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See detailComparison of radiography , magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in dogs with elbow dysplasia
Snaps, Frédéric ULg; Balligand, Marc ULg; Saunders, J. et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1997), 58(12), 1367-1370

Objective-To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of medial coronoid process and humeral condyle lesions in dysplastic cubital joints and to compare survey radiography and MRI for ... [more ▼]

Objective-To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of medial coronoid process and humeral condyle lesions in dysplastic cubital joints and to compare survey radiography and MRI for evaluation of fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) and lesions of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC). Animals-18 dogs with elbow dysplasia. Procedure-Radiography of 22 cubital joints was performed. The 22 joints then underwent MRI. The scans were evaluated with regard to the shape and signal of the coronoid process; articular cartilage change, subchondral bone disruption of the MAHC. Surgical findings were used as the standard to calculate accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive-and negative-predictive values for specific diagnosis of FMCP (free fragment) and lesions of the MAHC. Results-At surgery, 31.8% of the joints had FMCP (free), 36.4% had nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process, and 27.2% had nondisplaced mineralized coronoid process, Eleven joints had lesions of the MAHC, and wear lesions were observed in 41% of the joints. On radiography, FMCP (free) was visualized in 9% of the joints and lesions of the MAHC were observed in 23%. MRI had the highest accuracy (95.5%), sensitivity (100%), and negative-predictive value (100%) for detection of FMCP (free), and had accuracy (91%), sensitivity (87.5%), specificity (92.5%), and positive (87.5%)- and negative (92.5%)- predictive values for detection of nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process. Conclusions and Clinical relevance-Compared with radiography, MRI was useful for detection of nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process; images consistently correlated with surgical findings. The technique is accurate and especially useful when radiographic findings are inconclusive. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of raloxifene and alendronate on markers of cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Adachi, J. R.; Qu, Y. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 42

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See detailA comparison of raters and disease assessment methods for estimating disease severity for purposes of hypothesis testing.
Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 26

Assessment of disease severity is most often made visually, and estimates can be inaccurate. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat by four raters (R1-R4 ... [more ▼]

Assessment of disease severity is most often made visually, and estimates can be inaccurate. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat by four raters (R1-R4) assessing non-treated (NT) and fungicide-treated (FT) plots were compared to true values using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) on two dates in 2006 and 2007. Estimates were converted to Horsfall-Barratt (HB) mid-points and again compared for accuracy and precision. Estimates of severity from FT and NT plots were analyzed to ascertain effects of rater using both the NPE and HB values. Regardless of method, all raters showed a range of agreement with true values on FT and NT plots (ρc = 0 to 1). Use of the HB scale most often reduced agreement (84.4% of the time), and did not improve rater-associated bias of treatment mean severity estimates. Consequently, estimates of mean severity differed significantly among raters and from true values (F=126 to 1260, P=0.002 to<0.0001). However, a comparison of treatment effects showed that the true values and R1 to R4 all demonstrated significant effects of fungicide (F=101 to 1952, P=0.002 to <0.00001). Ranking of raters differed on one occasion when HB values were used. These results demonstrate the effect of the HB scale, and the need for accurate disease assessment to minimize over or underestimates compared to true severity so as to minimize the potential for type II errors. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Rational-Based and Rule-Based Optimum Design of Ship Structures
Karr, Dale; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Na, SS et al

in SNAME Transactions (2002)

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See detailComparison of Rational-Based and Rule-Based Optimum Design of Ship Structures
Karr, D.; Rigo, Philippe ULg; N a S S et al

in Annual Meeting of SNAME, Paper 19 (2002, September)

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See detailComparison of Real-Time Aspergillus PCR with Platelia™AspergillusEIA in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients
RUZICKA, NADIA; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; LEVAUX, Laetitia ULg et al

Poster (2013, April 27)

