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See detailLa dioxine, info ou intox? A propos de l'acné de Seveso et de Yushchenko.
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg; Denooz, Raphael ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(1), 18-22

The generic term "dioxin" covers more than 400 chemicals of which less than 30 prove to be toxic. Such compounds are involved in environmental pollutions and in food contaminations. Some selected dioxins ... [more ▼]

The generic term "dioxin" covers more than 400 chemicals of which less than 30 prove to be toxic. Such compounds are involved in environmental pollutions and in food contaminations. Some selected dioxins have also been used as a non-lethal chemical weapon. The assessment of the impact on health needs a precise toxicological identification. Without that basic assessment, a discrepancy may appear between the real risk linked to the exposure and the concerns and fear generated in the population, particularly because in animals the toxic concentrations of dioxins can interfere with some hormonal systems, alter immunity, induce chloracne, and participate in the development of sarcomas, lymphomas and some carcinomas. They may be responsible for some birth defects. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dioxines dans la chaîne alimentaire : évaluation du risque dans le cadre normatif et dans le contexte d’un accident ponctuel.
Vromman, V.; Pussemier, L.; Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Application de l’évaluation des risques dans la chaîne alimentaire (2007)

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See detailDioxines en PCB’s in Chinese wolhandkrab uit het Benedenrivierengebied
van Hattum, B; Nijssen, P; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Report (2013)

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See detailDioxines en PCB’s in paling uit het Benedenrivierengebied
van Hattum, B; Nijssen, P; Focant, Jean-François ULg et al

Report (2013)

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See detailDioxines: Un risque pour la santé ou une arme économique?
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2000)

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See detailDioxins and PCBs in eel and Chinese mitten crabs in the Rhine-Meuse estuary
van Hattum, B; Nijssen, P; Focant, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2014, May)

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See detailDioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls contamination in poultry liver related to food safety - A review
Ghimpeteanu, Oana-Margarita; Militaru, Manuella; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg

in Food Control (2014), 38

The present article reviews the most important scientific literature on dioxins and PCBs found in poultry liver and their relation with food safety and consumers’ health. Dioxins and polychlorinated ... [more ▼]

The present article reviews the most important scientific literature on dioxins and PCBs found in poultry liver and their relation with food safety and consumers’ health. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with high chemical stability; they are lipophilic compounds and they are not destroyed by microbial, photochemical, chemical or thermal degradation. Dioxins and PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, which are present in all marine plant and animals, birds, mammals and humans and bioaccumulate through the food chain. In the last years, there has been concern regarding food contamination with different chemical substances and their effect on food safety. More particularly, at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, there were a series of incidents related to dioxin and PCBs, which directly affected human or contaminated the soil and accumulated in feed and then in food products, such as poultry liver. It was shown in case of dioxin incident that tetra and penta-chlorinated congeners (the most toxic ones) accumulates selectively in poultry livers. Maximal concentrations have been fixed in the European legislation for dioxins and PCBs in food from animal origin, in order to protect the consumer. Data about background poultry liver contamination are scarce and the few available show levels below the legal limit for dioxins, but data are still lacking for DL-PCBs. [less ▲]

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See detailDioxins in Human Milk from Different Regions of France: Pilot of the French Longitudinal Study of Children (ELFE)
Vandentoren, S; Frery, N; Bidondo, ML et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2011), 73

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See detailDioxins in our food: Where are we 14 years after the Belgian chicken-gate?
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2013, October)

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See detailDioxins, furans and co-planar PCBs in juvenile harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Belgian coasts
Beans, Cristina ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2003)

Dioxins, furans and PCBs are lipophilic anthropogenic contaminants that have found their way into marine food webs and accumulate in top predators such as marine mammals, adding a stress factor to an ... [more ▼]

