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See detailConflits entre noms de domaine et marques: l'approche OMPI
Defossez, Alexandre ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2005)

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See detailConflits entre noms de domaines et marques (renommées)
Defossez, Alexandre ULg

in Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (2006)

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See detailLes conflits et l'analyse de leurs résolutions
Wintgens, Sophie ULg; Piet, Grégory ULg

Book published by Editions de l'Université de Liège (2010)

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See detailConflits et territorialisation
Mormont, Marc ULg

in Géographie Economie Sociétés (2006), 8(3), 399-418

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See detailIl conflitto sulla regolarizzazione dei sans-papiers in Belgio
Martiniello, Marco ULg; Kagné, Bonaventure

in Basso, Pietro; Perocco, Fabio (Eds.) Gli immigrati in Europa. Disegualianze, razzismo, lotte (2003)

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See detailA confocal microscopic study of mitochondrial alterations of renal HK-2 cells exposed to an endotoxic stress
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre et al

Poster (2012, September)

Sepsis has a profound deleterious effect on kidney functions through complex mechanisms, which involve the immune response, inflammatory pathways, intracellular dysfunction and hemodynamic instability ... [more ▼]

Sepsis has a profound deleterious effect on kidney functions through complex mechanisms, which involve the immune response, inflammatory pathways, intracellular dysfunction and hemodynamic instability. Those factors are difficult to discriminate in vivo. To get a better understanding of renal respiratory dysfunction, we developed an in vitro model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury using proximal tubular epithelial cell lines (HK-2) exposed to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Using this model, our first work has demonstrated that the basal respiration of renal HK-2 cells subjected to endotoxins was altered and presented a strong decrease in the oxygen consumption rates. Our working hypothesis of the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI is based on a change in mitochondrial function that has been termed cytopathic hypoxia. A consequence of mitochondrial function alterations is an inability of the cell to use molecular oxygen for ATP production. The oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria is interrupted because of the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. The present investigation was carried out to establish whether mitochondrial alterations might be a mechanism of renal tubular epithelial injury during sepsis. To reach this goal the mitochondrial alterations of renal HK-2 cells exposed to an endotoxic stress was studied by confocal laser-scanning microscope. Confocal microscope allowed observation of the evoked phenomena at the single cell level and in real time. More particulary, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and generation of reactive oxygen species were recorded using specific vital fluorescent probes and quantified by image processing and analysis. Mitochondrial membrane potential is generated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This gradient is critical for the formation of ATP, and a fall in membrane potential is an indicator of mitochondrial dysfunction. ΔΨm was measured using the lipophilic cationic probe TMRE and it was shown that LPS produced a decrease in ΔΨm. In parallel, superoxide generation was measured by using MitoSOX which is selectively targeted to the mitochondria. There was a significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide-specific oxidation of MitoSOX when HK-2 cells were submitted to LPS. Overall, the model of HK-2 cells exposed to LPS displays some key features of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. The confocal microscopy study has suggested a mechanism of toxicity dependent on mitochondrial oxidant generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Indeed, the exposure to LPS has resulted in an increased generation of superoxide and a loss of mitochondrial function probably initiated by a fall in mitochondrial potential. [less ▲]

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See detailConformal doping of FINFET's : a fabrication and metrology challenge
Vandervorst, Wilfried; Eyben, Pierre; Mody, Jay et al

Conference (2008)

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See detailConformal geometry of the supercotangent and spinor bundles
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Communications in Mathematical Physics (2012), 312(2)

We study the actions of local conformal vector fields X∈conf(M,g) on the spinor bundle of (M,g) and on its classical counterpart: the supercotangent bundle M of (M,g). We first deal with the classical ... [more ▼]

We study the actions of local conformal vector fields X∈conf(M,g) on the spinor bundle of (M,g) and on its classical counterpart: the supercotangent bundle M of (M,g). We first deal with the classical framework and determine the Hamiltonian lift of conf(M,g) to M. We then perform the geometric quantization of the supercotangent bundle of (M,g), which constructs the spinor bundle as the quantum representation space. The Kosmann Lie derivative of spinors is btained by quantization of the comoment map. The quantum and classical actions of conf(M,g) turn, respectively, the space of differential operators acting on spinor densities and the space of their symbols into conf(M,g)-modules. They are filtered and admit a common associated graded module. In the conformally flat case, the latter helps us determine the conformal invariants of both conf(M,g)-modules, in particular the conformally odd powers of the Dirac operator. [less ▲]

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See detailConformal invariance and degrees of freedom in the QCD string
Dienes, Keith R; Cudell, Jean-René ULg

in Physical Review Letters (1994), 72

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See detailConformal ultra shallow junctions by vapor phase doping with boron
Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Leys, Frederik; Takeuchi, Shotaro et al

