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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells and blood leukocytes in asthmatics according to disease severity.
Manise, Maïté ULg; Schleich, FLorence ULg; Gusbin, Natacha ULg et al

in Allergy (2010), 65(7), 889-96

BACKGROUND: Although mild to moderate asthma is known to be Th2 driven, cytokines produced in refractory asthma might not fit the classical Th2 pattern. METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Although mild to moderate asthma is known to be Th2 driven, cytokines produced in refractory asthma might not fit the classical Th2 pattern. METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess the cytokine production by sputum and blood cells from 15 refractory asthmatics (American Thoracic Society Criteria) compared to 15 mild untreated and 17 moderate treated asthmatics and 22 healthy subjects. Spontaneous production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha was measured by immunotrapping after 24 h sputum or blood cell culture. RESULTS: Moderate and refractory asthmatics were both characterized by a lower production of IL-6 from their airway cells compared to healthy subjects. However, the difference was no longer significant when expressing the results per gram of sputum. No significant difference between the three groups was found regarding other cytokines. As for cytokine production from blood, the three groups of asthmatics exhibited raised production of IL-4 when compared to healthy subjects, and this was true when results were expressed per blood volume or after normalization for total leukocyte cell count. Moderate asthmatics exhibited greater production of IL-10 when compared to refractory asthmatics and healthy subjects when results were normalized for total leukocyte cell count. CONCLUSIONS: Sputum cells from moderate and refractory asthmatics release less IL-6. While the systemic overproduction of IL-4 was observed through the all spectrum of asthma severity, moderate asthmatics exhibited greater systemic IL-10 production compared to refractory asthmatics. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells in eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic asthmatics
Quaedvlieg, Valérie ULg; Henket, Monique ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2006), 143(1), 161-166

The inflammatory pathways involved in asthma are more complex than the sole Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation. Different phenotypes of asthma have been recently highlighted and are probably ... [more ▼]

The inflammatory pathways involved in asthma are more complex than the sole Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation. Different phenotypes of asthma have been recently highlighted and are probably underlied by different immunological profiles. The aim of the study was to assess cytokine production from sputum cells in eosinophilic versus non-eosinophilic asthmatics. Induced sputum was obtained from 48 consecutive stable mild to moderate asthmatics (20 eosinophilic asthmatics, 28 non-eosinophilic asthmatics) and 31 healthy subjects. Cytokine released from sputum cells were measured by a home-made two-step sandwich immunoassay. Cytokines investigated were interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Sputum cells from eosinophilic asthmatics produced more IL-4 than those from both healthy subjects (P < 0.05) and non-eosinophilic asthmatics (P < 0.05). Conversely, sputum cells from eosinophilic asthma were found to release lower amounts of TNF-alpha than those from healthy subjects (P < 0.05). The group of non-eosinophilic asthmatics did not distinguish from healthy subjects with respect to any cytokines measured. Sputum cells from asthmatics exhibiting eosinophilic airway inflammation release more IL-4 and less TNF-alpha than those of healthy subjects. By contrast, non-eosinophilic asthmatics did not distinguish from healthy subjects by abnormal cytokine release from their sputum cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine Release and Neutrophil Activation Are Not Prevented by Heparin-Coated Circuits and Aprotinin Administration
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg; Larbuisson, Robert ULg et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2000), 69(4), 1084-91

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. This prospective trial ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiates a whole-body inflammatory response where complement and neutrophil activation and cytokine release play an important role. This prospective trial examined the effects of both heparin-coated circuits and aprotinin on the inflammatory processes during CPB, with respect to cytokine release and neutrophil activation. METHODS: Two hundred patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized in four groups of 50 patients each: heparin-coated circuit with aprotinin (HCO-A) or without aprotinin (HCO) administration, and uncoated circuit with aprotinin (C-A) or without aprotinin administration (C). In groups receiving aprotinin, a high-dose regimen was given. In all groups, high initial doses of heparin were used (3 mg/kg intravenously). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, and myeloperoxidase and elastase levels were measured in plasma samples taken before, during, and after CPB. RESULTS: In all groups, the TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 levels reached a maximum after protamine administration. After 24 hours, they remained significantly elevated (IL-6 and IL-8) or returned to baseline values (TNF-alpha). A similar pattern was observed with myeloperoxidase and elastase levels. No significant intergroup differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: CPB is associated with cytokine release and neutrophil activation, which are not attenuated by the use of heparin-coated circuits or by the administration of aprotinin. Aprotinin and heparin-coated circuits do not show additive effects. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine serum level during severe sepsis in human Il-6 as a marker of severity
Damas, Pierre ULg; Ledoux, Didier ULg; Nys, Monique ULg et al

