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See detailThe cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum in Antarctica : back-colonization from extra-regional Pleistocene refugia or in-situ survival
Pisa, S.; Biersma, E.M.; Convey, P. et al

in Polar Biology (2014), 37

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See detailLa «cospedalización» del que disiente
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailThe COSPIX mission: focusing on the energetic and obscured Universe
Ferrando, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P. et al

in Rieger, F.; van Eldik, C. (Eds.) 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (2011, April 01)

Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions ... [more ▼]

Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-rays, and polarimetric capabilities within the same focal plane instrumentation. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the mission, its baseline design, and its performances, as proposed to ESA. [less ▲]

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See detailCOST 296 Working Group 3 “Space-based systems” activities and results
Warnant, René ULg

Conference (2007, July)

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See detailCOST 93
Bera, François ULg

in VITA Magazine (1991), (88),

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See detailCost Action C6 - Final Report : A city for pedestrians, policy-making and implementation
Bonanomi, Lydia; Corazza, Maria Vittoria; Fleury, Dominique et al

Report (2002)

In most cases, mobility management consists of designing the spaces between built-up areas so that they are adaptable and enable the setting up of the transport infrastructures which provide the backbone ... [more ▼]

In most cases, mobility management consists of designing the spaces between built-up areas so that they are adaptable and enable the setting up of the transport infrastructures which provide the backbone of urban planning. The supreme asset of private car has been its ability to adapt to the "empty" spaces handed down by previous generations, enabling it to develop to a irreversible situation; The car seems so indispensable as the bread to our contemporary urban societies. Such a development has, however, led to a significant number of malfunctions. "Reactive" travel policies aimed at reducing such effects focuse on the improvement of roads safety and on the rehabilitation of the citizen-pedestrian in the cities. The main objective of this COST Action is to promote better safety and urban quality for the weakest users - children, elderly and handicapped people - and to suggest planning and maintenance techniques aimed at improving urban quality. [less ▲]

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See detailCost Action F3 'Structural Dynamics' (1997-2001) - An European Co-operation in the Field of Science and Technology
Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Link, M.

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2003), 17(1), 3-7

This section is concerned with presenting the objective, the scientific programme and the organisation of COST Action F3 in Structural Dynamics. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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See detailCOST Action F3 on Structural Dynamics: Benchmarks for Structural Health Monitoring
Worden, K.; Molina, F.; Pascual, R. et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2002)

This paper is concerned with the results from the COST Action F3 Working Group Two benchmarking exercise in Structural Health Monitoring. Data from two large-scale structures were modelled for the ... [more ▼]

This paper is concerned with the results from the COST Action F3 Working Group Two benchmarking exercise in Structural Health Monitoring. Data from two large-scale structures were modelled for the purposes of damage detection, location and quantification. Several analysis papers have been submitted for a special issue of Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing and the conclusions of each are summarised here, together with more general conclusions arising from the concerted effort. [less ▲]

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See detailCost Assessment in Ship Production
Bertram, Volker; Maisonneuve, Jean-Jacques; Caprace, Jean-David ULg et al

in RINA (2005)

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See detailCost Effectiveness and Complexity Assessment in Ship Design within a Concurrent Engineering and "Design for X" Framework
Caprace, Jean-David ULg

Doctoral thesis (2010)

Decisions taken during the initial design stage determine 60% to 95% of the total cost of a product. So there is a significant need to concurrently consider performance, cost, production and design ... [more ▼]

