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See detailCytokines and chemokines in follicular fluids and potential of the corresponding embryo: the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating fator
Lédée, Nathalie ULg; Lombroso, R.; Lombardelli, L. et al

in Human Reproduction (2008), 23(9), 2001-9

BACKGROUND: The cytokine/chemokine levels of individual follicular fluids (FFs) were measured to determine whether a biomarker could be linked to the developmental potential of the derived embryo. METHODS ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The cytokine/chemokine levels of individual follicular fluids (FFs) were measured to determine whether a biomarker could be linked to the developmental potential of the derived embryo. METHODS: Fluid was collected from 132 individual FFs that were the source of oocytes subsequently fertilized and transferred. In each, a bead-based multiplex sandwich immunoassay (Luminex) was used to measure 28 cytokines and chemokines simultaneously. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL-2) and interferon (IFN- ) were detected in FF for embryos that underwent early cleavage. IL-12 was significantly higher in FF corresponding to highly fragmented embryos and the chemokine CCL5 was significantly higher in FF related to the best quality (Top) embryos. The level of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in individual FF samples was correlated with the implantation potential of the corresponding embryo. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, which distinguished the embryos that definitely led to delivery from those that did not, was 0.84 (0.75–0.90) (P = 0.0001) for FF G-CSF. FF G-CSF was significantly lower in patients older than 36 years compared with those <30-year old. When the FF G-CSF was 20 pg/ml or higher, the ratio between Top and non-Top embryos was significantly higher than for the group with FF G-CSF below 20 pg/ml (45 versus 20.45%, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Individual FF composition is related to the development of the corresponding in vitro generated embryo and its potential of implantation. Individual FF G-CSF may provide a non-invasive biomarker of implantation that needs to be evaluated together with in vitro observation to select the oocyte, and hence the embryo, to transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokines et choc septique
Lamy, Maurice ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1991), 146(6-7), 270

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See detailCytokines et nouveaux marqueurs inflammatoires
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Geenen, Vincent ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

Conference (1999, March 13)

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See detailCytokines in the feto-maternal relationship
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Conference (1998, September)

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See detailCytokines produced in lymph follicles.
Tsunoda, R.; Cormann, N.; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

in Immunology Letters (1989), 22(2), 129-34

The events occurring inside lymph follicles during a germinal center reaction are poorly understood. Using B and T lymphoid cell populations prepared from human tonsillar lymph follicles, and enriched or ... [more ▼]

The events occurring inside lymph follicles during a germinal center reaction are poorly understood. Using B and T lymphoid cell populations prepared from human tonsillar lymph follicles, and enriched or not in macrophages or in follicular dendritic cells, we examined the production of cytokines by these cells in vitro. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were found in the supernatants of cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen. IL-1 beta was occasionally detected; its secretion apparently depends on the origin of the tonsils, the stimulation, and the cell populations. IFN-gamma and IL-2 were not produced in significant amounts by these lymph follicle cells. IL-4 was only found in very low concentrations in the supernatant of the different cell cultures. The cell populations containing follicular dendritic cells produced more IL-6 and TNF than the others, especially than those composed of only B and T cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cytokines: a possible role in sepsis
Damas, Pierre ULg

in Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology (1991), 4(2), 241-246

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See detailCytokinin application to the shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba enhances secondary plasmodesmata formation.
Ormenese, Sandra ULg; Bernier, Georges ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Planta (2006), 224(6), 1481-4

A single application of cytokinin benzyladenine causes a threefold increase in the frequency of plasmodesmata in the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Sinapis alba plants. This increase is ... [more ▼]

A single application of cytokinin benzyladenine causes a threefold increase in the frequency of plasmodesmata in the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Sinapis alba plants. This increase is observed 20 h after application within all cell layers (L1, L2, L3) as well as at the interfaces between these layers. Evidence is presented indicating that cytokinin promotes mainly the formation of new secondary plasmodesmata. A similar increase in the frequency of secondary plasmodesmata was observed in the Sinapis SAM during the floral transition induced by a single long day, suggesting that this effect of the long day is mediated by cytokinin. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin levels in leaves, leaf exudate and shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana during floral transition
Corbesier, Laurent; Prinsen, Els; Jacqmard, Annie ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Botany (2003), 54(392), 2511-2517

Understanding the complete picture of floral transition is still impaired by the fact that physiological studies mainly concern plant species whose genetics is poorly known, and vice versa. Arabidopsis ... [more ▼]