in Annals of Surgery (1992), 215(4), 356-362

Forty critically ill surgical patients with documented infections were studied during their stay in an intensive care unit. Among these patients, 19 developed septic shock and 16 died, 9 of them from ... [more ▼]

Forty critically ill surgical patients with documented infections were studied during their stay in an intensive care unit. Among these patients, 19 developed septic shock and 16 died, 9 of them from septic shock. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured each day and every 1 or 2 hours when septic shock occurred. Although IL-1 beta was never found, TNF alpha was most often observed in the serum at a level under 100 pg/mL except during septic shock. During these acute episodes TNF alpha level reached several hundred pg/mL, but only for a few hours. In contrast, IL-6 was always increased in the serum of acutely ill patients (peak to 500,000 pg/mL). There was a direct correlation between IL-6 peak serum level and TNF alpha peak serum level during septic shock and between IL-6 serum level and temperature or C-reactive protein serum level. Moreover, IL-6 correlated well with APACHE II score, and the mortality rate increased significantly in the group of patients who presented with IL-6 serum level above 1000 pg/mL. Thus, IL-6 appears to be a good marker of severity during bacterial infection. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokines and cartilage degradation
Henrotin, Yves ULg; De Groote, D; Labasse, A et al

in Mediators of Inflammation (1995), 4

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See detailCytokines and chemokines in follicular fluids and potential of the corresponding embryo: the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating fator
Lédée, Nathalie ULg; Lombroso, R.; Lombardelli, L. et al

in Human Reproduction (2008), 23(9), 2001-9

BACKGROUND: The cytokine/chemokine levels of individual follicular fluids (FFs) were measured to determine whether a biomarker could be linked to the developmental potential of the derived embryo. METHODS ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The cytokine/chemokine levels of individual follicular fluids (FFs) were measured to determine whether a biomarker could be linked to the developmental potential of the derived embryo. METHODS: Fluid was collected from 132 individual FFs that were the source of oocytes subsequently fertilized and transferred. In each, a bead-based multiplex sandwich immunoassay (Luminex) was used to measure 28 cytokines and chemokines simultaneously. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL-2) and interferon (IFN- ) were detected in FF for embryos that underwent early cleavage. IL-12 was significantly higher in FF corresponding to highly fragmented embryos and the chemokine CCL5 was significantly higher in FF related to the best quality (Top) embryos. The level of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in individual FF samples was correlated with the implantation potential of the corresponding embryo. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, which distinguished the embryos that definitely led to delivery from those that did not, was 0.84 (0.75–0.90) (P = 0.0001) for FF G-CSF. FF G-CSF was significantly lower in patients older than 36 years compared with those <30-year old. When the FF G-CSF was 20 pg/ml or higher, the ratio between Top and non-Top embryos was significantly higher than for the group with FF G-CSF below 20 pg/ml (45 versus 20.45%, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Individual FF composition is related to the development of the corresponding in vitro generated embryo and its potential of implantation. Individual FF G-CSF may provide a non-invasive biomarker of implantation that needs to be evaluated together with in vitro observation to select the oocyte, and hence the embryo, to transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokines et choc septique
Lamy, Maurice ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1991), 146(6-7), 270

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See detailCytokines et nouveaux marqueurs inflammatoires
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Geenen, Vincent ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

Conference (1999, March 13)

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See detailCytokines in the feto-maternal relationship
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Conference (1998, September)

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See detailCytokines produced in lymph follicles.
Tsunoda, R.; Cormann, N.; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

in Immunology Letters (1989), 22(2), 129-34

The events occurring inside lymph follicles during a germinal center reaction are poorly understood. Using B and T lymphoid cell populations prepared from human tonsillar lymph follicles, and enriched or ... [more ▼]

