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See detailLa distribution géographique d'Helix aspersa en Belgique
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Annales de la Société royale zoologique de Belgique (1931), LXII

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See detailDistribution of additive functions with respect to numeration systems on regular languages
Grabner, Peter J.; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Theory of Computing Systems (2007), 40(3), 205-223

We study the distribution of values of additive functions related to numeration systems defined via regular languages.

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See detailDistribution of Androgen Receptor-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Forebrain and Their Relationship with Aromatase Immunoreactivity
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Houbart, M. et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1998), 35(3), 323-40

The distribution of androgen receptor-like immunoreactive (AR-ir) cells in the quail brain was analyzed by immunocytochemistry with the use of the affinity-purified antibody PG-21-19A raised against a ... [more ▼]

The distribution of androgen receptor-like immunoreactive (AR-ir) cells in the quail brain was analyzed by immunocytochemistry with the use of the affinity-purified antibody PG-21-19A raised against a synthetic peptide representing the first 21 N-terminal amino acids of the rat and human AR. This antibody is known to bind to the receptor in the absence as well as in the presence of endogenous ligands, and it was therefore expected that a more complete and accurate characterization of AR-ir cells would be obtained in comparison with previous studies using an antibody that preferentially recognizes the occupied receptor. Selected sections were double labeled for aromatase (ARO) by a technique that uses alkaline phosphatase as the reporter enzyme and Fast blue as the chromogen. AR-ir material was detected in the nucleus of cells located in a variety of brain areas in the preoptic region and the hypothalamus including the medial preoptic (POM), the supraoptic, the paraventricular (PVN), and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, but also in the tuberculum olfactorium, the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum, the nucleus taeniae, the tuberal hypothalamus, the substantia grisea centralis (GCt), and the locus ceruleus. Cells exhibiting a dense AR-ir label were also detected in the nucleus intercollicularis. Preincubation of the primary antibody with an excess of the synthetic peptide used for immunization completely eliminated this nuclear staining. A significant number of AR-ir cells in the POM, VMN, PVN, and tuberal hypothalamus also contained ARO-ir material in their cytoplasm. These data confirm and extend previous studies localizing AR in the avian brain, and raise questions about the possible regulation by androgens of the metabolizing enzyme aromatase. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of aromatase immunoreactivity in the forebrain of red-sided garter snakes at the beginning of the winter dormancy
Krohmer, R. W.; Bieganski, G. J.; Baleckaitis, D. D. et al

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2002), 23(1), 59-71

Until recently, it has been difficult to identify the exact location of aromatase containing cells in the brain. The development of new antibodies has provided a sensitive tool to analyze the distribution ... [more ▼]

Until recently, it has been difficult to identify the exact location of aromatase containing cells in the brain. The development of new antibodies has provided a sensitive tool to analyze the distribution of aromatase immunoreactive (ARO-ir) material at a cellular level of resolution. In the present study we examined, for the first time, the distribution of ARO-ir cells in the brain of a reptile, the red-sided garter snake, at the beginning of the winter dormancy. ARO-ir cells were found at all rostro-caudal levels in the red-sided garter snake brain. Although weakly stained cells were distributed throughout the brain, more intensely immunoreactive cells were primarily concentrated in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, septum and nucleus sphericus. Although androgens are elevated upon emergence from hibernation in the male red-sided garter snake, initiation of courtship behavior appears to be independent of direct androgen control. To date, the only known stimulus found to initiate courtship is a period of low temperature dormancy followed by exposure to warm temperatures. Circumstantial data, however, suggest an indirect role in the activation of male copulatory behavior for estrogenic metabolites of testosterone produced in the brain by aromatization during the winter dormancy. This study provides the first documentation of the distribution of ARO-ir cells in a reptilian species and demonstrates that while the aromatase enzyme occurs in most regions of the brain, the ARO-ir cells that appear to contain the highest concentration of enzyme are clustered in brain areas classically associated with the control of courtship behavior and mating in vertebrates. These data are consistent with the idea that estrogens locally produced in the brain may participate in some way to the activation of sexual behavior in this species also. This notion should now be experimentally tested by analyzing annual changes in aromatase activity and immunoreactivity and assessing the effects of pharmacological blockade of the enzyme activity at different times of the year. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Aromatase in the Brain of the Japanese Quail, Ring Dove, and Zebra Finch: An Immunocytochemical Study
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (1990), 301(2), 276-88

An immunocytochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase was used to localize aromatase-containing cells in the brain of ... [more ▼]

An immunocytochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase was used to localize aromatase-containing cells in the brain of three avian species: the Japanese quail, the ring dove, and the zebra finch. In quail and dove, immunoreactive cells were found only in the preoptic area and hypothalamus, with a high density of positive cells being present in the medial preoptic area, in the septal area above the anterior commissure, in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and in rostral part of the infundibulum. Immunoreactivity was weaker in zebra finches, and no signal could therefore be detected in the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus. The positive material was localized in the perikarya and in adjacent cytoplasmic processes, including the full length of axons always leaving a clear unstained cell nucleus. These features could be observed in more detail on sections cut from perfused brains and stained with an alkaline phosphatase procedure. The distribution of aromatase immunoreactivity was similar in the three species although minor differences were observed in the preoptic area. The localization of labelled neurons coincided with the distribution of aromatase activity as studied by in vitro radioenzyme assays on brain nuclei dissected by the Palkovits punch method. There was one striking exception to this rule: no immunoreactivity was detected in the zebra finch telencephalon, while assays had shown the presence of an active enzyme in several nuclei such as the robustus archistriatalis, the hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudale, and the hippocampus and area parahippocampalis. The origins of this discrepancy and the functional role of the aromatase observed in the axons are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Forebrain of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata): Implications for the Neural Action of Steroids and Nuclear Definition in the Avian Hypothalamus
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1996), 31(2), 129-48

Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human ... [more ▼]

Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human placental aromatase and the other directed against quail recombinant aromatase, revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the enzyme in the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Staining was enhanced in some birds by the administration of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, R76713 racemic Vorozole) prior to the perfusion of the birds as previously described in Japanese quail. Large numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase were found in nuclei in the preoptic region and in the tuberal hypothalamus. A nucleus was identified in the preoptic region based on the high density of aromatase immunoreactive cells within its boundaries that appears to be homologous to the preoptic medial nucleus (POM) described previously in Japanese quail. In several birds alternate sections were stained for immunoreactive vasotocin, a marker of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This information facilitated the clear separation of the POM in zebra finches from nuclei that are adjacent to the POM in the preoptic area-hypothalamus, such as the PVN and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Positively staining cells were also detected widely throughout the telencephalon. Cells were discerned in the medial parts of the ventral hyperstriatum and neostriatum near the lateral ventricle and in dorsal and medial parts of the hippocampus. They were most abundant in the caudal neostriatum where they clustered in the dorsomedial neostriatum, and as a band of cells coursing along the dorsal edge of the lamina archistriatalis dorsalis. They were also present in high numbers in the ventrolateral aspect of the neostriatum and in the nucleus taeniae. None of the telencephalic vocal control nuclei had appreciable numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase within their boundaries, with the possible exception of a group of cells that may correspond to the medial part of the magnocellular nucleus of the neostriatum. The distribution of immunoreactive aromatase cells in the zebra finch brain is in excellent agreement with the distribution of cells expressing the mRNA for aromatase recently described in the finch telencephalon. This widespread telencephalic distribution of cells immunoreactive for aromatase has not been described in non-songbird species such as the Japanese quail, the ring dove, and the domestic fowl. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Mouse Forebrain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (1991), 263(1), 71-9

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied by immunocytochemistry in the mouse forebrain using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase. Labeled ... [more ▼]

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied by immunocytochemistry in the mouse forebrain using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase. Labeled perikarya were found in the dorso-lateral parts of the medial and tuberal hypothalamus. Positive cells filled an area extending between the subincertal nucleus in the dorsal part, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral part, and the internal capsule and the magnocellular nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus in the lateral part. The same distribution was seen in the two strains of mice that were studied (Jackson and Swiss), and the number of immunoreactive perikarya did not seem to be affected by castration or testosterone treatment. No immunoreactivity could be detected in the medial regions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus; these were expected to contain the enzyme based on assays of aromatase activity performed in rats and on indirect autoradiographic evidence in mice. Our data raise questions concerning the distribution of aromatase in the brain and the mode of action of the centrally produced estrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of bacteria and associated minerals in the gill chamber of the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and related biogeochemical processes
Zbinden, M.; Le Bris, N.; Gaill, F. et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2004), 284

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafauna of some Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. This species harbours a rich bacterial epibiosis inside its gill chamber. At the 'Rainbow' vent ... [more ▼]

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafauna of some Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. This species harbours a rich bacterial epibiosis inside its gill chamber. At the 'Rainbow' vent site (36degrees 14.0'N), the epibionts are associated with iron oxide deposits. Investigation of both bacteria and minerals by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) revealed 3 distinct compartments in the gill chamber: (1) the lower pre-branchial chamber, housing bacteria but devoid of minerals; (2) the 'true' branchial chamber, containing the gills and devoid of both bacteria and minerals; and (3) the upper pre-branchial chamber, housing the main ectosymbiotic bacterial community and associated mineral deposits. Our chemical and temperature data indicated that abiotic iron oxidation appears to be kinetically inhibited in the environment of the shrimps, which would explain the lack of iron oxide deposits in the first 2 compartments. We propose that iron oxidation is microbially promoted in the third area. The discrepancy between the spatial distribution of bacteria and minerals suggests that different bacterial metabolisms are involved in the first and third compartments. A possible explanation lies in the modification of physico-chemical conditions downstream of the gills that would reduce the oxygen content and favours the development of bacterial iron-oxidizers in this Fe-II-rich environment. A potential role of such iron-oxidizing symbionts in the shrimp diet is suggested. This would be unusual for hydrothermal ecosystems, in which most previously described symbioses rely on sulphide or methane as an energy source. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of basement membrane antigens in glomeruli of mice with autoimmune glomerulonephritis.
Matsuo, S.; Brentjens, J. R.; Andres, G. et al

