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See detailCytological Comparison of Leaves and Stems of Prunus Avium L. Shoots Cultured on a Solid Medium with Agar or Gelrite
Franck, Thierry ULg; Crevecoeur, Michelle; Wuest, J. et al

in Biotechnic & Histochemistry : Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission (1998), 73(1), 32-43

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week ... [more ▼]

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week cycle with the same medium except that agar was replaced by gelrite. During culture on the vitrifying medium, the water content of the shoots progressively increased with a parallel decrease in chlorophyll content. Cytological differences between the leaves and stems of the vitrified and normal shoots were detected by light and electron (both transmission and scanning) microscopy. Leaves of vitrified shoots were characterized by lower number of chloroplasts in the palisade parenchyma and by a defective cuticle. The stems of vitrified shoots had a less developed and lignifled xylem tissue, lacked sclerenchymatic areas and showed hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. More intense vacuolar activity with evaginations of the chloroplast envelope into the vacuole was noted in cells of vitrified leaves. [less ▲]

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See detailCytological diagnosis of endometritis in the mare: a comparative study
Daspet, Sarah-Morgane; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Jolly, Sandra ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2010, September), 45s3

It was concluded that the brush swab was a promising diagnostic tool for use in field conditions.

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See detailCytological effects of culture media conditioned B16 melanoma cells and 3T3 fibroblasts
Coucke, Paul; Siwek, B.; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Anticancer Research (1991), 11(2), 801-804

Cytotoxic soluble fractions (M.W.<1,000) were prepared from media conditioned by mixed cultures of 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 cells. The ultrastructural analyses of cells (B16 or 3T3) treated with these ... [more ▼]

Cytotoxic soluble fractions (M.W.<1,000) were prepared from media conditioned by mixed cultures of 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 cells. The ultrastructural analyses of cells (B16 or 3T3) treated with these fractions revealed in them mitochondria swelling, blebs, broken membranes and dead cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCytonuclear discordance among Southeast Asian black rats (Rattus rattus complex)
Pagès, Marie ULg

in Molecular Ecology (2013)

Black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. Remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention and there is no firm agreement on ... [more ▼]

Black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. Remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention and there is no firm agreement on how many species should be recognized within the black rat complex. This species complex is native to India and Southeast Asia. According to current taxonomic classification, there are three taxa living in sympatry in several parts of Thailand, Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where this study was conducted: two accepted species (Rattus tanezumi, Rattus sakeratensis) and an additional mitochondrial lineage of unclear taxonomic status referred to here as ‘Rattus R3’. We used extensive sampling, morphological data and diverse genetic markers differing in rates of evolution and parental inheritance (two mitochondrial DNA genes, one nuclear gene and eight microsatellite loci) to assess the reproductive isolation of these three taxa. Two close Asian relatives, Rattus argentiventer and Rattus exulans, were also included in the genetic analyses. Genetic analyses revealed discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear data. Mitochondrial phylogeny studies identified three reciprocally monophyletic clades in the black rat complex. However, studies of the phylogeny of the nuclear exon IRBP and clustering and assignation analyses with eight microsatellites failed to separate R. tanezumi and R3. Morphometric analyses were consistent with nuclear data. The incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear (and morphological) data rendered R. tanezumi/R3 paraphyletic for mitochondrial lineages with respect to R. sakeratensis. Various evolutionary processes, such as shared ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization with massive mitochondrial introgression between species, may account for this unusual genetic pattern in mammals. [less ▲]

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See detailCytopathology in Belgium.
Drijkoningen, M.; Bogers, J. P.; Bourgain, C. et al

in Cytopathology : Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology (2005), 16(2), 100-4

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See detailCytoplasmic and Periplasmic Proteomic Signatures of Exponentially Growing Cells of the Psychrophilic Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125
Wilmes, B.; Kock, H.; Glagla, S. et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2011), 77(4), 1276-1283

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See detailCytoplasmic I kappa B alpha increases NF-kappa B-independent transcription through binding to histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and HDAC3
Viatour, Patrick ULg; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie; van Lint, Carine et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(47), 46541-46548