Poster (2008)

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See detailConformally Equivariant Quantization - a Complete Classification
Michel, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications [=SIGMA] (2012), 8(022), 20

Conformally equivariant quantization is a peculiar map between symbols of real weight d and differential operators acting on tensor densities, whose real weights are designed by l and l+d. The existence ... [more ▼]

Conformally equivariant quantization is a peculiar map between symbols of real weight d and differential operators acting on tensor densities, whose real weights are designed by l and l+d. The existence and uniqueness of such a map has been proved by Duval, Lecomte and Ovsienko for a generic weight d. Later, Silhan has determined the critical values of d for which unique existence is lost, and conjectured that for those values of d existence is lost for a generic weight l. We fully determine the cases of existence and uniqueness of the conformally equivariant quantization in terms of the values of d and l. Namely, (i) unique existence is lost if and only if there is a nontrivial conformally invariant differential operator on the space of symbols of weight d, and (ii) in that case the conformally equivariant quantization exists only for a finite number of l, corresponding to nontrivial conformally invariant differential operators on l-densities. The assertion (i) is proved in the more general context of IFFT (or AHS) equivariant quantization. [less ▲]

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See detailConformance relation, associated equivalence, and minimum canonical tester in LOTOS
Leduc, Guy ULg

in Jonsson, B.; Parrow, J.; Pehrson, B. (Eds.) Protocol Specification, Testing, and Verification, XI (1991, June)

We first study the conf relation proposed by E. Brinksma and G. Scollo to formalise testing conformance. It is well-known from their work that, in order to test whether an implementation of a ... [more ▼]

We first study the conf relation proposed by E. Brinksma and G. Scollo to formalise testing conformance. It is well-known from their work that, in order to test whether an implementation of a specification S (i.e. I conf S), it suffices to build, from S, a canonical tester T(S) such that, when T(S) is synchronised with an implementation I, it always reaches a correct final state if, and only if, I conf S. For instance, if I is not a valid implementation of S, the canonical tester T(S) may deadlock with I before reaching a correct final state. We put into evidence the role of the equivalence relation, conf-eq, associated naturally with conf. An important result states that if S1 conf S2, their canonical testers T1 and T2 must also satisfy T1 conf-eq T2, and reversely. Therefore, the best approach is to define the canonical tester modulo conf-eq, whereas it is currently defined modulo the testing equivalence te. Taking into account that conf-eq is weaker than te, we were able to propose a minimum canonical tester which is simpler than T(S): unlike T(S), it may have fewer traces than the specification S. The term minimum means that no trace from this tester can be deleted without losing the exhaustive test property or, stated otherwise, without taking the risk of accepting an invalid implementation (in the conf sense). [less ▲]

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See detailLa conformation bouchère des agneaux. Etude d'après la variabilité génétique entre races
Laville, E.; Bouix, J.; Sayd, T. et al

in INRA Productions Animales (2002), 15(1), 53-66

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See detailConformational analyses of bacillomycin D, a natural antimicrobial lipopeptide, alone or in interaction with lipid monolayers at the air-water interface
Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Besson, Françoise

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2012), 387(1), 187-193

Bacillomycin D is a natural antimicrobial lipopeptide belonging to the iturin family. It is produced by Bacillus subtilis strains. Bacillomycin D is characterized by its strong antifungal and hemolytic ... [more ▼]

Bacillomycin D is a natural antimicrobial lipopeptide belonging to the iturin family. It is produced by Bacillus subtilis strains. Bacillomycin D is characterized by its strong antifungal and hemolytic properties, due to its interaction with the plasma membrane of sensitive cells. Until now, only few limited analyses were conducted to understand the biological activities of bacillomycin D at the molecular level. Our purpose was to analyze the conformation of bacillomycin D using IR spectroscopy and to model its interactions with cytoplasmic membranes using Langmuir interfacial monolayers. Our findings indicate that bacillomycin D contains turns and allow to model its three-dimensional structure. Bacillomycin D formed a monolayer film at the air–water interface and kept its turn conformation, as shown by polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). To identify the membrane lipid target of bacillomycin D, its interactions with pure lipid monolayers were analyzed and an original behavior of the lipopeptide toward cholesterol-containing monolayers was shown. This original behavior was lost when bacillomycin D was interacting with pure cholesteryl acetate monolayers, suggesting the involvement of the alcohol group of cholesterol in the lipopeptide–cholesterol interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailConformational analysis of a linear antibiotic heptapeptide using computer graphics
Demeuse, Françoise; De Coen, Jean-Louis; Wathelet, Bernard ULg

