-2) with different pharmacological profiles, anatomical distribution and physiological functions. 1,3-Di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG) is a sigma-1 and sigma-2 agonist which is widely used to probe the function of these receptors. It has recently been shown that sigma-1 receptor activation reduces the opening of SK channels in the hippocampus. We have observed that DTG (100 µM) reduces the apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of dopaminergic neurons within a slice preparation by ~60%, an effect not observed with other sigma agonists. In addition, neither the selective sigma-1 antagonist BD 1047 (30 µM) nor haloperidol (1 µM) blocked the effect of DTG, which suggested that the inhibition of the AHP might result from a direct block of the underlying SK channels. Whole-cell recordings were made from HEK293 cells transiently transfected with rSK2 or hSK3 cDNA in symmetrical K+ conditions with currents activated by a [Cai] of 1 µM. Expressed SK2 and SK3 channels displayed a classical pharmacology, being blocked by apamin with mean IC50’s of 100 pM and 4 nM, respectively. In contrast, both channel subtypes were blocked with equal sensitivity by N-methyl-laudanosine (NML). DTG inhibited both SK2 and SK3 currents with the same potency (IC50’s were ~30 µM). A mutation that rendered both SK2 and SK3 insensitive to apamin and NML produced a current that was still sensitive to DTG. This direct block of SK channels may be important to consider in relation to the pharmacological effects of this compound. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect CO2 advection measurements and the night flux problem
Aubinet, Marc ULg; Feigenwinter, Christian

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2010), 150(5), 651-654

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See detailDirect costs of hip fractures in patients over 60 years of age in Belgium.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Gillet, Philippe ULg; Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg et al

in PharmacoEconomics (1999), 15(5), 507-514

OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis-related costs are now considered a major burden for health authorities in most developed countries. An accurate and exhaustive evaluation of these costs would be a major ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis-related costs are now considered a major burden for health authorities in most developed countries. An accurate and exhaustive evaluation of these costs would be a major contribution to health economic studies evaluating the efficiency of screening and prevention strategies. Osteoporosis is the most frequent underlying cause of femoral neck fractures in the elderly; these fractures weigh heavily on healthcare budgets. However, in Belgium, very few data on the financial burden of hip fractures are available and no updated estimates have been made. The goal of this paper is to estimate the direct medical expenditures associated with hip fractures in Belgium in 1996. DESIGN AND SETTING: This 1-year population-based cross-sectional study is conducted from the social security perspective. The target population in this study are men and women aged 60 years and over. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: We selected patients who had been hospitalised for a hip fracture during the year 1996 who were also affiliated with a registered social security organisation (covering 25% of the Belgian population). The sample constituted 2374 patients. INTERVENTIONS: For each of these patients, we collected an exhaustive and detailed list of healthcare resource use as well as nursing home admissions following the hip fracture event. Cost items investigated in the analysis were inpatient hospital costs and outpatient costs. Mean annual costs per case recorded in the sample were then extrapolated to the whole country on the basis of an exhaustive list of diagnoses having lead to all countrywide hospitalisations (1,700,000 hospital stays/year). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS: The mean hospital inpatient costs for hip fracture were evaluated at 332,148 Belgian francs (BeF) [$US8977] per case and BeF4,367,746,200 ($US118,047,194) for the whole country (10 million inhabitants). Patients with a hip fracture experienced an annual BeF27,825 ($US752) extra outpatient cost during the year following this fracture event, after correcting for costs related to additional comorbidity already present before the hip fracture. Finally, after a proximal femoral neck fracture, the rate of nursing home admission was higher, both for men and women at any age compared with age- and gender-matched population. CONCLUSIONS: With a total cost (acute hospital and outpatient costs) of BeF4,667,894,950 ($US126,159,323) per year in Belgium, proximal femoral neck fracture should be considered a major health economic problem and appropriate measures to prevent this disease should be rapidly undertaken. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect criteria for structure preserving models of electric power systems
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Toumi, B; Xue, Y et al

in Proc. IFAC Symposium on Power Systems and Power Plant control (1986)