Objectives. Because of low sensitivity of fungal cultures and lack of standardization of Aspergillus PCR, laboratory diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis still relies on galactomannan (GM) detection in ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Because of low sensitivity of fungal cultures and lack of standardization of Aspergillus PCR, laboratory diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis still relies on galactomannan (GM) detection in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum. The aim of this study was double: first, to assess the place of a 18S rRNA Aspergillus real-time PCR test performed in BAL fluid for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in neutro- and non-neutropenic patients in comparison with GM detection; secondly, to evaluate the use of three different GM cut-off values. Materials and methods. A total of 111 neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients hospitalized at the University hospital of Liège from March to October 2012 with suspicion of IA were included in the study. A total of 138 broncho-alveolar lavage fluids were evaluated by three laboratory diagnostic methods: 1/ culture on Sabouraud agar slants with antibiotics (bioMérieux, France) incubated at 28°C for 28 days; 2/ GM detection (Platelia ™Aspergillus EIA, Biorad) using GM index cut-off values at 0.5, 0.8 and 1, performed three times a week; 3/ a real-time Aspergillus PCR assay performed daily and targeting the 18S rRNA genes by using an in-house method. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were reviewed for classification of patients. Results. Nine patients developed probable or possible IA. The sensitivity/specificity/positive (VPP) and negative (NPV) predictive values (%) for culture, PCR, and GM using 0,5 as cut-off value were respectively 41/100/100/94, 58/97/70/96, and 91/83/34/99. The use of 0,8 and 1 as GM index cut-off values increased the specificity to 89 and 92% respectively, and the VPP to 44 and 54%. PCR had a better turn-around time and allowed the detection of Aspergillus colonisation. Conclusion: GM detection in BAL fluids using a cut-off value of 1 was the most efficient laboratory test for the diagnosis of IA in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. Despite a lower sensitivity, PCR had a better VPP, and allowed the detection of culture-negative Aspergillus colonisations. A shorter turnaround time (TAT) due to daily practice of PCR tests may reduce the time-to-treatment up to 24 hours. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of rectal and infrared ear temperatures in older hospital inpatients.
Smitz, Simon ULg; Giagoultsis, T; Dewé, Walthère ULg et al

in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (2000), 48(1), 63-6

OBJECTIVES: To assess the agreement between infrared emission detection (IRED) ear and rectal temperatures and to determine the validity of IRED ear thermometry in detecting rectal fever. DESIGN ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the agreement between infrared emission detection (IRED) ear and rectal temperatures and to determine the validity of IRED ear thermometry in detecting rectal fever. DESIGN: Prospective, convenience sample, unblinded study. SETTING: An acute geriatric unit (teaching hospital) and a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 45 inpatients (26 women and 19 men), aged 78.3+/-6.9 years, admitted over a 4-month period. Twelve of the patients were definitely infected. MEASUREMENTS: Sequential rectal (RT) and ear temperature (ET) measurements were performed using mercury-in-glass and IRED ear thermometers, respectively. IRED ear temperatures were measured at both ears (unadjusted mode), with the highest of six ear temperatures considered the true value. RESULTS: Mean RT (37.39 degrees C +/- 0.52 degrees C) was significantly (P<.001) higher than mean ET (36.89 degrees C +/-0.59 degrees C). A highly significant positive correlation was found between RT and ET (slope = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.86; P<.001; r = 0.78). The mean bias (mean of the differences) between RT and ET was 0.50 degrees C +/-0.37 degrees C (95% CI, 0.41 degrees C-0.59 degrees C), and the 95% limits of agreement -0.22 degrees C and 1.23 degrees C (95% CI, -0.38 degrees C to 1.39 degrees C). According to the standard criterion (RT > or =37.6 degrees C), 14 patients were febrile. Using an optimum IRED ear fever threshold (37.2 degrees C), the sensitivity and specificity of IRED ear thermometry for predicting rectal fever were 86% and 89%, respectively (positive predictive value, 80%; negative predictive value, 93%). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of agreement between rectal temperature and the highest of six IRED ear temperatures was acceptable. Using an optimal IRED ear fever threshold of 37.2 degrees C (99 degrees F), IRED ear thermometry had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for predicting rectal fever. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of Reduced Order Modeling Techniques Used in Dynamic Substructuring
Roettgen, Daniel; Seeger, Benjamin; Tai, Wei Che et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIV (2016, January)

Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the ... [more ▼]

Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the response. Recently, various methods have been proposed that use a transmission simulator to overcome sensitivity to measurement errors and to exercise the interface between the substructures; including the Craig-Bampton, Dual Craig-Bampton, and Craig-Mayes methods. This work compares the advantages and disadvantages of these reduced order modeling strategies for two dynamic substructuring problems. The methods are first used on an analytical beam model to validate the methodologies. Then they are used to obtain an experimental model for structure consisting of a cylinder with several components inside connected to the outside case by foam with uncertain properties. This represents an exceedingly difficult structure to model and so experimental substructuring could be an attractive way to obtain a model of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Reproductive Performance in Belgian Dairy and Beef Cattle
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Laurent, Y.; Ward, W. R.

