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See detailCurrent management strategies for coexisting diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Scheen, André ULg

in Drugs (2003), 63(12), 1165-84

Besides genetic predisposition, obesity is the most important risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. Weight reduction has been shown to markedly improve blood glucose control and vascular ... [more ▼]

Besides genetic predisposition, obesity is the most important risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. Weight reduction has been shown to markedly improve blood glucose control and vascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic strategies for the obese diabetic patient include: (i) promoting weight loss, through lifestyle modifications (low-calorie diet and exercise) and antiobesity drugs (orlistat, sibutramine, etc.); (ii) improving blood glucose control, through agents decreasing insulin resistance (metformin or thiazolidinediones, e.g. pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) or insulin needs (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, e.g. acarbose) in preference to agents stimulating defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, meglitinide analogues); and (iii) treating common associated risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemias, to improve cardiovascular prognosis. Whenever insulin is required by the obese diabetic patient after failure to respond to oral drugs, it should be preferably prescribed in combination with an oral agent, more particularly metformin or acarbose, or possibly a thiazolidinedione. When morbid obesity is present, both restoring a good glycaemic control and correcting associated risk factors can only be obtained through a marked and sustained weight loss. This objective justifies more aggressive weight reduction programmes, including very-low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery, but only within a multidisciplinary approach and long-term strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent migraine management - patient acceptability and future approaches.
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment (2008), 4(6), 1043-57

Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly ... [more ▼]

Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective, or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education, for more efficient therapies and for greater support from national health systems. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient's previous history and present expectations, and the co-morbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Current N-15-Leucine Infusion Technique Is Not Suitable For Quantitative Measurements Of Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flows In Pigs
Leterme, Pascal; Seve, Bernard; Thewis, André ULg

in Journal of Nutrition (1998), 128(11), 1961-1968

The current 15N-leucine infusion technique may overestimate the ileal endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs. To determine the reason, we infused four cannulated pigs intravenously, fed them a pea-based diet ... [more ▼]

The current 15N-leucine infusion technique may overestimate the ileal endogenous nitrogen losses in pigs. To determine the reason, we infused four cannulated pigs intravenously, fed them a pea-based diet with 15N-leucine, and examined some methodological variables. Neither the blood sampling time nor the choice of precursor pool (total N or amino acid N of deproteinized plasma) or the method of estimation of the isotopic equilibrium level significantly affected the results. On the other hand, the 15N-enrichment of purified mucin, isolated from ileal digesta, was higher than that of the plasma amino acid pool (0.114 vs. 0.077 atom % excess). The endogenous proportion of the labeled amino acids (Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu and Val) in the ileal digesta ranged from 23 (Leu) to 74% (Ala), compared with 70% for total N. The low value of leucine was ascribed to the constant marker infusion condition. In pigs infused with 13C-leucine, a similar endogenous proportion was obtained for lumenal leucine with 13C-leucine and 15N-leucine infusion. However, the 13C-enrichment of the leucine bound to mucin was markedly lower than that of plasma leucine (38%). The endogenous amino acid flows were also estimated by combining the ileal N flow measured with 15N and the endogenous amino acid profile obtained by means of an N-free diet. They were different from those obtained with the 15N-amino acid dilution technique. We conclude that the precursor pool currently used (plasma total N or total a-amino acid N pools) is a poor indicator of the enrichment of the secretions and that the infusion of one labeled amino acid is not sufficient to extend the method at the amino acid level. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem?
Violette, Aurélie ULg; Heinesch, Bernard ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2013)

For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for ... [more ▼]

For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both sites seems to rely on soil respiration, which is probably partly a heritage of the previous ecosystem at the young forest site. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent objectives of astronomical space research (from gamma to infrared radiation)
Swings, Polydore ULg

in Deutsch, Armin J.; Klemperer, Wolfgang B. (Eds.) Space Age Astronomy : Proceedings of an international Symposium held August 7-9, 1961 at the California Institute of Technology in conjunction with the 11th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU, GA, 11) (1962)

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See detailCurrent Opinion in Pharmacology, Volume 10, Issue 4, Section Immunomodulation
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Current Opinion in Pharmacology (2010), 10(Issue 4), 405-504

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See detailCurrent opinions on tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Science & Medicine (2011), 10(2), 238-253

Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional” treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent options for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
LECART, Marie-Paule ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (2011), 12(16), 2533-52

