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See detailDifferential expression of the GTL2 gene within the callipyge region of ovine chromosome 18.
Bidwell, C. A.; Shay, T. L.; Georges, Michel ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2001), 32(5), 248-56

The inheritance pattern of the skeletal muscle hypertrophy phenotype caused by the callipyge gene has been characterized as polar overdominance. We hypothesized that this trait may be caused by a gain or ... [more ▼]

The inheritance pattern of the skeletal muscle hypertrophy phenotype caused by the callipyge gene has been characterized as polar overdominance. We hypothesized that this trait may be caused by a gain or loss of gene expression because of the reversible nature of the phenotype in paternal vs. maternal inheritance. Suppression subtraction cDNA probes were made from skeletal muscle mRNA of normal (NN) and callipyge (C(Pat)N(Mat)) animals and hybridized to Southern blots containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that comprise a physical contig of the callipyge region. The CN-NN probes hybridized to two ovine and seven bovine BACs. Sequence analysis of fragments within those BACs indicated short regions of similarity to mouse gene trap locus (gtl2). Northern blots analysis of RNA from hypertrophy-responsive muscles show a population of GTL2 mRNA centred around 2.4 kb that were abundantly expressed in 14-day prenatal NN and C(Pat)N(Mat) lambs but were down-regulated in day 14 and day 56 postnatal NN lambs. The expression of GTL2 remained elevated in 14- and 56-day-old C(Pat)N(Mat) lambs as well as in 56-day-old N(Pat)C(Mat) and CC lambs. Expression of GTL2 in the supraspinatus, which does not undergo hypertrophy, was very low for all genotypes and ages. Isolation of cDNA sequences show extensive alternative splicing and a lack of codon bias suggesting that GTL2 does not encode a protein. The mutation of the callipyge allele has altered postnatal expression of GTL2 in muscles that undergo hypertrophy and will help identify mechanisms involved in growth, genomic imprinting and polar overdominance. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of two somatostatin genes during zebrafish embryonic development
Devos, Nathalie; Deflorian, Gianluca; Biemar, Frédéric et al

in Mechanisms of Development (2002), 115(1-2), 133-7

We have identified the cDNAs of two new zebrafish preprosomatostatins, PPSS1 and PPSS3, in addition to the previously cloned PPSS2 (Argenton et al., 1999). PPSS1 is the orthologue of mammalian PPSSs, with ... [more ▼]

We have identified the cDNAs of two new zebrafish preprosomatostatins, PPSS1 and PPSS3, in addition to the previously cloned PPSS2 (Argenton et al., 1999). PPSS1 is the orthologue of mammalian PPSSs, with a conserved C-terminal SS-14 sequence, PPSS2 is a divergent SS precursor and PPSS3 is a cortistatin-like prohormone. Using whole-mount in situ hybridisation, we have analysed the expression of PPSS1 and PPSS2 in zebrafish embryos up to 5 days post fertilisation. PPSS1 was expressed in the developing pancreas and central nervous system (CNS), whereas PPSS2 expression was exclusively pancreatic. In the CNS, PPSS1 was detected in several areas, in particular in the vagal motor nucleus and in cells that pioneer the tract of the postoptic commissure. PPSS1 was also expressed transiently in the telencephalon and spinal motor neurons. In all areas but the telencephalon PPSS1 was coexpressed with islet-1. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in hematopoietic and fatty bone marrow: evidence that neuropilin-1 is produced by fat cells.
Belaid, Zakia ULg; Hubint, Frederique; Humblet, Chantal ULg et al

in Haematologica (2005), 90(3), 400-1

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2) and neuropillin-1 (NRP-1) are expressed at variable levels in bone marrow. NRP-1expression is higher in fatty bone marrow than ... [more ▼]

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2) and neuropillin-1 (NRP-1) are expressed at variable levels in bone marrow. NRP-1expression is higher in fatty bone marrow than in hematopoietic marrow. Adipocytes are responsible for NRP-1 expression suggesting that they may play a role in hematopoiesis by producing NRP-1 or that NRP-1 may regulate adipocyte activity. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential expression of Vegfr-2 and its soluble form in preeclampsia.
Munaut, Carine ULg; LORQUET, Sophie ULg; Pequeux, Christel ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(3), 33475

Background: Several studies have suggested that the main features of preeclampsia (PE) are consequences of endothelial dysfunction related to excess circulating anti-angiogenic factors, most notably ... [more ▼]