Dioxins, furans and PCBs are lipophilic anthropogenic contaminants that have found their way into marine food webs and accumulate in top predators such as marine mammals, adding a stress factor to an already vulnerable population. In this study 7 congeners of dioxins (PCDDs), 10 congeners of furans (PCDFs) and 4 congeners of coplanar PCBs (cPCBs) were determined using high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the blubber of 19 juvenile harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded along the Belgian North Sea coastline between 1995 and 2001. These results were contrasted with nutritional status (emaciated or not), sex and trophic level (through stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis). Mean blubber concentrations of SPCDD/Fs were 12.8 pg/g lw (lipid weight) and mean related toxicity 1.84 pg TEQs/g lw (TEQs = TCDD toxic equivalents). Mean cPCB concentrations were 223,5 pg/g lw and mean related toxicity 4,47 pg TEQs/g lw. The levels detected in these individuals were of the same order as those found in a previous study in the Wadden Sea (Bruhn, 1999). Both sexes show rather similar levels. No significant relationship was observed between stable carbon or nitrogen isotope values and pollutant levels. Concentrations and toxicity show a tendency to be higher in emaciated ndividuals than in nonemaciated ones. This could indicate a possible relationship between the nutritional status of the animals and dioxinlike pollutants (which could participate in weakening the animal). This situation should be further studied on adult individuals in order to obtain a more global view of the possible effects on the population. [less ▲]

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See detailDioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in juvenile harbour porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena) from the North sea
Beans, Cristina; Debacker, Virginie ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2003)

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See detailA dip into the world of veterinary nuclear medicine: equine lung scintigraphy
Votion, Dominique ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice (2003), 2(3), 222-230

The clinical and experimental uses of equine lung scintigraphy have largely expanded in recent years. Lung imaging using large animals is of great interest for the understanding of general lung physiology ... [more ▼]

The clinical and experimental uses of equine lung scintigraphy have largely expanded in recent years. Lung imaging using large animals is of great interest for the understanding of general lung physiology, for the knowledge of animal peculiarities, for the study and diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders as well as for the development of their treatment. This article surveys some methodological constraints due to the scanning of a noncooperative large-sized animal, reviews the contribution of equine nuclear imaging in lung physiology and pathology, and discusses future clinical and fundamental applications of lung scintigraphy. [less ▲]

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See detailDip-coating of fibrous natural materials for alumina tube manufacturing
Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Wilker, Viola; Scheffler, Michael

in Advanced Engineering Materials (2008), 10(3), 223-226

Results from preliminary studies for development of hollow ceramic tubes by dip-coating of fibrous plants with water based gel-casting slurries are presented. Hemp and coconut fibres have been tested as ... [more ▼]

Results from preliminary studies for development of hollow ceramic tubes by dip-coating of fibrous plants with water based gel-casting slurries are presented. Hemp and coconut fibres have been tested as templates reflecting in different macro and micro structures of the obtained ceramic tubes. Good correlation between the diameters of the template fibres and the developed channels has been documented, the ordering of the channels inside the tubes being function of the mode of fibres implementation: as singles or as bundles. By coating hemp fibres in bundle, multi channel pattern has been developed, resulting from splitting of the bundle. By using single coconut fibre as template, uniform mono channels with 250 – 400 µm in diameter were observed. The developed tubes have been characterized by good end finish. The observed differences in their microstructure offer possibilities for adjusting the physical properties towards prospective application niches. [less ▲]

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See detailDipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in plasma of dogs : physiological determinants and effect of heart failure
Gomez, Nelson; Matheeussen, V.; Tamborini, A. et al

in 21th ECVIM Meeting - Séville, Espagne - du 6 au 10 septembre 2011 (2011, September)

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See detailDipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are favourable to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists: yes.
SCHEEN, André ULg

in European Journal of Internal Medicine (2012), 23(2), 126-31

The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies ... [more ▼]

The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies, these novel drugs offer some advantages such as an absence of weight gain and a negligible risk of hypoglycaemia and, possibly, better cardiovascular and beta-cell protection. The physician has now multiple choices to manage his/her patient after secondary failure of metformin, and the question whether it is preferable to add an oral dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (gliptin) or an injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist will emerge. Obviously, DPP-4 inhibitors offer several advantages compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially regarding easiness of use, tolerance profile and cost. However, because they can only increase endogenous GLP-1 concentrations to physiological (rather than pharmacological) levels, they are less potent to improve glucose control, promote weight reduction ("weight neutrality") and reduce blood pressure compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists. Of note, none of the two classes have proven long-term safety and positive impact on diabetic complications yet. The role of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in the therapeutic armamentarium of T2DM is rapidly evolving, but their respective potential strengths and weaknesses should be better defined in long-term head-to-head comparative controlled trials. Instead of trying to answer the question whether DPP-4 inhibitors are favourable to GLP-1 receptor agonists (or vice versa), it is probably more clinically relevant to look at which T2DM patient will benefit more from one or the other therapy considering all his/her individual clinical characteristics ("personalized medicine"). [less ▲]