in Theriogenology (1994), 41(5), 1099-114

A computerized program was written to collect, evaluate and compare reproductive performance data of 2004 beef (Belgian Blue breed) and 1649 dairy (Friesian Holstein and German Red) cattle in 35 Belgian ... [more ▼]

A computerized program was written to collect, evaluate and compare reproductive performance data of 2004 beef (Belgian Blue breed) and 1649 dairy (Friesian Holstein and German Red) cattle in 35 Belgian herds (6 suckler beef herds, 9 milked beef herds and 20 dairy herds). Reproduction data were collected at monthly herd health visits. No difference in age at first calving was observed. Significant differences were observed among the 3 kinds of herds, and the best results were obtained in dairy herds for the calving interval, interval from calving to the first estrus, interval from calving to the first service and average number of days open. Concerning these parameters, first calvers had lower results than multiparous cows, mainly in suckler and milked beef herds. Significant differences were noted in the number of services per pregnancy. Heifers that had never calved presented the highest fertility. Primiparous beef cows had higher fertility than pluriparous cows. In dairy herds, pluriparous cows had higher fertility than primiparous cows. Estrus detection was better in milked beef herds than in suckled beef and dairy herds. Suckled beef herds had the lowest incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts of the three types of herds. Rates of abortion, overall culling and retained fetal membranes were similar in all the herds. The percentage of animals removed for infertility was highest in milked beef herds and lowest in dairy herds. Because 90% of the 1159 calvings recorded in the beef herds required a caesarean section, the reproductive performance of beef cattle represent results after caesarean section. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Residual and Hierarchical Finite Element Error Estimators in Eddy Current Problems
Dular, Patrick ULg; Tang, Zuqi; Le Ménach, Yvonnick et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2),

The finite element computation of eddy current problems introduces numerical error. This error can only be estimated. Among all error estimators (EEs) already developed, two estimators, called residual ... [more ▼]

The finite element computation of eddy current problems introduces numerical error. This error can only be estimated. Among all error estimators (EEs) already developed, two estimators, called residual and hierarchical EEs, proven to be reliable and efficient, are theoretically and numerically compared. Both estimators show similar behaviors and locations of the error. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of residual stresses on long rolled profiles measured by X-ray diffraction, ring core and the sectioning methods and simulated by FE method
Bouffioux, Chantal ULg; Pesci, Raphaël; Boman, Romain ULg et al

in Thin-Walled Structures (2016), 104

Sheet piles are produced by hot rolling, a cooling step and, if required, by a straightening operation. Numerical simulations indicate that the stress field is almost homogeneous through the thickness ... [more ▼]

Sheet piles are produced by hot rolling, a cooling step and, if required, by a straightening operation. Numerical simulations indicate that the stress field is almost homogeneous through the thickness, justifying the comparison of X-ray diffraction, ring core and the sectioning methods applied after the cooling step and after the straightening process. The equipment, the steps of the experimental procedures and the results are detailed, showing the limits, the specificities and the advantages of each method. Moreover, the amplitude and the distribution of the stresses along the width of the sections present good agreement with results of numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of respiratory pathways in fully habituated and normal non-organogenic sugarbeet callus
Bisbis, Badia; Wagner, Anneke; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2000), 156(3), 312-318

The respiration of cells and isolated mitochondria of a habituated non-organogenic (HNO) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-independent) and of a normal (N) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-requiring) from ... [more ▼]

The respiration of cells and isolated mitochondria of a habituated non-organogenic (HNO) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-independent) and of a normal (N) cell line (auxin- and cytokinin-requiring) from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated. Oxygen uptake by both cells and mitochondria of the HNO fine was higher than that of the N line. Respiration in the presence of cyanide (i.e. capacity of the alternative pathway) was also higher in the HNO callus as compared with the N one. The measurements of O-2 uptake from isolated HNO and N mitochondria showed that addition of a mixture of substrates (NADH, succinate, malate and NAD) resulted in a higher respiration via the CN-resistant pathway in mitochondria From HNO cells. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase was twice as high as in the N cells as compared with the HNO cells. Immunoblots also showed that a higher alternative oxidase protein was present in HNO cells than in the N cells. A model showing the relationships between the different metabolic pathways previously studied in the HNO cells and the higher respiration via the CN-resistant pathway in the HNO cells is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of results of carotid artery surgery after either direct closure or use of a vein patch.
Desiron, Quentin ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Surgery (1997), 5(3), 295-303