Background: Several studies have suggested that the main features of preeclampsia (PE) are consequences of endothelial dysfunction related to excess circulating anti-angiogenic factors, most notably, soluble sVEGFR-1 (also known as sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng), as well as to decreased PlGF. Recently, soluble VEGF type 2 receptor (sVEGFR-2) has emerged as a crucial regulator of lymphangiogenesis. To date, however, there is a paucity of information on the changes of VEGFR-2 that occur during the clinical onset of PE. Therefore, the aim of our study was to characterize the plasma levels of VEGFR-2 in PE patients and to perform VEGFR-2 immunolocalization in placenta. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By ELISA, we observed that the VEGFR-2 plasma levels were reduced during PE compared with normal gestational age matched pregnancies, whereas the VEGFR-1 and Eng plasma levels were increased. The dramatic drop in the VEGFR-1 levels shortly after delivery confirmed its placental origin. In contrast, the plasma levels of Eng and VEGFR-2 decreased only moderately during the early postpartum period. An RT-PCR analysis showed that the relative levels of VEGFR-1, sVEGFR-1 and Eng mRNA were increased in the placentas of women with severe PE. The relative levels of VEGFR-2 mRNA as well as expressing cells, were similar in both groups. We also made the novel finding that a recently described alternatively spliced VEGFR-2 mRNA variant was present at lower relative levels in the preeclamptic placentas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the plasma levels of anti-angiogenic factors, particularly VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, behave in different ways after delivery. The rapid decrease in plasma VEGFR-1 levels appears to be a consequence of the delivery of the placenta. The persistent circulating levels of VEGFR-2 suggest a maternal endothelial origin of this peptide. The decreased VEGFR-2 plasma levels in preeclamptic women may serve as a marker of endothelial dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Functionalities of Amphiphilic Peptide Segments of the Cell-Septation Penicillin-Binding Protein 3 of Escherichia Coli
Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Piette, André ULg; Gallet, Xavier et al

in Molecular Microbiology (2000), 37(5), 1019-1031

The class B M1-V577 penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 of Escherichia coli consists of a M1-L39 membrane anchor (bearing a cytosolic tail) that is linked via a G40-S70 intervening peptide to an R71-I236 ... [more ▼]

The class B M1-V577 penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 of Escherichia coli consists of a M1-L39 membrane anchor (bearing a cytosolic tail) that is linked via a G40-S70 intervening peptide to an R71-I236 non-catalytic module (containing the conserved motifs 1-3) itself linked via motif 4 to a D237-V577 catalytic module (containing the conserved motifs 5-7 of the penicilloyl serine transferases superfamily). It has been proposed that during cell septation the peptidoglycan crosslinking activity of the acyl transferase module of PBP3 is regulated by the associated M1-I236 polypeptide itself in interaction with other components of the divisome. The fold adopted by the R71-V577 polypeptide of PBP3 has been modelled by reference to the corresponding R76-S634 polypeptide of the class B Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP2x. Based on these data and the results of site-directed mutagenesis of motifs 1-3 and of peptide segments of high amphiphilicity (identified from hydrophobic moment plots), the M1-I236 polypeptide of PBP3 appears to be precisely designed to work in the way proposed. The membrane anchor and the G40-S70 sequence (containing the G57-Q66 peptide segment) upstream from the non-catalytic module have the information ensuring that PBP3 undergoes proper insertion within the divisome at the cell septation site. Motif 1 and the I74-L82 overlapping peptide segment, motif 2 and the H160-G172 overlapping peptide segment, and the G188-D197 motif 3 are located at or close to the intermodule junction. They contain the information ensuring that PBP3 folds correctly and the acyl transferase catalytic centre adopts the active configuration. The E206-V217 peptide segment is exposed at the surface of the non-catalytic module. It has the information ensuring that PBP3 fulfils its cell septation activity within the fully complemented divisome. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential gene expression in the pathogenic dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae in vitro versus during infection
Staib, P.; Zaugg, C.; Mignon, Bernard ULg et al

in Microbiology (2010), 156(3), 884-895

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See detailDifferential gene expression in two potato lines differing in their resistance to Phytophthora infestans
Evers, Danièle; Ghislain, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2003), 160(6), 709-712

Horizontal resistance to late blight in the potato is a primary objective of many breeding programs. Knowledge of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying it, however, is scarce. The ... [more ▼]