Understanding the complete picture of floral transition is still impaired by the fact that physiological studies mainly concern plant species whose genetics is poorly known, and vice versa. Arabidopsis thaliana has been successfully used to unravel signalling pathways by genetic and molecular approaches, but analyses are still required to determine the physiological signals involved in the control of floral transition. In this work, the putative role of cytokinins was investigated using vegetative plants of Arabidopsis (Columbia) induced to flower synchronously by a single 22 h long day. Cytokinins were analysed in leaf extracts, leaf phloem exudate and in the shoot apical meristem at different times during floral transition. It was found that, in both the leaf tissues and leaf exudate, isopentenyladenine forms of cytokinins increased from 16 h after the start of the long day. At 30 h, the shoot apical meristem of induced plants contained more isopentenyladenine and zeatin than vegetative controls. These cytokinin increases correlate well with the early events of floral transition. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin modulates catalase activity and coumarin accumulation in in vitro cultures of tobacco
Petit-Paly, Geneviève; Franck, Thierry ULg; Brisson, Louise et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1999), 155(1), 9-15

Cytokinins (CKs) represent an important class of phytohormones particularly known for their antisenescence properties that might be regulated through an effect on the oxidative metabolism. In the present ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins (CKs) represent an important class of phytohormones particularly known for their antisenescence properties that might be regulated through an effect on the oxidative metabolism. In the present work, we demonstrate the effect of CKs on catalase activity in tobacco cultivated in vitro. The catalase activity observed in suspension-cultured cells decreased slightly during the first hour of CK treatment and increased thereafter to double the level detected in untreated cells. In contrast to these results, catalase activity was inhibited in shoot cultures in which the endogenous levels of CK were elevated by the introduction of the isopentenyltransferase gene or by an exogenous feeding of CK to the cultures. Interestingly, this catalase inhibition correlated with an accumulation of scopolin, an inducible coumarin. Taken together, our results show that CK modulates (directly or undirectly) catalase activity. The inverse relationship that was always found between scopolin accumulation and catalase activity is discussed in terms of vitrification and habituation. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin promotes flowering of Arabidopsis via transcriptional activation of the FT paralogue TSF
D'Aloia, Maria ULg; Bonhomme, Delphine ULg; Bouché, Frédéric ULg et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2011), 65

Cytokinins are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development and physiological evidence also indicates that they have a role in floral transition. In order to integrate these phytohormones into ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development and physiological evidence also indicates that they have a role in floral transition. In order to integrate these phytohormones into the current knowledge of genetically defined molecular pathways to flowering, we performed exogenous treatments of adult wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis plants and analysed the expression of candidate genes. We used a hydroponic system that enables synchronous growth and flowering of Arabidopsis and allows precise application of chemicals to the roots for defined periods of time. We show that application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) promotes flowering of plants grown in non-inductive short days. The response to cytokinin treatment does not require FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) but activates its paralogue TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), as well as FD, which encodes a partner protein of TSF, and the downstream gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1). Treatment of selected mutants confirmed that TSF and SOC1 are necessary for the flowering response to BAP while the activation cascade might partially act independently of FD. These experiments provide a mechanistic basis for the role of cytokinins in flowering and demonstrate that the redundant genes FT and TSF are differently regulated by distinct floral inducing signals. [less ▲]

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See detailA cytokinin route to flowering in Arabidopsis
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; André, Julie ULg; D'Aloia, Maria ULg et al

Poster (2011, June)

Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in many physiological processes. We observed that the application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to the roots of hydroponically grown plants of Arabidopsis thaliana promotes ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in many physiological processes. We observed that the application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to the roots of hydroponically grown plants of Arabidopsis thaliana promotes flowering in non-inductive short days. The response to BAP treatment does no require FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), but activates its paralogue TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), as well as FD and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1) (D'Aloia et al., 2011). We present here complementary data obtained with transgenic plants overexpressing a catalytic CK OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE (CKX) in the roots. The high efficiency of BAP in promoting flowering in our experimental system contrasts with the variability that emerges from studies gathered in literature. Many factors, either experimental or inherent to plant material, might explain these discrepancies and we are interested in identifying endogenous regulators that might provide a mechanistic explanation. We are therefore investigating whether the endogenous pathways underlying plant developmental phase changes might regulate the relative contribution of CKs to flowering. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinins and ethylene stimulate indole alkaloid accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus by two distinct mechanisms
Yahia, Abdelouahab; Kevers, Claire ULg; Gaspar, Thomas ULg et al

in Plant Science (1998), 133(1), 9-15

The interactions between cytokinins and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in a periwinkle cell line have been examined. It was found that (a) either exogenously-applied cytokinins or ethylene (the latter ... [more ▼]

