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See detailCytogenetic study of bovine oocytes matured in vitro
Ectors, Fabien ULg; Koulischer, Lucien ULg; Jamar, M. et al

in Theriogenology (1995), 44(3), 445-450

Described in the present paper is a cytogenetic study of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), punctured from ovaries recovered in a local slaughterhouse, were classified ... [more ▼]

Described in the present paper is a cytogenetic study of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), punctured from ovaries recovered in a local slaughterhouse, were classified into 3 groups according to follicular diameter 1 to 4mm, 5 to 8mm and 9 to 13 mm. Metaphases available for observation were classified as metaphase I, haploid and diploid metaphase II. High levels of haploid metaphases II (90.6, 86.9 and 94.4 %) among the 3 groups of follicular sizes indicated successful meiotic resumption during in vitro maturation and suggested that cytoplasmic maturation may be responsible for low developmental rate after IVM, IVF and in vitro development (IVD). [less ▲]

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See detailCytogenetics of a new trispecies hybrid In cotton: [(Gossypium Hirsutum L. X G-Thurberi Tod.)(2) X G-Longicalyx Hutch. & Lee]
Konan, On.; D'Hont, A.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Plant Breeding (2007), 126(2), 176-181

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See detailCytogenomic analyses for fertility and sex determination defects in the horse.
Durkin, Keith ULg; Raudsepp, T; Chowdhary, B.P.

in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Texas Genetics Society (2006, April)

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See detailCytokine and anti-cytokine strategies in inflammatory reaction modulation
Delannoy, I.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Miossec, P.

in Veterinary Research (1993), 24

Evidence of the importance of a cytokine cascade in the induction and control of the inflammatory reaction is increasing. Although cytokines are required in the inflammatory process in response to ... [more ▼]

Evidence of the importance of a cytokine cascade in the induction and control of the inflammatory reaction is increasing. Although cytokines are required in the inflammatory process in response to infection or injury, their overproduction, particularly that of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), can lead to local/systemic pathology. Selective inhibition of the synthesis or of the action of specific cytokines may be of therapeutic benefit. Various strategies for blocking IL-1 and TNF activities have been presented. While selective inhibition of cytokine synthesis is still in the early experimental phase, specific blockade of soluble cytokine action following synthesis and release from cells is undergoing preliminary clinical trials in humans. Animal data suggest that antimonoclonal therapy such as monoclonal antibodies to TNF, IL-1 receptor antagonists or soluble receptors to TNF and IL-1 can be effective in the modulation of the inflammatory reaction. Modulation of the cytokine network in some diseases might also include the use of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Nonetheless, the possibilities of side effects due to impaired host-defense mechanisms with the IL-1 or TNF blockade must also be taken into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine and chemokine expression in canine sino-nasal aspergillosis and idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinosinusitis.
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Peters, I. R.; Helps, C. et al

in Proceedings of the 16th Annual Congress of the ECVIM-CA (2006)

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See detailCytokine and transcription factor expression by Aspergillus fumigatus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis
Vanherberghen, Morgane; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Peters, I.R. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2013), 154(3-4), 111-20

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See detailCytokine balance in infants undergoing cardiac operation.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Schumacher, Kathrin; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2002), 73(2), 601-8608-9