In order to assess the benefit of vein patching versus direct closure after carotid endarterectomy, a series of 2271 carotid operations were analysed retrospectively. Apart from 114 procedures consisting ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the benefit of vein patching versus direct closure after carotid endarterectomy, a series of 2271 carotid operations were analysed retrospectively. Apart from 114 procedures consisting of saphenous vein bypass (n = 29) and eversion endarterectomy (n = 85), 2157 open endarterectomies were performed. They were closed either directly (n = 837) or using a vein patch (n = 1320). The combined mortality-major neurological morbidity rate was 1.7%, i.e. 1% mortality (0.2% neurological) and 0.7% permanent neurological morbidity (0.5% ipsilateral to the operated artery). Early symptomatic internal carotid thrombosis was documented in six cases (four following direct closure and two after vein patching). A total of 827 carotid arteries were followed up by duplex scanning on an annual basis (244 direct closure and 583 vein patching). The mean follow-up was 44 months; 69 months for direct closure and 35 months for vein patching. In direct closure, there were 21 stenoses (9%) and 10 occult thromboses (4%); in vein patching carotids, there were 17 stenoses (3%), nine thromboses (1.8%) [corrected] and six pseudoaneurysms (1%). Annual incidence of poor results was 2.4% in direct closure, and 0.87% in vein patching. The only other factor responsible for a significant difference was gender (3.4% in women versus 2.1% in men). In this retrospective study, vein patching appears to be beneficial for the prevention of acute postoperative thrombosis and late stenosis or thrombosis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Ricotta cheese made by high pressure treatment with that produced by heat treatment of sweet whey
Besbes, S.; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Attia, H. et al

in Sciences des Aliments (2002), 22(5), 601-615

In this study, reconstituted sweet whey was acidified and then treated by high hydrostatic pressure in order to obtain Ricotta-like product. At pH 5.2, whey protein aggregation was effective beyond 200 ... [more ▼]

In this study, reconstituted sweet whey was acidified and then treated by high hydrostatic pressure in order to obtain Ricotta-like product. At pH 5.2, whey protein aggregation was effective beyond 200 MPa for an application time of 30 min. Moist yield was appreciably improved when pressurisation time increased at 400 MPa. It seemed that granulometric properties of Ricotta-like cheese were not affected by increasing pressurisation time. Ricotta-like products obtained after pressurisation at 400 MPa for 30, 45 and 60 min, have shown a lower yield and hardness but a higher cohesiveness than traditional Ricotta cheese. They also had more homogenous granulometric profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of robust detection techniques for local outliers in multivariate spatial data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

Conference (2014, August 22)

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Spatial data may contain two types of atypical observations: global ... [more ▼]

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Spatial data may contain two types of atypical observations: global and/or local outliers. The attribute values of a global outlier are outlying with respect to the values taken by the majority of the data points while the attribute values of a local outlier are extreme when compared to those of its neighbors. Usual outlier detection techniques may be used to find global outliers as the geographical positions of the data is not taken into account in this specific search. The detection of local outliers is more complex, especially when there are more than one non spatial attributes. This talk focuses on local detection with two main objectives. First, we will shortly review some of the local detection techniques that seem to perform well in practice. Among these, one can find robust ``Mahalanobis-type'' detection techniques and a wheighted PCA approach. We suggest an adaptation to one of these to further develop its local characteristic. Then, examples and simulations, based on linear model of co-regionalisation with Matern models, are reported and discussed in order to compare in an objective way the different detection techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of rodac plates and petrifilm TM to assess the microbial contamination of food-contact surfaces : importance of additives
Deckers, Sylvie; Detry, Jean; Anceau, Christine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Food Microbiology (2008, September)

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See detailComparison of rodac plates and petrifilm™ to assess the microbial contamination of food-contract surfaces/ importance of additieves
Deckers, Sylvie; Detry, Jean; Anceau, Christine ULg et al

in STRESS RESPONSES IN THE MICROBIAL WORLD (2008, December 18)

Assessing the microbial contamination level of surfaces is critical in environments where high hygiene levels are required. This is typically the case in food and catering industries or in hospitals and ... [more ▼]

Assessing the microbial contamination level of surfaces is critical in environments where high hygiene levels are required. This is typically the case in food and catering industries or in hospitals and medical appliances. On a routine base, RODAC plates and other techniques based on microbial transfer are generally used to quantify the microbial load of a surface. There are however still polemics on the limitations and performances of these techniques arising from the fact that the initial contamination level of a surface is never known and due to the difficulty of reproducing field conditions in laboratory environments. The present study brings further information in that direction. [less ▲]

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