IkappaBalpha is an inhibitory molecule that sequesters NF-kappaB dimers in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Upon stimulation, NF-kappaB moves to the nucleus and induces the expression of a variety of ... [more ▼]

IkappaBalpha is an inhibitory molecule that sequesters NF-kappaB dimers in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Upon stimulation, NF-kappaB moves to the nucleus and induces the expression of a variety of genes including IkappaBalpha. This newly synthesized IkappaBalpha also translocates to the nucleus, removes activated NF-kappaB from its target genes, and brings it back to the cytoplasm to terminate the phase of NF-kappaB activation. We show here that IkappaBalpha enhances the transactivation potential of several homeodomain-containing proteins such as HOXB7 and Pit-1 through a NF-kappaB-independent association with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and HDAC3 but not with HDAC2, -4, -5, and -6. IkappaBalpha bound both HDAC proteins through its ankyrin repeats, and this interaction was disrupted by p65. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated further that IkappaBalpha acts by partially redirecting HDAC3 to the cytoplasm. At the same time, an IkappaBalpha mutant, which lacked a functional nuclear localization sequence, interacted very efficiently with HDAC1 and -3 and intensively enhanced the transactivation potential of Pit-1. Our results support the hypothesis that the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha regulates the transcriptional activity of homeodomain-containing proteins positively through cytoplasmic sequestration of HDAC1 and HDAC3, a mechanism that would assign a new and unexpected role to IkappaBalpha. [less ▲]

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See detailCytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis : Higher Complication Rate for Oxaliplatin Compared to Mitomycin C
Rouers, A.; Laurent, S.; Detroz, Bernard ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2006), 106

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colo-rectal cancer carries a very poor prognosis with a mean and median overall survival times of 6.9 and 5.2 months. It has been proved that a locoregional therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colo-rectal cancer carries a very poor prognosis with a mean and median overall survival times of 6.9 and 5.2 months. It has been proved that a locoregional therapeutic approach of this disease with cytoreduction followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) improved survival of these patients. However, this combined treatment presents a high complication rate. Methods : 21 patients with PC of colorectal origin underwent complete cytoreduction followed by HIPEC using Mitomycin-C (13 patients) or oxaliplatin (8 patients) and the open coliseum technique. For each case the medical datas were retrospectively analysed to determine feasibility, morbidity, mortality, survival time and prognostic factors. Results : All patients presented a Sugarbaker’s Peritoneal Cancer index inferior to 15. The mean operating time was 453 minutes. After a median follow-up of 24.9 months, actuarial disease-free survival was 36.6% at 5 years. The median survival time was 34 months. The morbidity rate was 33.3% with a significant higher complication rate in the oxaliplatin group (5/8) than in the Mytomycin-C (MMC) group (2/13). One patient (4.7%) died two months after treatment with MMC (endocarditis). Conclusions : This series confirm positive impact of cytoreduction and HIPEC on PC. We obtained a moderated complications rate thanks to a high degree of selection of the patient. Oxaliplatin scheme is responsible of a higher morbidity than in MMC group. Phase III trial comparing these two drugs is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailCytosine Deaminase Suicide Gene Therapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Bentires-Alj, M.; Hellin, A. C.; Lechanteur, Chantal ULg et al

in Cancer Gene Therapy (2000), 7(1), 20-6

Gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that might soon improve the prognosis of some cancers. We investigated the feasibility of cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapy in a model of peritoneal ... [more ▼]

Gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that might soon improve the prognosis of some cancers. We investigated the feasibility of cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapy in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. DHD/K12 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells transfected in vitro with the CD gene were highly sensitive to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), and a bystander effect could also be observed. Treating CD+ cells with 5-FC resulted in apoptosis as detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling. In vitro, several human cell lines derived from ovarian or colorectal carcinomas, as well as the rat glioblastoma 9 L cell line, responded to CD/5-FC and showed a very strong bystander effect. 5-FC treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis generated in syngeneic BDIX rats by CD-expressing DHD/K12 cells led to a complete and prolonged response and to prolonged survival. Our study thus demonstrated the efficacy of CD suicide gene therapy for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. [less ▲]