The events occurring inside lymph follicles during a germinal center reaction are poorly understood. Using B and T lymphoid cell populations prepared from human tonsillar lymph follicles, and enriched or not in macrophages or in follicular dendritic cells, we examined the production of cytokines by these cells in vitro. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were found in the supernatants of cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen. IL-1 beta was occasionally detected; its secretion apparently depends on the origin of the tonsils, the stimulation, and the cell populations. IFN-gamma and IL-2 were not produced in significant amounts by these lymph follicle cells. IL-4 was only found in very low concentrations in the supernatant of the different cell cultures. The cell populations containing follicular dendritic cells produced more IL-6 and TNF than the others, especially than those composed of only B and T cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cytokines: a possible role in sepsis
Damas, Pierre ULg

in Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology (1991), 4(2), 241-246

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See detailCytokinin application to the shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba enhances secondary plasmodesmata formation.
Ormenese, Sandra ULg; Bernier, Georges ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Planta (2006), 224(6), 1481-4

A single application of cytokinin benzyladenine causes a threefold increase in the frequency of plasmodesmata in the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Sinapis alba plants. This increase is ... [more ▼]

A single application of cytokinin benzyladenine causes a threefold increase in the frequency of plasmodesmata in the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Sinapis alba plants. This increase is observed 20 h after application within all cell layers (L1, L2, L3) as well as at the interfaces between these layers. Evidence is presented indicating that cytokinin promotes mainly the formation of new secondary plasmodesmata. A similar increase in the frequency of secondary plasmodesmata was observed in the Sinapis SAM during the floral transition induced by a single long day, suggesting that this effect of the long day is mediated by cytokinin. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin levels in leaves, leaf exudate and shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana during floral transition
Corbesier, Laurent; Prinsen, Els; Jacqmard, Annie ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Botany (2003), 54(392), 2511-2517

Understanding the complete picture of floral transition is still impaired by the fact that physiological studies mainly concern plant species whose genetics is poorly known, and vice versa. Arabidopsis ... [more ▼]

Understanding the complete picture of floral transition is still impaired by the fact that physiological studies mainly concern plant species whose genetics is poorly known, and vice versa. Arabidopsis thaliana has been successfully used to unravel signalling pathways by genetic and molecular approaches, but analyses are still required to determine the physiological signals involved in the control of floral transition. In this work, the putative role of cytokinins was investigated using vegetative plants of Arabidopsis (Columbia) induced to flower synchronously by a single 22 h long day. Cytokinins were analysed in leaf extracts, leaf phloem exudate and in the shoot apical meristem at different times during floral transition. It was found that, in both the leaf tissues and leaf exudate, isopentenyladenine forms of cytokinins increased from 16 h after the start of the long day. At 30 h, the shoot apical meristem of induced plants contained more isopentenyladenine and zeatin than vegetative controls. These cytokinin increases correlate well with the early events of floral transition. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin modulates catalase activity and coumarin accumulation in in vitro cultures of tobacco
Petit-Paly, Geneviève; Franck, Thierry ULg; Brisson, Louise et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (1999), 155(1), 9-15

Cytokinins (CKs) represent an important class of phytohormones particularly known for their antisenescence properties that might be regulated through an effect on the oxidative metabolism. In the present ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins (CKs) represent an important class of phytohormones particularly known for their antisenescence properties that might be regulated through an effect on the oxidative metabolism. In the present work, we demonstrate the effect of CKs on catalase activity in tobacco cultivated in vitro. The catalase activity observed in suspension-cultured cells decreased slightly during the first hour of CK treatment and increased thereafter to double the level detected in untreated cells. In contrast to these results, catalase activity was inhibited in shoot cultures in which the endogenous levels of CK were elevated by the introduction of the isopentenyltransferase gene or by an exogenous feeding of CK to the cultures. Interestingly, this catalase inhibition correlated with an accumulation of scopolin, an inducible coumarin. Taken together, our results show that CK modulates (directly or undirectly) catalase activity. The inverse relationship that was always found between scopolin accumulation and catalase activity is discussed in terms of vitrification and habituation. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinin promotes flowering of Arabidopsis via transcriptional activation of the FT paralogue TSF
D'Aloia, Maria ULg; Bonhomme, Delphine ULg; Bouché, Frédéric ULg et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2011), 65