in American Journal of Pathology (1986), 122(1), 36-49

Glomerulonephritis was induced in mice by the repeated injection of human glomeruli or purified glomerular basement membrane. The glomerular basement membranes of nephritic animals were observed to ... [more ▼]

Glomerulonephritis was induced in mice by the repeated injection of human glomeruli or purified glomerular basement membrane. The glomerular basement membranes of nephritic animals were observed to develop subepithelial extensions, "spikes." Although normally Type IV collagen is found throughout the full thickness of basement membranes, the "spikes" reacted with antibodies to laminin but not with antibodies to Type IV collagen. It is proposed that in murine autoimmune glomerulonephritis, the visceral epithelial cells produce an excess of laminin. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Carabid beetles in a belgian peat bog : preliminary results
Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica (1987), 22

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See detailDistribution of Cd, Zn and Cu in liver and gills of the eel Anguilla anguilla with special reference to metallothioneins.
Lambot, Françoise ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C : Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology (1978), 61

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See detailDistribution of cyanide content in the lima bean in relation with the intraspecific classification and the seed coat pigmentation.
Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg; Barthelemy, Jean-Paul ULg; Ndungo, V. et al

in Annual report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative (1990), 33

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See detailDistribution of different collagen types and fibronectin in neurofibromatosis tumours.
Peltonen, J.; Aho, H.; Halme, T. et al

in Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica. Section A-Pathology (1984), 92(5), 345-52

Collagen types I, III, IV and V and fibronectin were localized in neurofibromas from six patients with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis (NF) using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and peroxidase ... [more ▼]

Collagen types I, III, IV and V and fibronectin were localized in neurofibromas from six patients with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis (NF) using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) techniques. Type I and III collagens were abundantly and rather evenly present in the tumours and formed a continuous network, but were absent from the capillary endothelial walls and were sparse in the perineurium of the occasional nerve fascicles. The type III/type I + type III collagen ratio in neurofibromas varied from 17.4% to 37.3% when estimated with cyanogen bromide peptide analysis. Fibronectin was detected in areas where type I and III collagens were present but was most intensively stained in the vascular walls and perineurium. Type IV collagen was detected at the dermo-epidermal junction of the skin overlying the tumours, in the endothelial cells of the capillaries, the perineurium and endoneurium. Furthermore, in the tumourous stroma there was plenty of type IV collagen appearing as a discontinuous patchy pattern suggesting abundant basement membrane material associated with cells forming the tumours. Type V collagen distribution was very similar to that of type IV collagen. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of EFHC1 or myoclonin 1 in mouse neural structures
Leon, Christine ULg; de Nijs, Laurence ULg; Chanas, Grazyna et al

in Epilepsy Research (2010), 88

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See detailDistribution of Estrogen Receptors in the Brain of the Japanese Quail: An Immunocytochemical Study
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Gahr, M.; Surlemont, C.

in Brain Research (1989), 501(2), 205-14

The distribution of estrogen receptors in the quail brain was investigated by immunocytochemistry using the monoclonal antibody H222SPy raised against estrogen receptors that had been isolated from a ... [more ▼]

The distribution of estrogen receptors in the quail brain was investigated by immunocytochemistry using the monoclonal antibody H222SPy raised against estrogen receptors that had been isolated from a human mammary tumor. Nuclei which contained cells labeled for estrogen receptor were identified in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon. In particular, a high percentage of labeled cells was observed in the lateral septum, the nucleus accumbens, the preoptic medial nucleus, the supraoptic nuclei, the anterior medial hypothalamus, the paraventricular magnocellular nucleus, the caudal parts of the lateral hypothalamus and in the whole tuberal and infundibular area. A small number of weakly labeled cells was also observed in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Although most of the positive cells were observed in the hypothalamic and preoptic area, a few areas were also labeled in other brain regions. This was particularly the case for the nucleus taeniae, the nucleus intercollicularis and the central gray. The distribution of labeled cells in this study closely matched with the distribution of cells which accumulated radioactivity following injection of tritiated estradiol in a previous study. The distribution of cells labeled by immunocytochemistry was similar in males and females and no evidence for a quantitative dimorphism in the percentage of labeled cells could be obtained. All nuclei containing cells labeled for estrogen receptors also contain significant levels of aromatase with the exception of the ICo. [less ▲]

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