Horizontal resistance to late blight in the potato is a primary objective of many breeding programs. Knowledge of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying it, however, is scarce. The purpose of the present study was the identification of these physiological and biochemical factors in plant material obtained by crossing a late blight resistant Solanum phureja clone with a susceptible dihaploid of S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum. The mRNA RT-PCR differential display method was used to compare the gene expression patterns of a resistant hybrid with that of a susceptible one. By sequence homology, we identified several genes with diverse functions, including genes known to be involved in resistance or stress responses and genes known to be involved in primary or secondary metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential growth dependency of normal and habituated sugarbeet cell lines upon endogenous ethylene production and exogenous ethylene application
Bisbis, Badia; Kevers, Claire ULg; Creche, Joel et al

in Physiologia Plantarum (1998), 103(2), 201-208

A fully habituated (auxin- and cytokinin-independent) nonorganogenic (HNO) sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) callus produces very little ethylene as compared with a normal (N) hormone-requiring callus of the same ... [more ▼]

A fully habituated (auxin- and cytokinin-independent) nonorganogenic (HNO) sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) callus produces very little ethylene as compared with a normal (N) hormone-requiring callus of the same strain. Both callus types react by growth changes to application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene action, of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as the immediate precursor of ethylene, to transfer from light to darkness, and also to application of exogenous ethylene or an ethylene trapper. This indicates their growth dependency upon their endogenously biosynthesized ethylene and also their sensitivity to exogenous gas. However, the sensitivity was generally higher for the HNO callus producing naturally less ethylene. The weaker reaction of the HNO callus to the exogenous ethylene was attributed to its hyperhydric status (a water layer surrounding the cells). Because low ethylene production appears as a general characteristic of habituated cell lines, the causal and/or consequential relationships of this low ethylene production with other characteristics of habituated tissues (absence of exogenous hormones in the culture media, deficiency of cell differentiation, accumulation of polyamines in neoplastic tissues) are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential heat shock gene hsp70-1 response to toxicants revealed by in vivo study of lungs in transgenic mice
Wirth, Delphine; Christians, Elisabeth; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Cell Stress & Chaperones (2002), 7(4), 387-395

Members of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) family have been considered to respond to a large variety of stressful conditions. But it was suggested that, in pulmonary cells, Hsp response depends more closely ... [more ▼]

Members of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) family have been considered to respond to a large variety of stressful conditions. But it was suggested that, in pulmonary cells, Hsp response depends more closely on the type of stimulus. The lungs are critical organs potentially subjected to air pollution affecting respiratory function and, therefore, these organs are of particular interest with regard to the stress response. To investigate the stress dependence of Hsp70 response in lungs, we created transgenic mice where the firefly luciferase reporter gene is under the control of the murine hsp70-1 promoter and exposed them to different sublethal toxic conditions. For each condition, the level of transgene induction and pulmonary toxicity were assessed. We found that hsp70-1 promoter was stimulated by heat shock and Cadmium but not by ozone, paraquat, and parathion, even if these chemicals induced respiratory distress and lung inflammation. Similar observations were made when expression of the endogenous hsp70-1 gene was analyzed, indicating that our transgenic model was accurately detecting hsp70-1 induction. Thereby, it appeared that hsp70-1 response is selective and depends on signaling pathways triggered by the toxicants rather than by their pathologic toxicity per se. Furthermore, because all the chemicals used in our study have been previously described to increase the level of oxidative stress, it indicates that there is no direct and simple correlation between hsp70-1 response and the level of oxidative stress, but more specific oxidative patterns should be involved in Hsp regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential IFN-a/b productin suppressing capacities of the leader proteins of mengovirus and food-and-mouth disease virus
Hato, S; Sorgeloos, F; RICOUR, Céline ULg et al

in Cellular Microbiology (2010), 12(3), 310-317

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See detailDifferential impacts of plant interactions on herbaceous species recruitment: disentangling factors controlling emergence, survival and growth of seedlings
Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Violle, Cyrille; Navas, Marie-Laure

in Oecologia (2009)

Recruitment is a crucial event in the plant life cycle that is very sensitive to interaction with established vegetation. Based on a large comparative experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the ... [more ▼]