Cytokinins are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development and physiological evidence also indicates that they have a role in floral transition. In order to integrate these phytohormones into ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development and physiological evidence also indicates that they have a role in floral transition. In order to integrate these phytohormones into the current knowledge of genetically defined molecular pathways to flowering, we performed exogenous treatments of adult wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis plants and analysed the expression of candidate genes. We used a hydroponic system that enables synchronous growth and flowering of Arabidopsis and allows precise application of chemicals to the roots for defined periods of time. We show that application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) promotes flowering of plants grown in non-inductive short days. The response to cytokinin treatment does not require FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) but activates its paralogue TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), as well as FD, which encodes a partner protein of TSF, and the downstream gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1). Treatment of selected mutants confirmed that TSF and SOC1 are necessary for the flowering response to BAP while the activation cascade might partially act independently of FD. These experiments provide a mechanistic basis for the role of cytokinins in flowering and demonstrate that the redundant genes FT and TSF are differently regulated by distinct floral inducing signals. [less ▲]

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See detailA cytokinin route to flowering in Arabidopsis
Bouché, Frédéric ULg; André, Julie ULg; D'Aloia, Maria ULg et al

Poster (2011, June)

Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in many physiological processes. We observed that the application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to the roots of hydroponically grown plants of Arabidopsis thaliana promotes ... [more ▼]

Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in many physiological processes. We observed that the application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to the roots of hydroponically grown plants of Arabidopsis thaliana promotes flowering in non-inductive short days. The response to BAP treatment does no require FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), but activates its paralogue TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), as well as FD and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1) (D'Aloia et al., 2011). We present here complementary data obtained with transgenic plants overexpressing a catalytic CK OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE (CKX) in the roots. The high efficiency of BAP in promoting flowering in our experimental system contrasts with the variability that emerges from studies gathered in literature. Many factors, either experimental or inherent to plant material, might explain these discrepancies and we are interested in identifying endogenous regulators that might provide a mechanistic explanation. We are therefore investigating whether the endogenous pathways underlying plant developmental phase changes might regulate the relative contribution of CKs to flowering. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokinins and ethylene stimulate indole alkaloid accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus by two distinct mechanisms
Yahia, Abdelouahab; Kevers, Claire ULg; Gaspar, Thomas ULg et al

in Plant Science (1998), 133(1), 9-15

The interactions between cytokinins and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in a periwinkle cell line have been examined. It was found that (a) either exogenously-applied cytokinins or ethylene (the latter ... [more ▼]

The interactions between cytokinins and ethylene on alkaloid accumulation in a periwinkle cell line have been examined. It was found that (a) either exogenously-applied cytokinins or ethylene (the latter through ethephon degradation) greatly enhanced ajmalicine accumulation in cells subcultured in a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-free medium; (b) the enhancing effect of cytokinin was not mediated by enhancement of endogenous ethylene production contrary to what is found in some plant models, (c) the responses to exogenous cytokinin and ethylene were additive and showed a different pattern of expression. It may be concluded that cytokinin and ethylene can up-regulate the alkaloid production in a periwinkle cells through independent pathways when added exogenously to the cultures. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCytological and cytochemical analysis of the effects of cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (II) on chick fibroblasts cultivated in vitro.
Heinen, Ernst ULg; Bassleer, R.

in Chemotherapy (1976), 22(3-4), 253-61

Chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro and treated with cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (II) have been analysed by cytological and cytochemical methods. Morphological alterations (in the nucleoli, in ... [more ▼]

Chick embryo fibroblasts cultivated in vitro and treated with cis-dichlorodiamino platinum (II) have been analysed by cytological and cytochemical methods. Morphological alterations (in the nucleoli, in the chromatin and in the cytoplasm), inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses and of cell multiplication have been noted. Under some conditions, cells are blocked just before entering into mitosis (G2 block) and can become polyploid. A high degree of cell degeneration has also been observed. [less ▲]

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