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See detailComparison and combination of spectroscopic techniques for the detection of counterfeit medicines
Sacré, Pierre-Yves ULg; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Thomas et al

Poster (2010, September 23)

During this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to 55 samples of counterfeit and imitations of Viagra® and 39 ... [more ▼]

During this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to 55 samples of counterfeit and imitations of Viagra® and 39 samples of counterfeit and imitations of Cialis®. The aim of the study was to investigate which of these techniques and associations of them were the best for discriminating genuine from counterfeit and imitation samples. Only the regions between 1800-400 cm-1 and 7000-4000 cm-1 were used for FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy respectively. Partial Least Square analysis has been used to allow the detection of counterfeit and imitation tablets. It is shown that for the Viagra® samples, the best results were provided by a combination of FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy. On the other hand, the best results for the Cialis® samples were provided by the combination of NIR and Raman spectroscopy (1400-1190 cm-1). These techniques permitted a clear discrimination between genuine and counterfeit or imitation samples but also the distinction of clusters among illegal samples. This might be interesting for forensic investigations by authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison and combination of spectroscopic techniques for the detection of counterfeit medicines
Sacré, Pierre-Yves ULg; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Thomas et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2010), 53

During this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to 55 samples of counterfeit and imitations of Viagra® and 39 ... [more ▼]

During this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to 55 samples of counterfeit and imitations of Viagra® and 39 samples of counterfeit and imitations of Cialis®. The aim of the study was to investigate which of these techniques and associations of them were the best for discriminating genuine from counterfeit and imitation samples. Only the regions between 1800-400 cm-1 and 7000-4000 cm-1 were used for FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy respectively. Partial Least Square analysis has been used to allow the detection of counterfeit and imitation tablets. It is shown that for the Viagra® samples, the best results were provided by a combination of FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy. On the other hand, the best results for the Cialis® samples were provided by the combination of NIR and Raman spectroscopy (1400-1190 cm-1). These techniques permitted a clear discrimination between genuine and counterfeit or imitation samples but also the distinction of clusters among illegal samples. This might be interesting for forensic investigations by authorities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 117 (19 ULg)
See detailComparison and complementary of the methods
Baeten, Vincent; Vermeulen, Ph.; Berben, Gilbert et al

in STRATFEED - Strategies and methods to detect and quantify mammalian tissues in feedingstuffs. (2005)

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See detailComparison and impact of waste heat recovery technologies on passenger car fuel consumption on a normalized driving cycle
Legros, Arnaud ULg; Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Diny, Mouad et al

in Energies (2014)

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison and molecular characterization of animal and human Clostridium difficile strains
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 07)

The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare animal and human C. difficile strains with respect to the PCR-ribotype and the antibiotic resistance. Multilocus sequence typing analysis ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare animal and human C. difficile strains with respect to the PCR-ribotype and the antibiotic resistance. Multilocus sequence typing analysis (MLST) was performed in order to study clonal relationships of the isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison and validation of heat stress indices in experimental studies
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg; Malchaire, Jacques

in Ergonomics (1995), 38(1), 58-72

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See detailComparison and validation of risk assessment tools (FRAC-WECO Deliverable D4.1)
Caterina, David; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Dassargues, Alain ULg et al

Report (2008)

The objective of this document is to review a series of risk assessment tools that were selected in Deliverable 2.5: Decision grid for best approach in terms of modelling concepts/ contaminants. As a ... [more ▼]

The objective of this document is to review a series of risk assessment tools that were selected in Deliverable 2.5: Decision grid for best approach in terms of modelling concepts/ contaminants. As a reminder, the selection was carried out as follows: First, most cited risk assessment tools (RA tools) in the literature were selected. In a second step, about thirty softwares were chosen according to their characteristics and their potential usefulness in the scope of the project. The criteria that were taken into account in the selection process are the: • type of risk concerned (risk on water resources and ecosystems); • type of contaminants managed by the software (at least the most common ones: hydrocarbons, heavy metals, chlorinated solvents and semi-organic volatile compounds...); • type of media managed by the software (soil, groundwater and surface water); • possibility to take into account in a certain way the contaminant fluxes data (hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, ...); • possibility to take into account attenuation factors (partitioning between the liquid-, solid- and gaseous phases; re-distribution in the soil profile by sorption; dilution in groundwater; biodegradation); • complexity of the models (analytical or numerical); • possibility to use GIS data; • type of inputs and outputs; • possibility to calculate uncertainty on the results; • possibility to calculate cost-benefit from remedial action. Based on these criteria, several tools have been selected: • RISC Workbench (http://www.bpRISC.com/index.htm ); • RBCA Toolkit (http://www.gsi-net.com/Software/RBCA_tk_v2.asp ). In the scope of this document, additional tools have also been included in the selection in order to be tested further. : • MISP (http://www2.brgm.fr/MISP/); • Remedial Targets Worksheet (http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/landquality/113813/887579/887905/?lang=_e ). Note that SADA (http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~sada/index.shtml) and FIELDS (http://epa.instepsoftware.com/fields/), initially selected in deliverable 2.5, will not be described in this document because it turned out that they do not have the necessary characteristics to study the transport of dissolved contaminants. This document is organized as follows. First, a description of selected softwares via their ability to model the transport of dissolved contaminants. Second, a presentation of the two case studies on which each tool will be tested and compared to others. Third, the comparison of results in itself and finally, conclusions and perspectives of the study will be drawn. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailComparison between 3 sources of dietary fibre in dog's diet. Effects on digestibility and on plasma metabolites
Diez, Marianne ULg; Marche, Christian; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 4th European Society of Veterinary Internal Medecine. Annual Congress (1994)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
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See detailCOMPARISON BETWEEN 4 METHODS TO MEASURE GLUCOSINOLATES IN RAPESEEDS
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Cwilowski, M.; Severin, M. et al

in Revue Française des Corps Gras (1988), 35(4), 177-179

Total glucosinolate content in rapeseeds cultivated in France. Germany. Denmark, United Kingdom and Belgium has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas liquid chromatography ... [more ▼]