BACKGROUND: The control of the systemic inflammatory response taking place during cardiac operations depends on adequate antiinflammatory reaction. In this prospective study we tested the hypothesis that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The control of the systemic inflammatory response taking place during cardiac operations depends on adequate antiinflammatory reaction. In this prospective study we tested the hypothesis that cytokine balance during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures would be influenced by the patients' preoperative clinical condition, defined as hypoxemia or heart failure. METHODS: Twenty infants (median age, 8 months) with hypoxemia owing to intracardiac right-to-left shunt (group 1, n = 10) or with heart failure because of intracardiac left-to-right shunt (group 2, n = 10), scheduled for elective primary corrective operation, were enrolled. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 6, the natural antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, and the markers of the acute-phase response, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, were sequentially measured before, during, and after cardiac operation up to the 10th postoperative day. The ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels served as a marker for the individual's antiinflammatory cytokine balance. RESULTS: Group 1 showed higher preoperative IL-6 (p < 0.001), lower IL-10 levels (p < 0.02), and lower ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels (p < 0.001) than group 2. Preoperative C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were not detectable. In group 1, preoperative IL-6 levels inversely correlated with preoperative oxygen saturation (Spearman correlation coefficient, -0.74, p < 0.02). During cardiopulmonary bypass, IL-6 levels were higher, whereas IL-10 and ratio of IL-10 to IL-6 levels were lower in group 1 than in group 2. In all patients, postoperative IL-6 levels were positively correlated with duration of inotropic support and serum creatinine value and inversely correlated with oxygenation index and diuresis. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with hypoxemia show a preoperative inflammatory state with low antiinflammatory cytokine balance in contrast to those with heart failure. This in turn is associated with lower perioperative antiinflammatory cytokine balance and might contribute to postoperative morbidity. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine dysregulation, inflammation and well-being
Elenkov, I. J.; Iezzoni, D. G.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Neuroimmunomodulation (2005), 12(5), 255-269

Cytokines mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. Complex interactions exist between cytokines, inflammation and the adaptive responses in maintaining homeostasis, health, and well-being ... [more ▼]

Cytokines mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. Complex interactions exist between cytokines, inflammation and the adaptive responses in maintaining homeostasis, health, and well-being. Like the stress response, the inflammatory reaction is crucial for survival and is meant to be tailored to the stimulus and time. A full-fledged systemic inflammatory reaction results in stimulation of four major programs: the acute-phase reaction, the sickness syndrome, the pain program, and the stress response, mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Common human diseases such as atopy/allergy, autoimmunity, chronic infections and sepsis are characterized by a dysregulation of the pro-versus anti-inflammatory and T helper (Th)1 versus Th2 cytokine balance. Recent evidence also indicates the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and major depression, and conditions such as visceral-type obesity, metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances. During inflammation, the activation of the stress system, through induction of a Th2 shift, protects the organism from systemic 'overshooting' with Th1/pro-inflammatory cytokines. Under certain conditions, however, stress hormones may actually facilitate inflammation through induction of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein production and through activation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone/substance P-histamine axis. Thus, a dysfunctional neuroendocrine-immune interface associated with abnormalities of the 'systemic anti-inflammatory feedback' and/or 'hyperactivity' of the local pro-inflammatory factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic/allergic and autoimmune diseases, obesity, depression, and atherosclerosis. These abnormalities and the failure of the adaptive systems to resolve inflammation affect the well-being of the individual, including behavioral parameters, quality of life and sleep, as well as indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health. These hypotheses require further investigation, but the answers should provide critical insights into mechanisms underlying a variety of common human immune-related diseases. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine expression by Aspergillus fumigatus stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis.
Vanherberghen, Morgane ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Peters, I. R. et al

in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Congress of the ECVIM-CA (2010)

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See detailCytokine Expression in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Uterine Cervix: Implications for the Generation of Local Immunosuppression
Giannini, Sandra; Al-Saleh, Walid; Piron, Hélène ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (1998), 113(2), 183-9

We have addressed the notion that the progression of cancer of the uterine cervix is associated with a preferential constraint on the development of a type 1 cellular mediated response, which is necessary ... [more ▼]

We have addressed the notion that the progression of cancer of the uterine cervix is associated with a preferential constraint on the development of a type 1 cellular mediated response, which is necessary to efficiently eliminate (pre)neoplastic cells. Based on the importance of cytokines in the regulation of an appropriate immune response, we have evaluated the expression of IL-12p40, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression of these three cytokines was evaluated in both low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and in normal exocervix and transformation zone biopsies. Our results show that the average level of IL-12 increases within both the LG and HG SIL, compared with both control groups. Interestingly, the percentage of HG SIL expressing IL-12p40 was lower compared with LG SIL. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 increased in parallel with the severity of the lesion to a maximal level in HG SIL. Using immunohistochemistry, we ascertained the presence of IL-12 protein in SIL and IL-10 protein in the transformation zone and SIL biopsies. Both IL-12- and IL-10-producing cells were localized in the stroma, not within the SIL. Furthermore, in this study we also observed that the region of the cervix the most sensitive to lesion development, the transformation zone, was associated with higher average levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta1. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease.
Louis, Edouard ULg; Satsangi, J.; Roussomoustakaki, M. et al

