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See detailCurrent analytical aspects of vitamin D
Cavalier, Etienne ULg

Conference (2010, October 07)

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See detailCurrent and future atmospheric circulation at 500 hPa over Greenland simulated by the CMIP3 and CMIP5 global models
Belleflamme, Alexandre ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Lang, Charlotte ULg et al

in Climate Dynamics (2013), 41(7-8),

The Greenland ice sheet is projected to be strongly affected by global warming. These projections are either issued from downscaling methods (such as Regional Climate Models) or they come directly from ... [more ▼]

The Greenland ice sheet is projected to be strongly affected by global warming. These projections are either issued from downscaling methods (such as Regional Climate Models) or they come directly from General Circulation Models (GCMs). In this context, it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the daily atmospheric circulation simulated by the GCMs, since it is used as forcing for downscaling methods. Thus, we use an automatic circulation type classification based on two indices (Euclidean distance and Spearman rank correlation using the daily 500 hPa geopotential height) to evaluate the ability of the GCMs from both CMIP3 and CMIP5 databases to simulate the main circulation types over Greenland during summer. For each circulation type, the GCMs are compared to three reanalysis datasets on the basis of their frequency and persistence differences. For the current climate (1961–1990), we show that most of the GCMs do not reproduce the expected frequency and the persistence of the circulation types and that they simulate poorly the observed daily variability of the general circulation. Only a few GCMs can be used as reliable forcings for downscaling methods over Greenland. Finally, when applying the same approach to the future projections of the GCMs, no significant change in the atmospheric circulation over Greenland is detected, besides a generalised increase of the geopotential height due to a uniform warming of the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent and future perspectives on Recombinant GH for the treatment of Obesity
Rixhon, M.; Tikhomirova, M. A.; Tamagno, G. et al

in Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism (2008), 3(1), 75-89

The similarities between patients with untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency and those with the cardiometabolic syndrome and the beneficial effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) on body composition ... [more ▼]

The similarities between patients with untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency and those with the cardiometabolic syndrome and the beneficial effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) on body composition have led to the hypothesis that rhGH treatment may have utility in obesity. GH release is reduced in the setting of obesity, primarily due to hyperinsulinism and increased free fatty acid levels. We reviewed the outcomes of 23 clinical studies carried out between 1987 and 2006 that examined the effects of rhGH administration in the obese state. Typically, changes in overall body weight do not occur with rhGH therapy; however, assessment of body composition demonstrates reductions in visceral abdominal fat. Data on the effects of rhGH on lipid and carbohydrate metabolic profiles in obese patients are less clear-cut, with a subset of studies showing a beneficial effect and others a neutral effect. Given the increasing burden of obesity in the general population and the current paucity of effective therapies, it is useful to consider the data on rhGH and obesity from a clinical perspective to highlight potential treatment strategies that harness the somatotropic axis. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent and Future Trends in Dynamic and Mobile GIS
Drummond, Jane; Joao, Elsa; Billen, Roland ULg

in Drummond, Jane; Billen, Roland; Joao, Elsa (Eds.) et al Dynamic and Mobile GIS: Investigating Changes in Space and Time (2007)

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See detailCurrent and future trends in groundwater vulnerability assessment
Gogu, Radu; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Environmental Geology (2000), 39(6), 549-559

The concept of groundwater vulnerability is a useful tool for environmental planning and decision-making. Many different methods have been developed for assessing this vulnerability. Hydrogeologists have ... [more ▼]

The concept of groundwater vulnerability is a useful tool for environmental planning and decision-making. Many different methods have been developed for assessing this vulnerability. Hydrogeologists have failed to reach a consensus concerning the definitions of and reference terms for groundwater vulnerability assessment. Therefore, a review of vulnerability assessment and mapping methods providing a new classification system is necessary. This is focused on techniques that use the overlay and index class methods. New research challenges in vulnerability assessment are identified, especially the need for developing dynamic links between numerical models and overlay and index methods. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent approaches to phylogenomic reconstruction
Baurain, Denis ULg; Philippe, Hervé

in Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo (Ed.) Evolutionary Genomics and Systems Biology (2010)