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See detailDipeptidylpeptitase-4 inhibitors (gliptins): focus on drug-drug interactions.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical Pharmacokinetics (2010), 49(9), 573-88

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generally treated with many pharmacological compounds and are exposed to a high risk of drug-drug interactions. Indeed, blood glucose control usually ... [more ▼]

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generally treated with many pharmacological compounds and are exposed to a high risk of drug-drug interactions. Indeed, blood glucose control usually requires a combination of various glucose-lowering agents, and the recommended global approach to reduce overall cardiovascular risk generally implies administration of several protective compounds, including HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), antihypertensive compounds and antiplatelet agents. New compounds have been developed to improve glucose-induced beta-cell secretion and glucose control, without inducing hypoglycaemia or weight gain, in patients with T2DM. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are novel oral glucose-lowering agents, which may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic compounds, metformin, thiazolidinediones or even sulfonylureas. Sitagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin are already on the market, either as single agents or in fixed-dose combined formulations with metformin. Other compounds, such as alogliptin and linagliptin, are in a late phase of development. This review summarizes the available data on drug-drug interactions reported in the literature for these five DDP-4 inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin and linagliptin. Possible pharmacokinetic interferences have been investigated between each of these compounds and various pharmacological agents, which were selected because there are other glucose-lowering agents (metformin, glibenclamide [glyburide], pioglitazone/rosiglitazone) that may be prescribed in combination with DPP-4 inhibitors, other drugs that are currently used in patients with T2DM (statins, antihypertensive agents), compounds that are known to interfere with the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system (ketoconazole, diltiazem, rifampicin [rifampin]) or with P-glycoprotein transport (ciclosporin), or agents with a narrow therapeutic safety window (warfarin, digoxin). Generally speaking, almost no drug-drug interactions or only minor drug-drug interactions have been reported between DPP-4 inhibitors and any of these drugs. The gliptins do not significantly modify the pharmacokinetic profile and exposure of the other tested drugs, and the other drugs do not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic profile of the gliptins or exposure to these. The only exception concerns saxagliptin, which is metabolized to an active metabolite by CYP3A4/5. Therefore, exposure to saxagliptin and its primary metabolite may be significantly modified when saxagliptin is coadministered with specific strong inhibitors (ketoconazole, diltiazem) or inducers (rifampicin) of CYP3A4/5 isoforms. The absence of significant drug-drug interactions could be explained by the favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics of DPP-4 inhibitors, which are not inducers or inhibitors of CYP isoforms and are not bound to plasma proteins to a great extent. Therefore, according to these pharmacokinetic findings, which were generally obtained in healthy young male subjects, no dosage adjustment is recommended when gliptins are combined with other pharmacological agents in patients with T2DM, with the exception of a reduction in the daily dosage of saxagliptin when this drug is used in association with a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4/A5. It is worth noting, however, that a reduction in the dose of sulfonylureas is usually recommended when a DPP-4 inhibitor is added, because of a pharmacodynamic interaction (rather than a pharmacokinetic interaction) between the sulfonylurea and the DPP-4 inhibitor, which may result in a higher risk of hypoglycaemia. Otherwise, any gliptin may be combined with metformin or a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone), leading to a significant improvement in glycaemic control without an increased risk of hypoglycaemia or any other adverse event in patients with T2DM. Finally, the absence of drug-drug interactions in clinical trials in healthy subjects requires further evidence from large-scale studies, including typical subjects with T2DM - in particular, multimorbid and geriatric patients receiving polypharmacy. [less ▲]

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See detailLa diplocéline, un alcaloïde nouveau du Strychnos gossweileri
Coune, Claude; Angenot, Luc ULg

in Phytochemistry (1978), 17

Diploceline is the name given to a quaternary alkaloid isolated from Strychnos gossweileri roots. The structure was established on the basis of UV,IR, MS, CD and NMR spectra.

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See detailDiplocoria: el viaje de una semilla
Culot, Laurence ULg

Scientific conference (2008, June 04)

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