Decisions taken during the initial design stage determine 60% to 95% of the total cost of a product. So there is a significant need to concurrently consider performance, cost, production and design complexity issues at the early stages of the design process. The main obstacle to this approach is the lack of convenient and reliable cost and performance models that can be integrated into a complex design process as is used in the shipbuilding industry. Traditional models and analysis methods frequently do not provide the required sensitivity to consider all the important variables impacting performance, cost, production and ship’s life cycle. Our challenge is that achieving this sensitivity at the early design stage almost requires data available during the detail design analysis. The traditional design methods do not adequately include, early enough, production and life cycle engineering to have a positive impact on the design. Taking an integrated approach throughout the life cycle of the ship and using concurrent engineering analysis tools can improve these traditional design process weaknesses. Innovation is required in structural design and cost assessment. The use of design for X, and particular design for production and cost schemes, during the design is the solution: to reduce failure during a ship’s life caused by design misconception, to reduce the overall design time and to shorten the build cycle of ships, to enlarge the number of design alternatives during the design process. The author has developed some assessment methods for cost effectiveness and complexity measurements intended to be used by ship designers for the real time control of cost process. The outcome is that corrective actions can be taken by management in a rather short time to actually improve or overcome predicted unfavourable performance. Fundamentally, these methods will provide design engineers with objective and quantifiable cost and complexity measures making it possible to take rational design decisions throughout the design stages. The measures proposed in this PhD are based on several techniques like decision analysis, data mining, neural network, fuzzy logic. They are objective facts, which are not dependent on the engineer’s interpretation of information, but rather on a model generated to represent the ship design. The objectivity aspect is essential when using the complexity and cost measures in a design automation system. Finally, with these tools, the designers should obtain well-defined and unambiguous metrics for measurement of the different types of cost effectiveness and complexities in engineered artefacts. Such metrics help the designers and design automation tools to be objective and perform quantitative comparisons of alternative design solutions, cost estimation, as well as design optimization. In this PhD, these metrics have been applied and validated with success in real industrial conditions on the design of passenger ships. [less ▲]

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See detailCost effectiveness of atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pharmacoeconomic analysis of the collaborative atorvastatin diabetes study in the belgian population.
Annemans, L.; Marbaix, S.; Webb, K. et al

in Clinical Drug Investigation (2010), 30(2), 133-42

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. The clinical benefit of use of statins in patients with type 2 diabetes has ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. The clinical benefit of use of statins in patients with type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated in several randomized, controlled trials, including the CARDS clinical trial. Based on the clinical CARDS data, the favourable cost effectiveness of atorvastatin 10 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes has been demonstrated in countries such as the UK and France. This study aimed to estimate the cost effectiveness in the Belgian setting of atorvastatin 10 mg compared with no treatment for the primary prevention of CV events in type 2 diabetes patients without a history of CV disease. METHODS: A Markov model with 1-year cycles was developed to simulate the CV event and death risk according to the therapeutic approach initiated. The transition probabilities for CV events in the 'no statin treatment' group were derived from the risk equations reported from the large UKPDS. Risk reductions from the CARDS clinical trial were used to adjust these CV event probabilities in the atorvastatin 10 mg treatment group. The characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients without a CV history were derived from the Belgian OCAPI survey. The public healthcare payers' perspective was taken into account for costing. The direct medical costs of CV events were based on the Public Health Authorities' hospital database for acute care costs and on the literature for the follow-up costs. The impact on the reimbursement system of generic entry to the market was considered in the drug cost. Costs were valued as at year 2009; costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% and 1.5%, respectively. RESULTS: Based on a 5-year time horizon, atorvastatin was demonstrated to be cost effective with an incremental cost/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of euro 16,681. Over a lifetime horizon (25 years), atorvastatin was demonstrated to be a cost-saving therapeutic intervention. At a threshold of euro 30,000/QALY, atorvastatin had a 98.8% probability of being cost effective. CONCLUSION: Compared with 'no treatment', use of atorvastatin 10 mg as a primary prevention intervention in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients not only improves CV outcomes, but also appears to be cost saving over a lifetime horizon. [less ▲]

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See detailCost effectiveness of treatment in osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal of Rheumatology (1996), 23(7), 1312-1313

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See detailCost efficiency in the African securities settlement and depository industry
Teuwa Nkeuwo, Mathieu Hugues ULg; Muller, Aline ULg

Conference (2011, May 17)

This paper examines the potential of economies of scale and scope among the African central securities depository institutions. We address whether the consolidation of settlement and custody activities of ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the potential of economies of scale and scope among the African central securities depository institutions. We address whether the consolidation of settlement and custody activities of securities make these institutions efficient in light of the costs of service parameter. To do this, we rely on the translog cost function [introduced by Christensen et al. (1971)] and the constant elasticity of substitution of seven central securities depositories in Africa over the period 2004-2009. The results show the existence of significant economies of scale and scope in these institutions. The extent of these economies differs upon the size of the institution and the level of automation mechanisms to combine securities settlement and custody activities. Our findings also indicate that, unlike large institutions in countries such as South Africa and Mauritius, which have heavily invested in automation mechanisms, smaller institutions have higher service costs, which implies a need for consolidation of activities to reduce these costs. [less ▲]