The interactions between cytokinins and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in a periwinkle cell line have been examined. It was found that (a) either exogenously-applied cytokinins or ethylene (the latter through ethephon degradation) greatly enhanced ajmalicine accumulation in cells subcultured in a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-free medium; (b) the enhancing effect of cytokinin was not mediated by enhancement of endogenous ethylene production contrary to what is found in some plant models, (c) the responses to exogenous cytokinin and ethylene were additive and showed a different pattern of expression. It may be concluded that cytokinin and ethylene can up-regulate the alkaloid production in a periwinkle cells through independent pathways when added exogenously to the cultures. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCytological and cytochemical analysis of the effects of cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (II) on chick fibroblasts cultivated in vitro.
Heinen, Ernst ULg; Bassleer, R.

in Chemotherapy (1976), 22(3-4), 253-61

Chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro and treated with cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (II) have been analysed by cytological and cytochemical methods. Morphological alterations (in the nucleoli, in ... [more ▼]

Chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro and treated with cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (II) have been analysed by cytological and cytochemical methods. Morphological alterations (in the nucleoli, in the chromatin and in the cytoplasm), inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses and of cell multiplication have been noted. Under some conditions, cells are blocked just before entering into mitosis (G2 block) and can become polyploid. A high degree of cell degeneration has also been observed. [less ▲]

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See detailCytological and ecological complexity in the Early Mesoproterozoic.
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Knoll, A. H.; Walter, M.

Conference (2001, November)

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See detailCytological Comparison of Leaves and Stems of Prunus Avium L. Shoots Cultured on a Solid Medium with Agar or Gelrite
Franck, Thierry ULg; Crevecoeur, Michelle; Wuest, J. et al

in Biotechnic & Histochemistry : Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission (1998), 73(1), 32-43

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week ... [more ▼]

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week cycle with the same medium except that agar was replaced by gelrite. During culture on the vitrifying medium, the water content of the shoots progressively increased with a parallel decrease in chlorophyll content. Cytological differences between the leaves and stems of the vitrified and normal shoots were detected by light and electron (both transmission and scanning) microscopy. Leaves of vitrified shoots were characterized by lower number of chloroplasts in the palisade parenchyma and by a defective cuticle. The stems of vitrified shoots had a less developed and lignifled xylem tissue, lacked sclerenchymatic areas and showed hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. More intense vacuolar activity with evaginations of the chloroplast envelope into the vacuole was noted in cells of vitrified leaves. [less ▲]

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See detailCytological diagnosis of endometritis in the mare: a comparative study
Daspet, Sarah-Morgane; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Jolly, Sandra ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2010, September), 45s3

It was concluded that the brush swab was a promising diagnostic tool for use in field conditions.

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See detailCytological effects of culture media conditioned B16 melanoma cells and 3T3 fibroblasts
Coucke, Paul; Siwek, B.; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Anticancer Research (1991), 11(2), 801-804

Cytotoxic soluble fractions (M.W.<1,000) were prepared from media conditioned by mixed cultures of 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 cells. The ultrastructural analyses of cells (B16 or 3T3) treated with these ... [more ▼]

Cytotoxic soluble fractions (M.W.<1,000) were prepared from media conditioned by mixed cultures of 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 cells. The ultrastructural analyses of cells (B16 or 3T3) treated with these fractions revealed in them mitochondria swelling, blebs, broken membranes and dead cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCytonuclear discordance among Southeast Asian black rats (Rattus rattus complex)
Pagès, Marie ULg

in Molecular Ecology (2013)

Black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. Remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention and there is no firm agreement on ... [more ▼]

Black rats are major invasive vertebrate pests with severe ecological, economic and health impacts. Remarkably, their evolutionary history has received little attention and there is no firm agreement on how many species should be recognized within the black rat complex. This species complex is native to India and Southeast Asia. According to current taxonomic classification, there are three taxa living in sympatry in several parts of Thailand, Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where this study was conducted: two accepted species (Rattus tanezumi, Rattus sakeratensis) and an additional mitochondrial lineage of unclear taxonomic status referred to here as ‘Rattus R3’. We used extensive sampling, morphological data and diverse genetic markers differing in rates of evolution and parental inheritance (two mitochondrial DNA genes, one nuclear gene and eight microsatellite loci) to assess the reproductive isolation of these three taxa. Two close Asian relatives, Rattus argentiventer and Rattus exulans, were also included in the genetic analyses. Genetic analyses revealed discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear data. Mitochondrial phylogeny studies identified three reciprocally monophyletic clades in the black rat complex. However, studies of the phylogeny of the nuclear exon IRBP and clustering and assignation analyses with eight microsatellites failed to separate R. tanezumi and R3. Morphometric analyses were consistent with nuclear data. The incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear (and morphological) data rendered R. tanezumi/R3 paraphyletic for mitochondrial lineages with respect to R. sakeratensis. Various evolutionary processes, such as shared ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization with massive mitochondrial introgression between species, may account for this unusual genetic pattern in mammals. [less ▲]

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