Recruitment is a crucial event in the plant life cycle that is very sensitive to interaction with established vegetation. Based on a large comparative experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the components of recruitment –emergence time and rate, seedling survival and biomass – differ in response to plant-plant interactions during recruitment. The consequences for the population are predicted with a simple demographic model assessing the response of seed production. In a common garden experiment, we recorded the recruitment of four target species in an individual-based survey protocol. A total of 7,680 seeds were sown within 20 neigbourhoods, consisting of 19 mono-specific herbaceous stands and a control treatment without vegetation. We measured transmitted light, temperature and moisture at soil surface to characterise the environmental conditions within neighbourhoods. The mean height of neighbours controlled temperature buffering and light interception and thus depicted the interaction gradient. Emergence rate and time increased with neighbour height in two of the four target species, while seedling survival and biomass significantly decreased with neighbour height in three and all four target species, respectively. We recorded a shift in seedling neighbour interactions under the tallest neighbours that largely favoured emergence but strongly depressed seedling survival and biomass. The components of recruitment were predicted to differ in their impact on later adult performance. Biomass strongly contributed to predicted seed production in three target species, and emergence had an equal or greater impact on a fourth species. These results confirm the fundamental role of plant-plant interactions in the recruitment of herbaceous species through a complex combination of habitat amelioration, which facilitates emergence and light competition, which in turn limits seedling survival and biomass. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential implication of deoxyribonucleic acid methylation in rat prolactin and rat growth hormone gene expressions: a comparison between rat pituitary cell strains
Laverriere, Jean-Noël; Muller, Marc ULg; Buisson, Nicole et al

in Endocrinology (1986), 118(1), 198-206

In order to assess the potential role of DNA methylation in the expression of rat PRL (rPRL) as compared to rat GH (rGH) gene, the cleavage patterns generated by the isoschizomeric restriction enzymes ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the potential role of DNA methylation in the expression of rat PRL (rPRL) as compared to rat GH (rGH) gene, the cleavage patterns generated by the isoschizomeric restriction enzymes HpaII and MspI were examined in DNA isolated from rat pituitary cell lines producing either high levels of rPRL (GH3B6) or of rGH (GC) and in a stable variant cell strain which produces minute amounts of both hormones (GH3CDL cells). The rPRL and the rGH genes were found hypomethylated in GH3B6 and GC cells, respectively, whereas in GH3CDL cells both genes were methylated, indicating a correlation between the extent of gene methylation and the level of expression. However the use of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC), which decreases DNA methylation, suggested a variable importance of gene methylation in the control of rPRL and rGH gene expression. 5-AzaC was unable to increase rPRL production to a detectable level in GC cells, whereas the cytidine analog markedly increased rPRL production and rGH production in GH3CDL cells. Further analysis using GH3CDL cells showed that the extent of the 5-azaC-induced rPRL and rGH gene demethylation was consistent with the 5-azaC-induced increase of gene expressions. However, in these cells, the stimulation of rPRL and rGH production unexpectedly increased as a function of time elapsed after drug withdrawal. The maximal stimulation, 30-fold and 7-fold, respectively, was observed 3 weeks after a 60-h exposure to 5-azaC. This pattern suggests that other events are required for the full expression of rPRL and rGH genes in addition to their own demethylation. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential involvement of the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS1 complex, BRCA1 and MLH1 in NF-kappa B activation by camptothecin and X-ray
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Jolois, Olivier ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg

in Oncogene (2003), 22(38), 6090-6099

Camptothecin (CPT) and X-ray (XR) generate double-strand breaks (DSB) that can be processed by homologous or nonhomologous recombination. We studied the participation of proteins involved in recombination ... [more ▼]

Camptothecin (CPT) and X-ray (XR) generate double-strand breaks (DSB) that can be processed by homologous or nonhomologous recombination. We studied the participation of proteins involved in recombination pathways and cell cycle control in the signal transduction between DNA damage and NF-kappaB. Cells harbouring mutated NBS, hMRE11, BRCA1 or MLH1 were analysed. NBS- and hMRE11-deficient cells present a classical kinetic of NF-kappaB induction after camptothecin treatment. When DSB are generated by XR, NBS-deficient cells exhibit a delayed and strongly reduced level of NF-kappaB induction, whereas the hMRE11 mutated cells do not induce NF-kappaB at all. This indicates an important role of the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS complex in the signal transduction initiated by XR. In HCC1937 cells that express a truncated version of BRCA1, XR induces a very rapid and transient NF-kappaB activation, whereas CPT leads to a delayed activation suggesting that BRCA1 modulates the transduction pathways in different manners after these two stresses. Finally, we found that a proficient MMR pathway is essential to the NF-kappaB activation after both CPT and XR. These results indicate that DSB originating from XR or CPT do not induce NF-kappaB in a unique way. MMR participates in both cascades, whereas the hMRE11/hRAD50/NBS trimer is specifically involved in the response elicited by XR. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential isotopic turnover (C and N) detected in Antarctic scavenger amphipods
Nyssen, Fabienne ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg et al

Poster (2008, August)