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See detailCost estimates of brain disorders in Belgium
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Gianni, F.; Schretlen, L. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106(4), 208-214

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and ... [more ▼]

This article presents the data on cost of the major brain disorders in Belgium which were retrieved from "Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe" study sponsored by the European Brain Council and performed by Stockholm Health Economics. The disorders selected were : addiction, depression, anxiety disorders, brain tumours, dementia, epilepsy, migraine and other headaches, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, psychotic disorders, stroke and trauma. Figures for prevalence of disorders and direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs are based on data coming from available electronic data bases, or when missing for Belgium, best possible estimates or extrapolated data were used. All economic data were transformed to E's for 2004 and adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). The results show that the total number of people with any brain disorder in Belgium amounts to 2,9 million in 2004, the most prevalent being anxiety disorders 1.1 million, migraine 860 000, addiction (any) 800.000 and depression 500.000 cases. The total cost of all included brain disorders in Belgium was estimated at 10.6 billion Euros. Most costly per case are brain tumours, multiple sclerosis, stroke and dementia. Because of their higher prevalence, however, depression, dementia, addiction, anxiety disorders and migraine have the highest total costs. Taken together, brain disorders consume 4% of the gross national product and cost each citizen of Belgium E 1029 per year The drug costs for brain disorders constitute only 10% of the total drug market in Belgium, and only 4% of the total cost of brain disorders in Belgium. This should be compared to the cost estimates and to a previous study which showed that brain disorders are responsible for 35% of the total burden of all disorders in Europe. This study suggests therefore that the direct healthcare resources, including expenses for drug therapies, allocated to brain disorders in Belgium are not leveled to the indirect costs and burden of these disorders. A comparison with data available from a direct prospective study in demented Belgian patients suggests that the mathematical estimates presented here reflect quite accurately the real average cost for dementia, although there are large variations depending on disease severity. As, in addition, subjects with brain disorders face collateral costs which have not been taken into account and may vary between countries, it seems worthwhile to conduct, in cooperation with patients associations, a complementary survey in the Belgian ecosystem to establish the cost profile of representative patients for the major brain disorders. Such a survey is being organized by a task force of the Belgian Brain Council. [less ▲]

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See detailCOST F3 Structural Dynamics 1997-2001, Presentation and Some Preliminary Results
Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Argoul, Pierre

Conference given outside the academic context (2001)

The COST Action F3 “Structural Dynamics” was initiated in 1997 by Professor Jean-Claude Golinval. The main objective of this COST Action is to increase the knowledge required for improving the structural ... [more ▼]

The COST Action F3 “Structural Dynamics” was initiated in 1997 by Professor Jean-Claude Golinval. The main objective of this COST Action is to increase the knowledge required for improving the structural design, the mechanical reliability, and the safety of structures in linear and non-linear dynamics. This research Action is supported by the European Community and is divided into three working groups dealing with the following issues: WG1: “Finite Element Model Updating Methods”; WG2: “Health Monitoring and Damage Detection”; and WG3: “Identification of Non-linear Systems”. This paper presents the objectives of the COST Action F3, the organization of the Action, the members of the management committee, and the scientific program of each working group in more detail. Finally, preliminary results of the COST Action are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailCost Monitoring for Clam Raising Farmers in the Northern Area of Vietnam
Bui Thi, Nga; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences (2014), 4(8), 378-383

Clam farming in the coastal provinces of Vietnam has notably developed since the last decade. It generated high income, improve socio-economic development for many local communities. However, many clam ... [more ▼]