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See detailCytoskeletal genes and idiopathic epilepsies
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; de Nijs, Laurence ULg; Leon, Christine et al

in Schwartzkroin, A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Basic Epilepsy Research (2009)

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See detailCytosolic proteins regulate alpha-synuclein dissociation from presynaptic membranes.
Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine ULg; D'Souza, Cheryl; Kawarai, Toshitaka et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2006), 281(43), 32148-55

Intracellular accumulation of insoluble alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies is a key neuropathological trait of Parkinson disease (PD). Neither the normal function of alpha-synuclein nor the biochemical ... [more ▼]

Intracellular accumulation of insoluble alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies is a key neuropathological trait of Parkinson disease (PD). Neither the normal function of alpha-synuclein nor the biochemical mechanisms that cause its deposition are understood, although both are likely influenced by the interaction of alpha-synuclein with vesicular membranes, either for a physiological role in vesicular trafficking or as a pathological seeding mechanism that exacerbates the propensity of alpha-synuclein to self-assemble into fibrils. In addition to the alpha-helical form that is peripherally-attached to vesicles, a substantial portion of alpha-synuclein is freely diffusible in the cytoplasm. The mechanisms controlling alpha-synuclein exchange between these compartments are unknown and the possibility that chronic dysregulation of membrane-bound and soluble alpha-synuclein pools may contribute to Lewy body pathology led us to search for cellular factors that can regulate alpha-synuclein membrane interactions. Here we reveal that dissociation of membrane-bound alpha-synuclein is dependent on brain-specific cytosolic proteins and insensitive to calcium or metabolic energy. Two PD-linked mutations (A30P and A53T) significantly increase the cytosol-dependent alpha-synuclein off-rate but have no effect on cytosol-independent dissociation. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which cytosolic brain proteins modulate alpha-synuclein interactions with intracellular membranes. Importantly, our finding that alpha-synuclein dissociation is up-regulated by both familial PD mutations implicates cytosolic cofactors in disease pathogenesis and as molecular targets to influence alpha-synuclein aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic Activity of Some Triterpenoid Saponins
Quetin-Leclercq, J.; Elias, R.; Balansard, G. et al

in Planta Medica (1992), 58

The present note deals with the cytotoxic activity of purified saponins of hedera helix and of saponins isolated from other plants ( Calendula officinalis, C. arvensis and Sapindus mukurossi with a view ... [more ▼]

The present note deals with the cytotoxic activity of purified saponins of hedera helix and of saponins isolated from other plants ( Calendula officinalis, C. arvensis and Sapindus mukurossi with a view to the detection of possible structure-activity relationships. The most active compounds are the monodesmosides which show some degree of cytotoxicity at concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml and above. Among them, alpha- and beta-hederin are the most potent substances. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic and mitogenic activities in culture media conditioned by mouse B16 melanoma cells and 3T3 fibroblasts
Siwek, Brigitte; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Coucke, Paul et al

in Anticancer Research (1991), 11(2), 755-759

Cytotoxic (M.W.< 1000) and mitogenic (M.W.>10000) soluble factors are released into media conditioned by pure or mixed populations of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 melanoma cells cutivated in vitro. They ... [more ▼]

Cytotoxic (M.W.< 1000) and mitogenic (M.W.>10000) soluble factors are released into media conditioned by pure or mixed populations of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 melanoma cells cutivated in vitro. They are generally more active on B16 than on fibroblasts. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic aporphine alkaloids from Cassytha filiformis L
Stévigny, caroline; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; de Hoffmann, E et al

Poster (2001)

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See detailCytotoxic aporphine alkaloids from Cassytha filiformis.
Stevigny, C.; Block, S.; De Pauw, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2002), 68(11), 1042-4

Purification of a cytotoxic crude alkaloid extract of Cassytha filiformis led to the isolation of four known aporphine alkaloids: neolitsine, dicentrine, cassythine (= cassyfiline) and actinodaphnine ... [more ▼]