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a well-recognized disease with severe consequences if left untreated. The prevention of osteoporosis-associated fractures should include fall prevention, calcium ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a well-recognized disease with severe consequences if left untreated. The prevention of osteoporosis-associated fractures should include fall prevention, calcium supplementation and life-style advice, as well as pharmacological therapy using agents with proven antifracture efficacy. AREAS COVERED: This manuscript offers an evidence-based critical assessment of the currently available efficacy data on all new chemical entities that have been granted a marketing authorization for the management of primary osteoporosis in women. EXPERT OPINION: The availability of new therapeutic agents makes clinical decision making in osteoporosis more complex. Therapeutic decisions should be based on a balance between the benefits and risks of treatment, which must be carefully considered in each particular case, both by the physician and the patient. Indeed, no single agent is appropriate for all patients. Therefore, treatment decisions should be made on a tailor-made basis, taking into account all measures of treatment effect and risk, before making informed judgments about the best individual treatment option. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) patches in southeastern Cameroon: remnants of a long and rich Human-rainforest relationship?
Bourland, Nils ULg; Cerisier, François; Livingstone Smith, Alexandre et al

Poster (2012, June 23)

Pericopsis elata is one of the most valuable African timber species. This IUCN Red Listed tree suffers from a lack of regeneration, thus its current presence provokes questioning. Our work aimed at ... [more ▼]

Pericopsis elata is one of the most valuable African timber species. This IUCN Red Listed tree suffers from a lack of regeneration, thus its current presence provokes questioning. Our work aimed at understanding its origins so as to help securing its future. This study, lead away from engineering works, was conducted in four different sites located within the natural distribution area of the species and taking into account the different growing conditions were the species occurs. Our observations are based on an analysis of charcoal elements and pottery fragments discovered in subsurface layers of soils as well as current botanical and pedological surveys. Evidence of past human activities we found led to the assumption that this part of the Congo Basin was much more inhabited than previously thought. Some of the results obtained for P. elata could apply for other long lived light demanding species growing in the same environment [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent perspectives on developmental dysphasias
Rondal, Jean-Adolphe ULg; Comblain, Annick ULg

in Journal of Neurolinguistics (1999), 12(3-4), 181-212

This paper documents the major difficulties observed in the oral language development of individuals with mental retardation of genetic origin. The extent of inter- and within-syndrome variability is ... [more ▼]

This paper documents the major difficulties observed in the oral language development of individuals with mental retardation of genetic origin. The extent of inter- and within-syndrome variability is evaluated. More specifically, a comparative analysis of typical language phenotypes in several genetic syndromes is attempted and the possible brain underpinnings of the observed differences are envisaged. Recent cases of favorable language development in individuals with mental retardation are summarized and explanatory variables are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent perspectives on microwave-enhanced reactions of monosaccharides promoted by heterogeneous catalysts.
Richel, Aurore ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Catalysis Today (2011), 167

Involvment of heterogeneous catalysts as promoters of carbohydrate conversions, in synergy with microwaves as the heating source, is reported. This paper deals with the application of ion-exchange resins ... [more ▼]

Involvment of heterogeneous catalysts as promoters of carbohydrate conversions, in synergy with microwaves as the heating source, is reported. This paper deals with the application of ion-exchange resins, zeolites, clays and metal oxides as convenient mediators for key transformations of carbohydrates. A special emphasis is placed on the use of (doped) mineral supports, in solventless conditions, as clean promoters in combination with microwave dielectric heating. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent position of information technology applications in agricultural information dissemination - Belgium
Carletti, G.; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Houseman, C. I. (Ed.) Agriculture : the green telematics challenge (1989)

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See detailCurrent Post Harvest Practices to Avoid Insect Attacks on Stored Grains in Northern Cameroon
Ngamo, Tinkeu S.L.; Ngassoum, Martin B.; Mapongmestsem, Pierre M. et al

in Agricultural Journal (2007), 2(2), 242-247

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See detailCurrent practices in antinuclear antibody testing: results from the Belgian External Quality Assessment Scheme.
Van Blerk, Marjan; Van Campenhout, Christel; Bossuyt, Xavier et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2009), 47(1), 102-8

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the state-of-the-art of antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing as practiced in the Belgian and Luxembourg laboratories, using the results obtained in the Belgian ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the state-of-the-art of antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing as practiced in the Belgian and Luxembourg laboratories, using the results obtained in the Belgian National External Quality Assessment Scheme from 2000 to 2005. METHODS: During this period, nine samples with different specificities were sent for analysis. Participants were surveyed for methodology used and were asked to report staining pattern and titer of ANAs. In 2002, an attempt was made to improve the comparability of quantitative ANA results by the provision of a commercial reference material and to relate observed differences to methodology. RESULTS: With one exception, all participants employed a microscope-based indirect immunofluorescence assay with human epithelial cell line 2 cells. Most laboratories were accurate in describing the pattern. The percentage of unacceptable answers was greater for samples with borderline levels of antibody and for samples showing a cytoplasmic pattern. An improvement in the detection of anticentromere antibodies was observed. For all samples, a wide range of titers was reported. The provision of the secondary reference preparation led to improved inter-laboratory concordance. Comparison of methodology variables revealed a correlation between unstandardized titers and the power of the lamp of the microscope and the use of a dark room. CONCLUSIONS: The EQAS results presented in this work provide valuable insights into the state of the art of ANA testing as practiced in the Belgian and Luxembourg Laboratories and illustrate the important value of a national EQAS for ANA testing as a tool to improve performance and interlaboratory comparability of laboratory results. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent Practices of Organ Donation and Transplantation Among Different French-Speaking Countries and Regions
SQUIFFLET, Jean-Paul ULg; Barrou, B.; Rifle, G.