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See detailDirect detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR
Chong, Ga-Lai; Van de Sande, Wendy; Dingemans, Gijs et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2015)

Introduction Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. We describe the validation of AsperGenius® , a new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of ... [more ▼]

Introduction Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. We describe the validation of AsperGenius® , a new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs: one which identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one which detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. Methods The diagnostic performance was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from haematology patients and on 40 BAL samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using BAL galactomannan ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for the presence of Aspergillus. Results In the haematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL samples with IA (2 proven, 9 probable and 11 non-classifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL samples were positive according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was <36. Sixteen of the 19 BAL samples had a positive PCR (2 Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7% and 96.2% for the haematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0% and 93.3% in the ICU group, respectively. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wildtype and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34/L98H and 1 TR46/Y121F/T289A mutant). Conclusion The AsperGenius® multiplex real-time PCR allows for a sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly in BAL samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wildtype from resistant strains even if BAL cultures remained negative. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect determination of physical parameters for main sequence stars
Rabus, Markus; Lachaume, Regis; Brahm, Rafael et al

in Protostars and Planets VI (2013, July 01)

The environment of planetary formation and evolution is mainly characterized by its host star's physical properties. Until recently most fundamental stellar parameters, like e. g. the star's radius and ... [more ▼]

The environment of planetary formation and evolution is mainly characterized by its host star's physical properties. Until recently most fundamental stellar parameters, like e. g. the star's radius and effective temperature, have only been estimated indirectly; but with advances in interferometric observing technique it is now possible to obtain a direct estimate of them. In this poster we present preliminary results from measured interferometric fringe visibilities of main-sequence stars. These visibilities were collected using the four-beam combiner VLTI/PIONIER instrument and the 1.8m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) in A1-G1-K0-J3 quadruplet configuration. We bracketed each science target with different calibrators to ensure reducing the systematic errors in our data. For each target star, the data reduction was performed several hundred times, each time randomizing the set of fringes by the bootstrap method and the calibrators' diameters. This allowed us to take into account error correlations across spectral channels, between consecutive observations, and overnight. Each result was least-squares fitted by a uniform disc, yielding a value for the target's diameter. From the distribution of diameters we assessed the statistical error in the respective measurement. Using the HIPPARCOS parallax we estimated the distance and obtained the star's linear radius. Combined with the bolometric flux we obtained a direct quantification of the effective temperature from the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Finally, these direct determinations of stellar radii and effective temperatures enable us to better characterize planets around main-sequence stars. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect determination of tagitinin C in Tithonia diversifolia leaves by on-line coupling of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to FT-IR spectroscopy by means of optical fibres
Ziemons, Eric ULg; Barillaro, Valéry; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Talanta (2007), 71(2), 911-917

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide as extraction medium was on-line coupled to a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detector using a tailor-made high ... [more ▼]

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide as extraction medium was on-line coupled to a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detector using a tailor-made high-pressure fibre optic flow cell. This method was optimised and developed for the monitoring in real time and the quantification of dynamic extractions of tagitinin C from Tithonia.diversifolia leaves. In order to demonstrate the method ability to allow the direct quantification of tagitinin C in the extract medium the standard addition method was used. The area integration Of Curves obtained by plotting the absorbance of the highly specific C=O stretching vibration at 1668 cm(-1) versus time (i.e. extractograms) was used as instrumental response. The SFE/FT-IR process was successfully validated using the accuracy profile as decision tool. On this basis, a linear regression model was chosen for the calibration curve. The relative standard deviation for repeatability and intermediate precision were between 0.8 and 3.1 %, respectively. Moreover, the method was found to be accurate as the two-sided 95% beta-expectation tolerance interval did not exceed the acceptance limits of 85 and 115% on the analytical range investigated (500-2500 mu g of added amount of tagitinin Q. The proposed method allowed the non-destructive extraction of tagitinin C and its on-line quantitative determination in less than 25 min thus facilitating the subsequent experiments or the pharmacological studies performed on this compound. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect determination of the NaF/AlF3 molar ratio by raman spectroscopy in NaF-AlF3-CaF2 melts at 1000° C
Malherbe, Cédric ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg

in Analytical Chemistry (2013)