Purification of a cytotoxic crude alkaloid extract of Cassytha filiformis led to the isolation of four known aporphine alkaloids: neolitsine, dicentrine, cassythine (= cassyfiline) and actinodaphnine. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. All isolated alkaloids were tested for their cytotoxic activities on cancer and non-cancer cell lines in vitro. Neolitsine was the most active against HeLa and 3T3 cells (IC 50 :21.6 microM, and 21.4 microM, respectively). Cassythine and actinodaphnine showed the highest activity against Mel-5 (IC 50 : 24.3 microM and 25.7 microM, respectively) and HL-60 (IC 50 : 19.9 microM and 15.4 microM, respectively). This is the first report on the cytotoxic activity of C. filiformis extract and of neolitsine and cassythine. Furthermore, the complete NMR data of cassythine and actinodaphnine are given here for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic Effects of Aroclor 1254 on Ultrastructure and Biochemical Parameters in Cultured Foetal Rat Hepatocytes
Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg; Roelandt, L.; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg et al

in Toxicology (1995), 98(1-3), 83-94

The cytotoxicity of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, was assessed on cultured foetal rat hepatocytes. Under control conditions, dexamethasone stimulates immature hepatocytes to differentiate into ... [more ▼]

The cytotoxicity of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, was assessed on cultured foetal rat hepatocytes. Under control conditions, dexamethasone stimulates immature hepatocytes to differentiate into both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Consequently, foetal rat hepatocytes maintain, in vitro, a liver-like organization with spaces corresponding to the lumen of biliary canalicules, many mitochondria, and a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). This in vivo-like organization of cultured rat hepatocytes remains unchanged in medium supplemented with Aroclor 1254 at concentrations below 25 microM. In the 25-125 microM concentration range, however, PCBs severely alter some cellular organelles, notably causing important development of the RER and the appearance of cytoplasmic lacunae containing laminated concentric membrane arrays. In addition, the number of lipid droplets increases, the glycogen islets disappear, and dramatic local alterations of the mitochondrial cristae occur. In exposed and unexposed cells, the following biochemical parameters were measured: the DNA content, protein synthesis, lipid peroxidation, and urea formation. The results show that Aroclor 1254 at concentrations exceeding 25 microM (but not at lower concentrations) causes irreversible damage to cultured hepatocytes. The observed ultrastructural modifications are in good agreement with several in vivo studies on rat liver. Thus, isolated foetal rat hepatocytes have considerable potential as an alternative to whole animals for use in (eco)toxicological studies. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic interactions of 5-fluorouracil and nucleoside analogues in vitro
Li, Y-X; COUCKE, Philippe ULg; Paschoud, N et al

in Anticancer Research (1997), 17(1A), 21-27

The cytotoxic interaction of combined 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with different nucleoside analogues was investigated in vitro on a colon (WiDr) and a breast (MCF-7) cancer cell line. Azidothymidine (AZT), 3 ... [more ▼]

The cytotoxic interaction of combined 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with different nucleoside analogues was investigated in vitro on a colon (WiDr) and a breast (MCF-7) cancer cell line. Azidothymidine (AZT), 3'-deoxy-2', 3'-didehydrothymidine (D4T), 5-iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DDC) were tested at different concentrations (5-600 microM) as modulators of 5-FU. The experimental endpoints were cellular viability and cell cycle distribution. The combination of 5-FU and AZT or D4T yielded supra-additive cytotoxic effects in both cell lines at all concentrations. On WiDr, IdUrd at high concentrations of 50 and 100 microM showed a supra-additive effect whereas at low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 microM) the effect was antagonistic. 5-FU combined with IdUrd produced a synergistic effect on MCF-7 cells at all concentrations. DDC antagonised the toxic effect of 5-FU on the WiDr cell line. In WiDr cells, a significant increase in the overall S-phase was observed 48 and 72 hours after exposure to D4T, AZT and DDC at the low concentration of 10 microM. On the contrary, this accumulation in S-phase was not present in MCF-7 cells. The combined effect of 5-FU and nucleoside analogues in vitro is dependent on the type and concentration of nucleosides and the cell-line tested. AZT, D4T and IdUrd are more likely to be subjected to more intensive in vitro and in vivo research as far as modulation of 5-FU toxicity is concerned. [less ▲]

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