in Transplantation Proceedings (2011), 43

The aim of the “Transplantation Sans Frontières” (TSF) questionnaire, which was sent to <br />French-speaking centers in 6 different countries and regions, was to establish the current <br />status of ... [more ▼]

The aim of the “Transplantation Sans Frontières” (TSF) questionnaire, which was sent to <br />French-speaking centers in 6 different countries and regions, was to establish the current <br />status of organ donation and transplantation in their environments. It was also to examine <br />ways to collaborate and exchange scientific information, teaching, and training in the field <br />of organ transplantation. The French Society of Transplantation and the Agency of <br />Biomedicine already offer specific programs to expand local activities, and the World <br />Health Organization (WHO) regulates them. Therefore, TSF could be a coordinating <br />platform in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailThe current quark mass and the regularisation of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio action
Jaminon, Martine ULg; Ripka, Georges; Stassart, Pierre ULg

in Physics Letters B (1989), 227

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See detailCurrent research in Sport Pedagogy
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, October 20)

Sport pedagogy is a discipline aimed at providing scientific data on the education and training in the different contexts in the field of sport and physical activity: education, coaching, recreation ... [more ▼]

Sport pedagogy is a discipline aimed at providing scientific data on the education and training in the different contexts in the field of sport and physical activity: education, coaching, recreation, rehabilitation … Using traditionally descriptive, correlational and experimental approaches, it is focused as much on the main actors (participants and educators) than on contents or on curricula. Its main objectives consist to improve the knowledge and the field practice of the physical educators and their trainers. Most studies in sport pedagogy are conducted in the school context as physical education remains a central concern of researchers. Nevertheless, since two decades, the place of the science of coaching grows slowly while researches in leisure and rehabilitation are still quite rare. In parallel, physical activity and the fight against one sedentary lifestyle became really important in the preoccupations of most of the researchers. Moreover, two important concepts are developing nowadays: accountability and literacy. This underlines that physical educators are expected to meet the goals that modern society emphasizes: efficiency and effectiveness. Quality is now regularly identified as a priority or even a prerequisite. Current researches in sport pedagogy is become complex as they mobilize more and more often complementary approaches taking into account all the involved actors and environment. Moreover, subjects became central with the development of action researches and communities of practices. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent role of glucosamine in the treatment of osteoarthritis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Neuprez, Audrey

in Rheumatology (2007), 46(5), 731-735

Objectives. To evaluate the interest of using the various preparations of glucosamine for symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. A critical analysis of the literature based ... [more ▼]

Objectives. To evaluate the interest of using the various preparations of glucosamine for symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. A critical analysis of the literature based on an exhaustive search (Medline, PubMed and manual search within the bibliography of retrieved manuscripts) from 1980 to 2005. Results. Despite multiple controlled clinical trials of the use of glucosamine in OA (mainly of the knee), controversy on efficacy related to symptomatic improvement continues. Differences in results originate from the differences in products, study design and study populations. Symptomatic efficacy described in multiple studies performed with glucosamine sulphate (GS) support continued consideration in the OA therapeutic armamentarium. The most compelling evidence of a potential for inhibiting the progression of OA is also obtain with GS. Conclusions. GS has shown positive effects on symptomatic and structural outcomes of knee OA. These results should not be extrapolated to other glucosamine salts [hydrochloride or preparations (over-the-counter or food supplements)] in which no warranty exists about content, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the tablets. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent roles for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following nonmyeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Storb, Rainer

in Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology (2005), 3(10), 799-819

Nonmyeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been evaluated in patients with hematologic malignancies who were not ... [more ▼]

Nonmyeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been evaluated in patients with hematologic malignancies who were not considered candidates for conventional HCT because of age or medical comorbidities and in selected patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The regimens have relied more on graft-versus-tumor effects than on chemoradiation therapy to facilitate engraftment and eradicate malignant cells. While nonmyeloablative HCT has been associated with reduced regimen-related toxicities and has been curative for a number of patients with hematologic malignancies, challenges have remained in regard to graft-versus-host disease, infections, and disease progression. In this article, we review data from a number of published phase I and II studies that describe the results of allogeneic HCT after nonmyeloablative conditioning. [less ▲]

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