For the last 40 years, Raman spectroscopy has been very useful in investigating the structure of corrosive molten salts, such as the cryolite-based melts widely used as electrolyte in the Hall-Heroult ... [more ▼]

For the last 40 years, Raman spectroscopy has been very useful in investigating the structure of corrosive molten salts, such as the cryolite-based melts widely used as electrolyte in the Hall-Heroult process. Even if this process remains the most economically efficient for metallic aluminum electro-production, it suffers from a high energy loss, which is dependent on the melt composition. Therefore, controlling the chemical composition of the electrolyte is essential. The present paper proposes to apply Raman spectroscopy for the direct determination of the NaF-AlF3 molar ratio in NaF-AlF3-CaF2-based melts. Despite the experimental difficulties, a calibration curve based on equilibria taking place in the melt has been developed and the procedure has been successfully compared to industrial samples of known compositions. The possible exportation of the laboratory scale procedure to an industrial environment application for the control of the Hall-Heroult process is finally discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect differentiation of time integrators for multibody systems with absolute rotations
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Eberhard, Peter

in Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference - Multibody Dynamics 2007 (2007)

Gradient-based optimization methods require efficient algorithms to compute the sensitivities of the simulation results with respect to design parameters. Compared to finite difference schemes, the direct ... [more ▼]

Gradient-based optimization methods require efficient algorithms to compute the sensitivities of the simulation results with respect to design parameters. Compared to finite difference schemes, the direct differentiation technique leads to a significant reduction in the computational cost of the sensitivities while keeping a good accuracy. In particular, this paper focuses on the optimization of multibody systems with large rotations. In this framework, two versions of the generalized-alpha time integration scheme are considered: the first one is based on a parameterized treatment of the rotations, whereas the second one is formulated in a geometric setting. We show that the sensitivity analysis is much simpler and computationally more efficient in the second case than in the first case. The performance of both algorithms is compared for a numerical example. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect displacement-based seismic design of an irregular frame - Case study
Massena, B.; Bento, R.; Degée, Hervé ULg

Report (2008)

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See detailA Direct Dopaminergic Control of Aromatase Activity in the Quail Preoptic Area
Baillien, M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1997), 63(1-3, Sep-Oct), 99-113

In the quail preoptic area (POA) anatomical and pharmacological data suggest that catecholamines may be implicated in the control of testosterone (T) aromatization into estrogens. The biochemical ... [more ▼]