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See detailThe current budget of NOy above the Jungfraujoch as derived from IR solar observations
Demoulin, Philippe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Harris, N. R. P.; Kilbane-Dawe, I.; Amanatidis, G. T. (Eds.) Polar stratospheric ozone 1997 (1998)

This paper reports on an investigations of a series of compounds of the NOy family, based on high resolution infrared solar observations made at the ISSJ (International Scientific Station of the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on an investigations of a series of compounds of the NOy family, based on high resolution infrared solar observations made at the ISSJ (International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch), Switzerland (46.55ºN, 7.99ºE, 3580 m a.s.l.). These observations are part of a long-term monitoring effort undertaken by the Liège group since the mid-1970s, and integrated more recently as a contribution to the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). Currently, vertical column abundances of over 20 molecules are retrieved from solar spectra recorded under clear sky conditions as regularly as possible, using two high resolution Fourier transform infrared (2 to 15 microns) spectrometers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe current budjet of NOy above the Jungfraujoch as derived from IR Solar Observations.
Demoulin, Philippe ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Air Pollution Research Report Nr 66 (1998). (1997)

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See detailA current challenge: processing of bistatic STAP signals
Verly, Jacques ULg

Scientific conference (2003)

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See detailCurrent challenges in antimicrobial chemotherapy: focus on beta-lactamase inhibition.
Bebrone, Carine ULg; Lassaux, Patricia ULg; Vercheval, Lionel ULg et al

in Drugs (2010), 70(6)

The use of the three classical beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactam) in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat the beta ... [more ▼]

The use of the three classical beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactam) in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat the beta-lactamase mediated resistance. However, these inhibitors are efficient in inactivating class A beta-lactamases only and the efficiency of the inhibitor/antibiotic combination can be compromised by several mechanisms among which the production of naturally resistant class B or class D enzymes, the hyperproduction of AmpC or even the production of evolved inhibitor-resistant class A enzymes. There is thus an urgent need in the development of novel inhibitors. For serine active enzymes (classes A, C and D), derivatives of the beta-lactam ring such as 6-beta-halogenopenicillanates, beta-lactam sulfones, penems and oxapenems, monobactams or trinems seem to be potential starting points to design efficient molecules (among which AM-112 and LK-157). Moreover, a promising non-beta-lactam molecule, NXL-104 is now under clinical trial. In contrast, an ideal inhibitor of metallo-beta-lactamases (class B) remains to be found, despite the huge number of potential molecules already described (biphenyl tetrazoles, cysteinyl peptides, mercaptocarboxylates, succinic acid derivatives, etc). The search for such an inhibitor is complicated by the absence of a covalent intermediate in their catalytic mechanisms and the fact that beta-lactam derivatives often behave as substrates rather than as inhibitors. Currently, the most promising broad spectrum inhibitors of class B enzymes are molecules presenting chelating groups (thiols, carboxylates, etc) combined with an aromatic group. This review describes all the types of molecules already tested as potential beta-lactamase inhibitors and thus constitutes an update of the current status in beta-lactamase inhibitor discovery. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent challenges in the economic regulation of utilities in Belgium
Gautier, Axel ULg; Bouckaert, Jan; de Streel, Alexandre

Speech (2013)

Regulation covers all the ways in which, in our markets-based economies, the public sector influences, constrains, dictates or coordinates private activities for the common good. This session will deal ... [more ▼]

Regulation covers all the ways in which, in our markets-based economies, the public sector influences, constrains, dictates or coordinates private activities for the common good. This session will deal with the question of institutional design and the role of politics in determining regulatory performance in Belgium. These themes will be explored through concrete examples of regulatory failures and successes, with an eye towards generating general principles and guidelines for improving regulatory designs. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent challenges in the treatment of osteoporosis: an opportunity for bazedoxifene.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Ferrari, Serge; Hadji, Peyman