Total glucosinolate content in rapeseeds cultivated in France. Germany. Denmark, United Kingdom and Belgium has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas liquid chromatography (GLC),measurement of glucose released by myrosinase and Pd glucosinolate complex after purification on an ion exchange column. Methods are well correlated. Glucose method and HPLC give similar results r: O.995, bias: O.055 µM/gr). ln most cases. GLC results are lower than HPLC (r: O.995, bias: - 2.482 µM/gr). Palladium method gives systematically higher results than HPLC (t: 0.99O, bias: 6.763 µM/gr). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 95 (3 ULg)
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See detailComparison between 4 processing techniques of maize in dogs's diet: Effects on digestibility and on plasma metabolites
Diez, Marianne ULg; Baldwin, Paule ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg et al

in Delfino, A. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 17th World Small Animal Veterinary Association. (1992)

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See detailComparison between a commercial kibble and hatchling chickens as diets for adult ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) : effects on digestibility coefficients and blood parameters
Piazza, Stéphanie; Robaye, Vincent ULg; Lhoest, Estelle et al

in Iben, C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 12th ESVCN Congress (2008)

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See detailComparison between a high chromium steel and a semi HSS grades used as work rolls in the roughing stands of a hot strip mill
Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Proceedings of The 10th International Conference on Steel Rolling (10th ICSR) (2010, September)

Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill (HSM) were compared. The first grade known as High Chromium Steel (HCS) is actually the alloy widely used for such an ... [more ▼]

Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill (HSM) were compared. The first grade known as High Chromium Steel (HCS) is actually the alloy widely used for such an application, while the second one known as semi-High Speed Steel (semi-HSS) is the new grade developed to improve overall properties of the work roll in the roughing stands of the HSM. In the present work, the new semi-HSS grade is studied starting from 3 chemical compositions closed one to another, the variation in the alloying elements being intended to assess, on one hand the effect of a light increase of the carbon content, and on the other hand the influence of the addition of a strong MC carbide forming element. The comparison of HCS and semi-HSS grades involved many fields. Regarding the metallurgical aspect, such a comparison led to the enhancement of the solidification range, the crystallization behavior and the microstructure in the as-cast condition for both grades. Heat treatment behavior of both grades was also investigated and optimal parameters leading to the homogenization of the alloy composition within the deepness of the roll were found. Furthermore, hot corrosion behavior and performances of the work rolls in service were compared. Various techniques were used in order to characterize both grades, such as Differential Thermal Analysis (to determine phase transformations temperatures, the crystallization behavior and the interval of solidification), hardness measurements, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy associated with energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (to determine the nature and the composition of phases, especially matrix and carbides). Finally micro-macro relations between the nature of the microstructure and the properties of HCS and semi-HSS rolls grades in service conditions could be established. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between active and passive surveillance within the Network of Epidemiological Surveillance of Animal Diseases in Chad (REPIMAT)
Ouagal, M.; Hendrikx, P.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Acta Tropica (2010), 116(2), 147-151

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See detailComparison between Alprazolam and Hydroxyzine for Oral Premedication
Franssen, Colette ULg; Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien d'Anesthésie (1993), 40(1), 13-7

The safety and efficacy of alprazolam and hydroxyzine administered orally as surgical premedicants were compared in a double-blind controlled study. Sixty-five patients were given either alprazolam 1 mg ... [more ▼]

The safety and efficacy of alprazolam and hydroxyzine administered orally as surgical premedicants were compared in a double-blind controlled study. Sixty-five patients were given either alprazolam 1 mg or hydroxyzine 75 mg, one to two hours before surgery. Anxiety was assessed by both the patient and the anaesthetist, the patient using a visual analogue scale, the anaesthetist employing both analogue and ordinal ratings. Sedation was assessed by the anaesthetist only, using the same two methods. Amnesia was appraised with a simple memory test. Safety was assessed by recording adverse effects and measuring haemodynamic variables. Premedication with alprazolam produced a modest reduction in anxiety (28%) (P < 0.01) while hydroxyzine had no detectable effect. The comparison of the sedation level and of the memory test revealed no difference between the two premedicants. Minor side effects were only observed in the hydroxyzine group. Changes in blood pressure were more pronounced in the hydroxyzine group. This study shows that alprazolam and hydroxyzine are safe and efficient oral premedicants. However, alprazolam is preferable to hydroxyzine in terms of anxiolytic and adverse effects. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between analytical and optimal control techniques in the differential drag based rendez-vous
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spacecraft Formation Flying Missions & Technologies (2013, May 29)

The focus of this study is on differential drag for propellantless satellite rendez-vous. This technique is particularly attractive for low-Earth-orbit small satellites for which stringent weight ... [more ▼]

The focus of this study is on differential drag for propellantless satellite rendez-vous. This technique is particularly attractive for low-Earth-orbit small satellites for which stringent weight constraints apply. Most existing contributions are based on bang-bang strategies, which may be difficult to implement in practice. This is why the present paper proposes a novel strategy integrating pseudospectral optimal control for maneuver planning and model predictive control for dealing with uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. One important advantage of this methodology is that it can naturally account for attitude dynamics and constraints, which, in turn, paves the way for the practical realization of differential drag-based rendez-vous. A realistic scenario involving two nanosatellites of the QB50 constellation is considered to illustrate and validate the proposed developments. In addition, a comparison of this numerical technique with an existing analytic solution is carried out, and their respective pros and cons are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (9 ULg)