Metabolic activity is positively related to temperature, inversely to body mass and is a function of taxon specific life style features, in particular activity such as level of active movement. Therefore ... [more ▼]

Metabolic activity is positively related to temperature, inversely to body mass and is a function of taxon specific life style features, in particular activity such as level of active movement. Therefore, the isotope signal transfer velocity is expected to be lower in cold environments and in larger as well as less active organisms. Our study explores whether this may be a problem in trophic studies of a comparatively “slow” because cold system such as the high Antarctic shelf ecosystem and in comparatively large organisms such as benthic amphipod species within this system. We compare experimentally the velocity of stable isotope signal transfer from prey to consumer in three lysianassoid amphipods, Waldeckia obesa, Abyssorchomene plebs and Pseudorchomene coatsi. They have similar alimentation, but different size and lifestyle. Indeed, W. obesa is a very sedentary species spending most of the time immobilized on diverse substrates whereas P. coatsi is very motile, swimming rapidly around the aquarium. The third species, A. plebs has an intermediate behaviour, sharing time between short swim and resting on bottom. Those species also differ significantly in size: and are good representative of scavenger trophic guild on Antarctic shelf. After being starved, amphipods were kept by species and fed ad libitum with lyophilized fish during fifty days. Individuals were sacrificed weekly for isotopic analysis. At the end of the 7-week incubation with standardized food, rank correlation of δ13C and δ15N against time did not show any consistent trend for A. plebs (δ13C: p = 0.51 and δ15N p = 0.04) neither for the species W. obesa (δ13C: p = 0.77 and δ15N p = 0.26). By contrast, for P. coatsi, rank correlations were highly significant (p < 0.0001). The linear regression illustrated a clear increase of isotopic ratios all along the experiment. This metabolic discrepancy between species is probably a size-mass effect. Furthermore, for this species, ANCOVA of the individually measured isotopic ratios first transformed to an offset value (rate vs carbon ↔ nitrogen, covariate time) provided evidence for significant effects of the parameter “isotope” on isotopic temporal evolution. Indeed, the δ13C values evolve much faster than the δ15N ones. According to data, it would take double time for P. coatsi to balance its nitrogen isotopic signature than its carbon isotopic ratio when changing food. Those results are critically discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential item functioning among multiple groups: an outlier identification approach
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2010, June 07)

Differential item functioning (DIF) has received increasing focus in the past decades. Recently, Magis and De Boeck (2010) proposed to identify differentially functioning items as outliers in a one ... [more ▼]

Differential item functioning (DIF) has received increasing focus in the past decades. Recently, Magis and De Boeck (2010) proposed to identify differentially functioning items as outliers in a one-dimensional space of DIF measures, using robust statistical tools for outlier identification. The purpose of this talk is to present an extension of this approach for the case of more than one focal group. In this multiple group framework, items can be characterized by multiple vectors of DIF measures, one for each focal group, so that a multivariate DIF space is obtained. DIF items can then be identified as outliers in this multivariate space, based on robust multivariate estimators of location and dispersion. The MCD (Minimum Covariance Determinant) estimator is shown to be adequate for this purpose. A major asset of the method that it can rely on existing DIF indices to define the DIF vectors, and that it does not need a purification step. Alternatively, it can be used to determine on an anchor set. The method will be illustrated by an example about calculator effects on mathematics test items. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential item functioning in psychometrics: a state-of-the-art
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2009, October)

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See detailDifferential location of nucleic acids within interchromatin granule clusters.
Thiry, Marc ULg

in European Journal of Cell Biology (1993), 62(2), 259-69

We have examined in great detail the distribution of nucleic acids within interchromatin granule clusters in different cell types by means of various immunocytochemical approaches. Using the in situ ... [more ▼]

We have examined in great detail the distribution of nucleic acids within interchromatin granule clusters in different cell types by means of various immunocytochemical approaches. Using the in situ polyadenylate nucleotidyl transferase-immunogold technique for RNA detection or anti-RNA antibodies, we decisively demonstrate the presence of appreciable amount of RNA in clusters of interchromatin granules of untreated cells. Neither the in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-immunogold technique nor anti-DNA antibodies, nor the in situ nick-translation technique for DNA detection have revealed any DNA in the interchromatin granule clusters. However, dispersed chromatin sensitive to DNase I are found at the borders and in the close vicinity of interchromatin granule clusters. The results indicate that interchromatin granule clusters should not be nuclear structures directly involved in RNA transcription but rather in some other steps of RNA metabolism. [less ▲]

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