In the quail preoptic area (POA) anatomical and pharmacological data suggest that catecholamines may be implicated in the control of testosterone (T) aromatization into estrogens. The biochemical mechanism(s) mediating this control of the enzyme activity is (are) however unexplored. The present studies were carried out to investigate whether the catecholamines, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are able to directly affect aromatase activity (AA) measured during in vitro incubations of POA homogenates. AA was quantified in the POA-hypothalamus of adult male Japanese quail by measuring the tritiated water production from [1beta-3H]-androstenedione. Enzyme activity was linear as a function of the incubation time and of the protein content of homogenates. It exhibited a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with an apparent Km of 2.8 nM and a Vmax of 266.6 fmol h(-1) mg wet weight(-1). AA was then measured at a substrate concentration of 25 nM in the presence of catecholamines and some of their receptor agonists or antagonists, at two concentrations, 10(-3) and 10(-6) M. Norepinephrine and prazosin (alpha1-adrenergic antagonist) had no or very limited effects on AA at both concentrations. In contrast, DA and some D1 and/or D2 receptor agonists (apomorphine[D1/D2], SKF-38393 [D1] and RU-24213 [D2]) depressed AA by 40 to 70% at the 10(-3) M concentration. One D2 receptor antagonist also produced a major inhibition of AA (sulpiride) while other antagonists either had no significant effect or only produced moderate decreases in enzyme activity (SCH-23390 [D1], spiperone [D2], pimozide [D2]) as did two DA indirect agonists, amfonelic acid and nomifensine. The inhibitory effect of the agonists was not antagonized by the less active antagonists, SCH-23390 [D1] or spiperone [D2]. Taken together these results suggest that the inhibitory effects do not involve specific binding of DA or its agonists/antagonists to dopaminergic receptors mediating changes in cAMP concentration. This conclusion is also supported by the observation that addition of dibutyryl cAMP did not change brain AA. It appears more likely that DA and dopaminergic drugs inhibit AA by a direct effect on the enzyme, as suggested by the competitive nature of DA and SKF-38393 inhibition of AA (Ki's of 59 and 84 microM, respectively). The functional significance of this effect should still be demonstrated but this mechanism may represent an important physiological pathway through which neurotransmitters could rapidly affect steroid-dependent processes such as the neural synthesis of estrogens. This would provide a mean by which environmental stimuli could affect reproductive behavior and physiology. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect effect of ice sheets on terrestrial bicarbonate, sulphate and base cation fluxes during the last glacial cycle: minimal impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations
Tranter, Martyn; Huybrechts, Philippe; Munhoven, Guy ULg et al

in Chemical Geology (2002), 190(1-4), 33-44

Chemical erosion in glacial environments is normally a consequence of chemical weathering reactions dominated by sulphide oxidation linked to carbonate dissolution and the carbonation of carbonates and ... [more ▼]

Chemical erosion in glacial environments is normally a consequence of chemical weathering reactions dominated by sulphide oxidation linked to carbonate dissolution and the carbonation of carbonates and silicates. Solute fluxes from small valley glaciers are usually a linear function of discharge. Representative glacial solute concentrations can be derived from the linear association of solute flux with discharge. These representative glacial concentrations of the major ions are similar to 25% of those in global river water. A 3-D thermomechanically coupled model of the growth and decay of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets was used to simulate glacial runoff at 100-year time steps during the last glacial cycle (130 ka to the present). The glacially derived fluxes of major cations, anions and Si over the glaciation were estimated from the product of the glacial runoff and the representative glacial concentration. A second estimate was obtained from the product of the glacial runoff and a realistic upper limit for glacial solute concentrations derived from theoretical considerations. The fluxes over the last glacial cycle are usually less than a few percent of current riverine solute fluxes to the oceans. The glacial fluxes were used to provide input to an oceanic carbon cycling model that also calculates changes in atmospheric CO2. The potential change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial cycle that arise from perturbations in glacial solute fluxes are insignificant, being < 1 ppm. [less ▲]

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See detailA direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) for antibodies to enterobacterial score glycolipid and lipid A. Results in Healthy Subjects and in Patients Infected by Gram-Negative Bacteria
Nys, Monique ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg; Damas, François ULg et al

in Medical Microbiology & Immunology (1987), 176(5), 257-271

We have developed an ELISA for IgM and IgG antibodies to the core glycolipid (CGL) of the Re mutant Salmonella minnesota R 595, and to lipid A. Anti-CGL antibodies have been detected in sera from 37% of ... [more ▼]

We have developed an ELISA for IgM and IgG antibodies to the core glycolipid (CGL) of the Re mutant Salmonella minnesota R 595, and to lipid A. Anti-CGL antibodies have been detected in sera from 37% of healthy blood donors, whereas anti-lipid A activities were found in 13% of individuals only. The anti-CGL and anti-lipid A activities were examined in patients in a surgical intensive care unit, selected on the basis of a definite risk of infectious complications due to Gram-negative bacteria. Of the patients who developed such infections, the rate of favourable outcome was significantly higher in patients with either stable positive or increasing anti-CGL activities than in patients found to be negative. Our results provide clear evidence that anti-CGL antibodies contribute to host defence against various Gram-negative bacteria. [less ▲]

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