in Current medical research and opinion (2014), 30(6), 1165-1176

Abstract Background: Osteoporosis affects millions of postmenopausal women worldwide. Osteoporosis-related fractures can lead to chronic pain, disability, systemic complications, and increased risk of ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: Osteoporosis affects millions of postmenopausal women worldwide. Osteoporosis-related fractures can lead to chronic pain, disability, systemic complications, and increased risk of recurrent fractures, resulting in increased healthcare costs and mortality. Because currently available therapies have unique benefit/risk profiles, challenges remain in selecting the most appropriate treatment for each osteoporotic woman. Research and Results: Bazedoxifene (BZA), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator, is being developed for postmenopausal osteoporosis. In a 3-year, global, phase 3 study, BZA significantly reduced the risk of new vertebral fractures and nonvertebral fractures in women with higher baseline fracture risk compared with placebo. In 2 extensions of this study, the efficacy of BZA in reducing vertebral fracture risk was sustained over 7 years. BZA improved lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density compared with placebo at 3 and 5 years, and demonstrated a favorable safety/tolerability profile, with no endometrial or breast stimulation. BZA was cost-effective compared with raloxifene in a 3-year, head-to-head comparative trial. Indirect comparisons further suggest that BZA may be as effective as bisphosphonates in reducing risk of nonvertebral fractures in women at high risk of fracture. BZA demonstrated efficacy and safety for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis over 7 years, particularly in women at a higher fracture risk. Conclusion: Because of its specific pharmacologic profile, BZA may be appropriate for postmenopausal women seeking a tolerable, safe, effective, and cost-effective long-term osteoporosis treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Current Challenges on the Belgian Federalism
Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Since 1993, Belgium is officially a federal state, composed of – three – communities and – three – regions, as the – new at the time – first article of the Constitution proclaims. The history of ... [more ▼]

Since 1993, Belgium is officially a federal state, composed of – three – communities and – three – regions, as the – new at the time – first article of the Constitution proclaims. The history of federalism in Belgium is therefore quite recent. Nevertheless, the story is – much – longer since it starts with the independence of Belgium from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 . The very beginning of a state and the underlying causes of its creation, as well as its place on the map, the timing of its creation and the characteristics of the elites who take the lead and define the new state’s nature are of crucial importance and these elements shape the country’s political development for centuries . Nonetheless, although the beginning of any state sets up a path dependency , there are also critical junctures along its political development which in turn influences the course of history. This is especially true for Belgium . Here, history and politics are intrinsically interrelated. Indeed, the current challenges on the Belgian federalism find their roots in the country’s history. Three main challenges face Belgian federalism: an ethno-territorial challenge, a socio-economic challenge and a political challenge, that is to say the future of the country itself. In this endeavour to assess the current challenges on the Belgian federalism, three variables have to be taken into account. The first variable is the territorial principle vs. personal principle debate, which constitutes the backbone of the so-called Belgian community question; it is also intrinsically related to the first challenge: the ethno-territorial challenge. The second variable is the political parties because they have played and play the major role in Belgian politics and therefore in the Belgian federal dynamics. The third variable is made of the people; that is, at the individual level, the inhabitants or the citizens or the voters and, at the collective level, the language groups of Belgium. These three variables are at the heart of Belgium’s past, present and future and continuously interact with one another. In order to offer a clear picture of these interactions, Belgium’s history is conceptually divided into three periods: before federalism (1830-1960), federalism (1960-2007) and after federalism (2007-onwards). These three periods shed light on the background of the current challenges on the Belgian federalism. On this basis, the recent institutional agreement which gives Belgium her sixth reform of the state is analyzed as it provides – tentative – answers to the first two challenges. This all leads to the last challenge – the end of Belgium? – dealt with in the conclusion. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent concepts in breast reconstruction
Preud'homme, L.; LEMAIRE, Vincent ULg; Nizet, Jean-Luc ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2008), 108(3), 298-303

As the incidence of breast cancer increases, breast reconstruction is more and more often proposed and its indications are viewed in terms of quality of life. In the past, delayed reconstruction was the ... [more ▼]