Clam farming in the coastal provinces of Vietnam has notably developed since the last decade. It generated high income, improve socio-economic development for many local communities. However, many clam raising farms were facing difficulties of farm management, disease control, markets and systems of quality control. This research aimed to study about the real situation of cost monitoring in the clam raising farms in the Northern area of Vietnam and suggested some recommendation to promote the benefits for farmers. The paper is based on the semi-structure, standard questionnaires and PRA method to collect data from 112 clam raising farms in two coastal provinces (Nam Dinh and Thai Binh) in the Northern area of Vietnam in 2014. The findings showed that clam raising provided farmers a chance of getting high income parallel with high risk. There were 32.14% surveyed farms that got profit; 32.14% of them met the break-even, and 35.72% was lost. The study has found out four key factors affecting farms’ economic performance and efficiency. The first factor that impacted on the farms’ outcome was the low capacity of farm cost control, thus the cost for clam raising was very high at 8,142 to 9,190 USD per ha. The second was the farmers’ experience, skill, technique and ability to control risk. The third was the low, unstable market and unsuitable market. Final factor was the area and location of clam raising. Despite these difficulties, 57.14% surveyed farms still intended to expand their production; 25% of them would continue; and only 17.86% would stop or changed to other activities. In order to promote the benefits for clam raising farmers, cost control should be paid more attention, improvement of the farmers’ capacity to control cost was necessary, and market should be regarded. [less ▲]

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See detailCost monitoring in clam farms in Coastal Nam Dinh Province of Vietnam
Bui Thi, Nga; Tran Huu, Cuong; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (2014), Nov. 2014-Jan 2015, 2(1),

Clam farming is a strength in the agricultural development of the coastal communes in Nam Dinh province, which has developed rapidly in recent years. It has many advantages of no investment on food, low ... [more ▼]

Clam farming is a strength in the agricultural development of the coastal communes in Nam Dinh province, which has developed rapidly in recent years. It has many advantages of no investment on food, low capital in technique management, simple care, short cultured time. It could bring high profits for the farmers, create employment for labor in rural area and contribute significantly to local economy. In addition, the model of clam farming can be easily replicated so clam farming attracts a lot of attention from the coastal fishermen, policy makers and participation of scientists. However, the development of clam farming in this province is still spontaneous, without obvious planning and sustainable development strategies. In addition, market becomes more competitive. Farmers manage their farms base on experiences and depend too much on natural conditions, thus they are facing many risks. This lead to the situation of inefficiency, and affects negatively to the clam farming and environment. This research aims to study about cost monitoring in clam farms and analyze the factors affecting the cost monitoring in clam farms in Nam Dinh province. From which, suggestions to develop effectively clam farming and contribute to raise incomes for farmers were given in the next years in Nam Dinh province. [less ▲]

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See detailCost monitoring in dairy farms to promote the value chain of fresh milk in North Vietnam
Bui, Thi Nga ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

In Vietnam, the consumption of dairy products has increased dramatically in recent years due to rising incomes. To meet this growing demand, and reduce imports, the Vietnamese Government has encouraged ... [more ▼]

In Vietnam, the consumption of dairy products has increased dramatically in recent years due to rising incomes. To meet this growing demand, and reduce imports, the Vietnamese Government has encouraged milk production. In this context, our research is primarily interested in the distribution of value added among the actors within the fresh milk chain observed in the province of Son La. Our study demonstrates that value added within the fresh milk chain was unequally distributed among actors in the chain in the bias orientation to the non-farmers (nonproducer). The key feature in the chain was the dairy farmers, but they were also the most vulnerable actors of the chain. Given the balance of power among the actors, the most appropriate method to promote the added value for dairy producers is to help a better control on their production costs by improving the management at the dairy farm. In the second part of the work, we are inspired from foreign experience in this field to define an accounting system for technical-economic monitoring of dairy cattle adapted for the situation of Vietnamese farmers. This system has been tested in Moc Chau in an experimental dairy farm to provide data regarding the efficiency and profitability of operations. Dairy farmers were interested in the proposed monitoring system because it allows them to know the level of performance and to compare it to the others. They were interested in revenue generated from costs control. The major constraints in the application of this monitoring in selected farms were the lack of capacity and knowledge from producers. In conclusion, our study provides an appropriate model for the establishment of a management system of milk production. The most suitable model is to set up an independent agency. The cost of this monitoring was estimated, and scenarios for sustainability have been proposed. Contributing to lower costs through a better understanding of technical and economic performance of farmers, the service management operations will improve the competitiveness of locally produced milk with imported products. [less ▲]

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