in Gut (1996), 39(5), 705-10

BACKGROUND: Concordance rates in siblings and twins provide strong evidence that genetic susceptibility is important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The number and identity of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Concordance rates in siblings and twins provide strong evidence that genetic susceptibility is important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The number and identity of susceptibility genes is largely uncertain. Cytokine genes are attractive candidate loci. AIMS: To study allelic frequencies of polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) gene and the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. SUBJECTS: One hundred and twenty nine North European caucasoid patients with ulcerative colitis, 120 patients with Crohn's disease, and 89 healthy controls. METHODS: Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the IL-1RA gene and a single base pair polymorphism in the TNF alpha gene promoter region (TNF-308) were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences in IL-1RA VNTR allelic frequencies were noted between Crohn's disease (allele 1: 72.6%, allele 2: 24.7%, allele 3: 2.6%), ulcerative colitis (72.6%, 24.3%, 3.1%, respectively), and controls (76.9%, 20.8% and 2.3%). Some 42.4% of patients with ulcerative colitis and 43.4% patients with Crohn's disease were carriers of allele 2, compared with 34.8% healthy subjects. The TNF2 allele was modestly reduced in Crohn's disease (13.2%), compared with healthy subjects (21.3%; p = 0.04), and ulcerative colitis (21.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The associations demonstrated are modest: these polymorphisms are unlikely to be important determinants of overall disease susceptibility. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine messenger RNA expression in the blood of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena).
Das, Krishna ULg; Fonfara, Sonja; Beineke, Andreas et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailCytokine Modulation of Basophil Histamine Release in Wasp-Venom Allergy
Radermecker, Maurice ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg; leclercq, M. et al

in Allergy (1994), 49(8), 641-4

We report the effect of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and of other cytokines on antigen-induced basophil histamine release in wasp-venom-allergic subjects. Leukocytes from 12 patients with documented anaphylactic ... [more ▼]

We report the effect of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and of other cytokines on antigen-induced basophil histamine release in wasp-venom-allergic subjects. Leukocytes from 12 patients with documented anaphylactic sensitivity to wasp venom were preincubated in the presence or absence of IL-3, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-5, IL-8, or stem cell factor (SCF). Washed cells were then exposed to venom and to other secretagogues, and histamine release in the supernatant was measured fluorometrically. Preincubation of leukocytes with IL-3, GM-CSF, or IL-5 (0.02-2 ng/ml), but not with IL-8 and SCF, caused a dose-dependent enhancement of antigen-induced basophilic histamine release in all subjects tested. Mean maximum increase was about 100% for IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF. The priming effect of IL-3 was rapid, persisted up to 12 h, and was not accompanied by a change in cellular histamine. IL-3 had a comparable enhancing effect when basophils were triggered with anti-IgE or N-formylmethionylphenylalanine (FMP). By contrast, IL-3 had no effect on substance-P-induced histamine release. The significant enhancement of basophil releasability to antigen in wasp-venom allergy by very low concentrations of IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 suggests that cytokines in the basophil (mast-cell?) microenvironment could be critical factors in determining the variability of sting reactions in Hymenoptera-venom-allergic subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine Production by Human Thymic Epithelial Cells: Control by the Immune Recognition of the Neurohypophysial Self-Antigen
Martens, Henri ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Robert, F. et al

in Regulatory Peptides (1996), 67(1), 39-45

Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to be the dominant peptide of the neurohypophysial family expressed by thymic epithelial and nurse cells (TEC/TNC) in various species. Thymic OT is not secreted but, after ... [more ▼]

Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to be the dominant peptide of the neurohypophysial family expressed by thymic epithelial and nurse cells (TEC/TNC) in various species. Thymic OT is not secreted but, after translocation of a hybrid neurophysin/MHC class I protein, is integrated within the plasma membrane of TEC, thus allowing its presentation to pre-T cells. In order to further demonstrate that thymic OT behaves like a membrane antigen, we assessed the effect of mAbs to OT on cytokine productions by cultures enriched in human TEC. 75-85% pure TEC cultures were prepared from human thymic fragments. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, ir-OT, ir-interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), ir-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ir-leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) could be detected in these TEC cultures. ir-OT was restricted to TEC, while some ir-IL-6 and ir-LIF were also seen in occasional fibroblasts. In basal conditions, ir-IL-6 and ir-LIF (but not ir-OT and ir-IL-1 beta) were detected in the supernatants of human TEC cultures. MAbs to OT induced a marked increase of ir-IL-6 and ir-LIF secretion in TEC cultures. No significant effect was observed using mAbs against vasopressin, mouse immunoglobulins, or control ascitic fluid controls. These data show that OT is fully processed and recognized by specific mAbs at the outer surface of TEC plasma membrane. They further support that thymic OT behaves as the self-antigen of the neurohypophysial family. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine Production from Peripheral Whole Blood in Atopic and Nonatopic Asthmatics: Relationship with Blood and Sputum Eosinophilia and Serum Ige Levels
Bettiol, J.; Bartsch, Pierre ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in Allergy (2000), 55(12), 1134-41

BACKGROUND: The cytokine network is thought to be essential in orchestrating airway inflammation in asthma. Although evidence has accumulated to suggest that atopic asthma is a Th2 disease, much less is ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The cytokine network is thought to be essential in orchestrating airway inflammation in asthma. Although evidence has accumulated to suggest that atopic asthma is a Th2 disease, much less is known about nonatopic asthma. METHODS: We have compared the production of IL-4, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha from peripheral blood leukocytes between atopic (n=21) and nonatopic (n=22) asthmatics and healthy nonatopic subjects (n=20). Peripheral blood was incubated for 24 h either without stimulus or with LPS or PHA. Cytokines were measured by the immunotrapping technique (Dynamic Immunoassay). RESULTS: When compared to healthy nonatopic subjects, both atopic and nonatopic asthmatics showed increased blood and sputum eosinophilia associated with raised total serum IgE levels. Similarly, both asthma groups displayed spontaneous, endotoxin-induced overproduction of IL-6. Enhanced spontaneous, endotoxin-induced release of IL-4 combined with reduced spontaneous IFN-gamma production was seen only in atopic asthma. In this group of patients, the production of IL-4 was related to the extent of blood and sputum eosinophilia. In nonatopic asthmatics, serum levels of IgE were inversely related to the production of IFN-gamma. CONCLUSIONS: Both atopic and intrinsic asthma display raised blood and airway eosinophilia, raised total serum IgE, and overproduction of IL-6 from peripheral blood. Atopic asthma is also characterized by impaired spontaneous release of IFN-gamma and increased production of IL-4 that correlates with the magnitude of eosinophilic inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells after allergenic challenge in IgE-mediated asthma
Bettiol, Jeanne; Sele, Jocelyne ULg; Henket, Monique ULg et al

in Allergy (2002), 57(12), 1145-1150

Background: Th2 cytokine production from airway cells is thought to govern the eosinophilic airways in ammation in allergic asthma. Induced sputum has become a widely used technique to assess airways in ... [more ▼]