Poster (1991)

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See detailConformational analysis of new 5-HT1A ligands by molecular modeling
Dilly, Sébastien ULg; Graulich, Amaury; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2009, May 14)

5-HT1A receptors represent a major target for research and drug development due to their involvement in pathologies such as anxiety,1 depression,2 sleep and memory disorders,3,4 and schizophrenia.5 The ... [more ▼]

5-HT1A receptors represent a major target for research and drug development due to their involvement in pathologies such as anxiety,1 depression,2 sleep and memory disorders,3,4 and schizophrenia.5 The main feature of many drugs having a 5-HT1A affinity is the presence of arylpiperazine moiety.6 Indeed, the protonated nitrogen and the aromatic ring of the arylpiperazine compounds are considered crucial for the interaction with the receptor.7 Interestingly, an in vitro binding study realized in our laboratory reveals the presence of the 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine instead of the piperazine moiety in 4-arylpiperazine-ethyl carboxamide derivatives is highly favourable for 5-HT1A affinity. In order to better understand the favourable effect of this chemical modification, we have performed a conformational analysis of these compounds mainly based on the position of the phenyl ring relative to the piperazine and tetrahydropyridine ones. In the piperazine compounds, the phenyl ring is found in a perpendicular orientation, whereas an almost planar orientation seems to be the most favourable conformation for the tetrahydropyridine compounds (See figure). Therefore, the almost planar orientation of the 4-substituted phenyl ring appears as an important spatial requirement for an optimal interaction with the receptor binding site. This finding could lead to new ideas in the design of high-affinity 5-HT1A ligands. [less ▲]

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See detailConformational Analysis Of Non-Sulfonylurea Hypoglycemic Agents Of The Meglitinide Family
Lins, Laurence ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg; Malaisse, Wj.

in Biochemical Pharmacology (1995), 50(11), 1879-84

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See detailConformational analysis of peptide substrates and inhibitors of the Zn2+ G and serine R61 D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases
De Coen, Jean-Louis; Lamotte, Josette ULg; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1981), 121(1), 221-232

The tripeptide Nα,Nɛ-diacetyl-l-lysyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (Ac2- l-LLys1-dAIa2-dAIa3), which is the standard substrate of the Zn2+ G and serine R61 d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidases, and several ldd tripeptide ... [more ▼]

The tripeptide Nα,Nɛ-diacetyl-l-lysyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (Ac2- l-LLys1-dAIa2-dAIa3), which is the standard substrate of the Zn2+ G and serine R61 d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidases, and several ldd tripeptide analogues where the size and/or the electrical charge of the side chains at position 1, 2 or 3 have been modified (alterations affecting more than one position at the same time were not investigated) have been submitted to conformational analyses based on both short-range and long-range interactions. Among the many backbone conformers of minimal energy of the øii space that have been characterized, four types of conformers are the most probable ones. Depending on the peptides, these conformers may have varying relative probability P values so that the leader conformer is not always the same, but, in all cases, the sum of their P values is 90% or more. With the Gly1, Gly2 or Gly3 analogues (which encompass a larger conformational space), the above ∑P values are still as high as 35–50%. All the above tripeptides bind to the serine d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase and with the exception of the Gly3 and Gly2 analogues, to the Zn2+d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase with virtually the same efficacy, at least within a range of variation of the Km values for the substrates or the Ki values for the inhibitors, which is less than one order of magnitude. Structural variations at position 1, 2 or 3 in the peptides that are compatible with efficient binding are not necessarily compatible with substrate activity, thus converting the modified peptides into competitive inhibitors. In particular, substrate activity requires a long side chain at position 1 in the peptides. Conformational analyses of Ac2-lLys-dAla-dAla show that the main backbone has a tendency to adopt a ring-like shape from which the lLYS side chain protrudes as an extended structure. This latter structure forms with the C-terminal d-alanyl-d-alanine an angle varying between 120° and 180° (depending on the conformers) so that its N-terminal acetyl group is about 1–1.5 nm apart from the scissile amide bond. High turnover numbers (at enzyme saturation) also require a dAla at position 2 with both d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidases and at position 3 in the case of the serine d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase. Finally, all the conformers of the lAla2 and lAla3 analogues of Ac2-lLys-dAla-dAla fall outside the backbone conformational space that comprises the φiφi angles exhibited by the four types of conformers of the ldd tripeptides. The lAla2 and lAla3 tripeptide analogues do not bind to the serine d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase (at least at a 10 mM concentration) but they behave as noncompetitive inhibitors of the Zn2+d-alanyl-d-alanine peptidase. [less ▲]

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