As the incidence of breast cancer increases, breast reconstruction is more and more often proposed and its indications are viewed in terms of quality of life. In the past, delayed reconstruction was the rule. Progress in reconstructive techniques currently allows performing immediate reconstruction in selected cases, even when the operative field has to be irradiated. These new techniques generally improve the result of breast reconstruction. Moreover, expansion of screening techniques allows detection of small tumors for which a conservative excision is sufficient. Nevertheless, this kind of less aggressive surgery may require a reconstructive procedure in order to maximise the aesthetic result. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent concepts in the pathology and epigenetics of endometrial carcinoma.
Arafa, Mohammad; Somja, Joan ULg; Dehan, Pierre ULg et al

in Pathology (2010), 42(7), 613-7

In the Western world, endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of the female genital tract and is the fourth most common cancer in women. Two different clinicopathological subtypes are ... [more ▼]

In the Western world, endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of the female genital tract and is the fourth most common cancer in women. Two different clinicopathological subtypes are recognised: the oestrogen-related (type I, endometrioid) and the non-oestrogen related (type II, non-endometrioid). This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, genetic alterations during endometrial carcinogenesis, features of tumours and precursors and early detection of the disease. Insights into the epigenetic alterations, with emphasis on DNA methylation during endometrial carcinogenesis, and their diagnostic value are also provided. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent Concepts in the Prolactinomas therapy
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (1988, October)

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See detailCurrent Concepts in the Therapeutic Management of Osteoarthritis with Glucosamine
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Fraikin, Genevieve et al

in Bulletin / Hospital for joint diseases (2005), 63(1-2), 31-36

Over the last 10 years, several studies have investigated the ability of glucosamine sulfate to improve the symptoms (pain and function) and to delay the structural progression of osteoarthritis. There is ... [more ▼]

Over the last 10 years, several studies have investigated the ability of glucosamine sulfate to improve the symptoms (pain and function) and to delay the structural progression of osteoarthritis. There is now a large, convergent body of evidence that glucosamine sulfate, given at a daily oral dose of 1,500 mg, is able to significantly reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis in the lower limbs and spine. This effect is usually seen with a minimal time for the onset of significant action - around 2 weeks. A similar dose of glucosamine sulfate has also been shown, in two independent studies, to prevent the joint space narrowing observed at the femorotibial compartment in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. This effect, which is not affected by the radiographic technique used for the assessment of joint space width, also translated into a 50% reduction in the incidence of osteoarthritis-related surgery of the lower limbs during a 5-year period following the withdrawal of the treatment. There is a high degree of consistency in the literature showing that when glucosamine sulfate is used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, an efficacious response with minimum side effects can be expected. Since some discrepancies have been described between the results of studies performed with a patent-protected formulation of glucosamine sulfate distributed as a drug and those having used glucosamine preparations purchased from global suppliers, packaged, and sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements (not regulated as drugs and with some potential issues concerning the reliability of their content), caution should be used when extrapolating conclusive results obtained with prescription drugs to over-the-counter or food supplements. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent controversies around tight glucose control in critically ill patients
Devos, P.; Preiser, Jean-Charles ULg

in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care (2007), 10(2), 206-209

Purpose of review This review updates our knowledge on the benefits and risks of tight glucose control by intensive insulin therapy critically ill patients, as well as discussing unanswered questions ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review This review updates our knowledge on the benefits and risks of tight glucose control by intensive insulin therapy critically ill patients, as well as discussing unanswered questions related to the subject. Recent findings At the cellular level, the toxic effects of elevated and highly variable glucose concentration are related to an increase in oxidative stress and to several toxic intracellular derivates generated as by-products of the glycolytic pathway. Clinically, several recent studies have suggested that the optimal target for blood glucose may be higher than the 'normal' values of 4.4-6.1 mmol/l for various categories of patients. Also, the variability in glucose level, appears to be an important determinant of glucose toxicity. Conflicting data on the hazards of,hypoglycaemia are emerging. Summary Practical recommendations for the implementation of tight glucose control using intensive insulin therapy cannot be disseminated until questions relating to optimal blood glucose level and the corresponding categories of patients have been resolved. The issues of glucose, variability and the most efficient method of preventing hypoglycaemia will probably represent important parameters for comparing the safety and quality of protocols used for tight glucose control. [less ▲]

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