Background: Th2 cytokine production from airway cells is thought to govern the eosinophilic airways in ammation in allergic asthma. Induced sputum has become a widely used technique to assess airways in ammation. Methods: By applying the technique of induced sputum to collect airways cells, we have assessed the spontaneous production of a set of cytokines, including interleukin-4, 6, 10, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 6 h after a bronchial allergenic hallenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in 12 sensitized asthmatics and compared the results obtained after inhalation of saline as control. A group of eight healthy non-allergic subjects was enrolled to control for any non-specific effect of Dpt. Cytokines were measured by a dynamic immunoassay during a 24-h sputum cell culture. Results: Allergen challenge in sensitized asthmatics caused an acute and a late bronchospasm together with a rise in sputum eosinophil counts. Afterwards allergen sputum cells from allergic asthmatics displayed a rise in their production of IL-4 (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.05) and IL- 10 (P < 0.05) when compared to saline. By this time sputum generation of IL- 4 in atopic asthmatics was greater than in healthy subjects (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in allergic asthmatics there was a strong correlation between the rise in interleukin-4 production from sputum cells and the rise in sputum eosinophils (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Sputum cell culture is a useful model to assess cytokine production in allergic asthmatics who show a marked up-regulation of Th2 cytokines following acute allergen exposure. The rise in sputum eosinophil count following allergen challenge strongly correlates with the rise in IL-4 generation from sputum cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells and blood leukocytes in asthmatics according to disease severity.
Manise, Maïté ULg; Schleich, FLorence ULg; Gusbin, Natacha ULg et al

in Allergy (2010), 65(7), 889-96

BACKGROUND: Although mild to moderate asthma is known to be Th2 driven, cytokines produced in refractory asthma might not fit the classical Th2 pattern. METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Although mild to moderate asthma is known to be Th2 driven, cytokines produced in refractory asthma might not fit the classical Th2 pattern. METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess the cytokine production by sputum and blood cells from 15 refractory asthmatics (American Thoracic Society Criteria) compared to 15 mild untreated and 17 moderate treated asthmatics and 22 healthy subjects. Spontaneous production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha was measured by immunotrapping after 24 h sputum or blood cell culture. RESULTS: Moderate and refractory asthmatics were both characterized by a lower production of IL-6 from their airway cells compared to healthy subjects. However, the difference was no longer significant when expressing the results per gram of sputum. No significant difference between the three groups was found regarding other cytokines. As for cytokine production from blood, the three groups of asthmatics exhibited raised production of IL-4 when compared to healthy subjects, and this was true when results were expressed per blood volume or after normalization for total leukocyte cell count. Moderate asthmatics exhibited greater production of IL-10 when compared to refractory asthmatics and healthy subjects when results were normalized for total leukocyte cell count. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum cells from moderate and refractory asthmatics release less IL-6. While the systemic overproduction of IL-4 was observed through the all spectrum of asthma severity, moderate asthmatics exhibited greater systemic IL-10 production compared to refractory asthmatics. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells in eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic asthmatics
Quaedvlieg, Valérie ULg; Henket, Monique ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2006), 143(1), 161-166

The inflammatory pathways involved in asthma are more complex than the sole Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation. Different phenotypes of asthma have been recently highlighted and are probably ... [more ▼]

The inflammatory pathways involved in asthma are more complex than the sole Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation. Different phenotypes of asthma have been recently highlighted and are probably underlied by different immunological profiles. The aim of the study was to assess cytokine production from sputum cells in eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic asthmatics. Induced sputum was obtained from 48 consecutive stable mild to moderate asthmatics (20 eosinophilic asthmatics, 28 non-eosinophilic asthmatics) and 31 healthy subjects. Cytokine released from sputum cells were measured by a home-made two-step sandwich immunoassay. Cytokines investigated were interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Sputum cells from eosinophilic asthmatics produced more IL-4 than those from both healthy subjects (P < 0.05) and non-eosinophilic asthmatics (P < 0.05). Conversely, sputum cells from eosinophilic asthma were found to release lower amounts of TNF-alpha than those from healthy subjects (P < 0.05). The group of non-eosinophilic asthmatics did not distinguish from healthy subjects with respect to any cytokines measured. Sputum cells from asthmatics exhibiting eosinophilic airway inflammation release more IL-4 and less TNF-alpha than those of healthy subjects. By contrast, non-eosinophilic asthmatics did not distinguish from healthy subjects by abnormal cytokine release from their sputum cells. [less ▲]

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