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See detailLes copies de la "Cène" de Léonard de Vinci
Fagnart, Laure ULg

in Mounier, Pascal; Nativel, Colette (Eds.) Copier et contrefaire à la Renaissance. Faux et usage de faux. Actes du colloque organisé par R.H.R. et la S.F.D.E.S. (2014)

Cette étude participe à une réflexion sur la notion de faux et de contrefaçon à la Renaissance, quand la copie d'une image n'est pas considérée comme un faux et que sa pratique même intervient dans la ... [more ▼]

Cette étude participe à une réflexion sur la notion de faux et de contrefaçon à la Renaissance, quand la copie d'une image n'est pas considérée comme un faux et que sa pratique même intervient dans la formation artistique. A cet égard, le cas des "copies" de la "Cène" de Léonard de Vinci s'avère éclairant : aucune des nombreuses reproductions anciennes de la peinture murale n'est considérée comme autographe, aucune ne reproduit exactement l'ensemble de la composition, toutes sortes de variations étant apportées par les artistes. Aussi, peut-on s'interroger sur le statut de ces reproductions infidèles qui interprètent la "Cène" plus qu'elles ne la copient. [less ▲]

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See detailLes copies de la "Cène" de Léonard de Vinci
Fagnart, Laure ULg

Scientific conference (2008, February 23)

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See detailThe coping strategies to fight against the food insecurity in the Republic of Niger
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Poster (2013, June 06)

During the last decade, the Niger’s population has been affected by the food crisis (2001, 2004-2005, 2008, 2010-2011). Each year, she is subjected to many structural and temporary shocks. The structural ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, the Niger’s population has been affected by the food crisis (2001, 2004-2005, 2008, 2010-2011). Each year, she is subjected to many structural and temporary shocks. The structural shocks are caused by the chronicle difficulties (income) while the temporary shocks are tied at the "natural" disasters such as the hydrometeorological disasters, demographic crisis. The risk that the people fall in a state of food insecurity because of structural and temporary shocks is characterized by food vulnerability. The food vulnerability is defined as “the analysis of coping strategies and reactions faced with the structural or/and temporary shocks, if the coping strategies are not effectives, the people have in a temporary or structural food vulnerability” (Andres L. and Lebailly Ph., 2011). The target of this paper is to demonstrate the diversity of coping strategies in the different departments of Niger. The database is created as from an annual survey realized by the Early Alert System (EAS) and the Statistical National Institute of Niger (INS). This survey characterizes the state of food insecurity of households of Niger. The investigations of the household are based on stratified sampling. It exists two levels: region and enumeration areas. The investigations of the household are based from the database of the population census of 2001. This population census has determined the “enumeration areas”. These “enumeration areas” are defined as a “geographical area of 200 households on average” (INS, 2007). The sample of this investigation is established from a significant sample a point of view of the departments of Niger. The time period studied is spread the 2008 at 2011. The results have demonstrated that the departments of Tchintarabaden, Abalak, Tessaoua and Magaria have weakest number of collective meals, and the highest percentage of household practicing of selling the goods and land. Furthermore, the Niger’s population develops many strategies to struggle against the shocks. [less ▲]

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See detailCoping with cold: The genome of the versatile marine Antarctica bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125
Medigue, C.; Krin, E.; Pascal, G. et al

in Genome Research (2005), 15(10), 1325-1335

A considerable fraction of life develops in the sea at temperatures lower than 15 degrees C. Little is known about the adaptive features selected under those conditions. We present the analysis of the ... [more ▼]

A considerable fraction of life develops in the sea at temperatures lower than 15 degrees C. Little is known about the adaptive features selected under those conditions. We present the analysis of the genome Sequence of the fast growing Antarctica bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. We find that it copes with the increased Solubility of oxygen at low temperature by multiplying dioxygen scavenging while deleting whole pathways producing reactive oxygen species. Dioxygen-consuming lipid desaturases achieve both protection against oxygen and synthesis of lipids making the membrane fluid. A remarkable strategy for avoidance of reactive oxygen species generation is developed by A haloplanktis, with elimination of the ubiquitous molybdopterin-dependent metabolism. The A haloplanktis proteome reveals a concerted amino acid usage bias specific to psychrophiles, consistently appearing apt to accommodate asparagine, a residue prone to make proteins age. Adding to its originality, A haloplanktis further differs from its marine Counterparts with recruitment of a plasmid origin of replication for its second chromosome. [less ▲]

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See detailCoping with Desertification : Migration as a Forced Choice and a Livelihood Strategy
Gemenne, François ULg

in Ozer, André; Swinne, Danielle (Eds.) Desertification : Migration, Health, Remediation and Local Governance (2008)

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See detailCoping with mild inflammatory catamenial acne: a clinical and bioinstrumental split-face assessment.
Petit, Ludivine; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Skin Research & Technology (2004), 10(4), 278-82

BACKGROUND: Acne is a multifactorial disease exhibiting distinct clinical presentations. Among them, the catamenial type is a matter of concern for young women. Some oral contraceptives may help without ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Acne is a multifactorial disease exhibiting distinct clinical presentations. Among them, the catamenial type is a matter of concern for young women. Some oral contraceptives may help without, however, clearing the skin condition. AIM: The present open study aimed at evaluating the effect of overnight applications of a paste made of petrolatum,15% zinc oxide and 0.25% miconazole nitrate. METHOD: The split-face trial was conducted in 35 women. A non-medicated cream was used as control. Clinical evaluations and biometrological assessments on cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies were performed monthly for 3 months. Comedometry and the density in autofluorescent follicular casts were used as analytical parameters. In addition, the five most severe cases at inclusion were tested at the completion of the study for follicular bacterial viability using dual flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared with baseline and to the control hemi-face, the medicated paste brought significant improvement of acne. The number of papules and their redness were reduced beginning with the first treatment phase. A reduction in the follicular fluorescence was yielded beginning with the second treatment phase. The ratios between injured and dead bacteria, on the one hand, and live bacteria, on the other hand were significantly increased at completion of the study. CONCLUSION: A miconazole paste applied for 1 week at the end of the ovarian cycle has a beneficial effect on catamenial acne. [less ▲]

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See detailCoping with Minority Status: Responses to Exclusion and Inclusion
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Contemporary Sociology: a Journal of Reviews (2011), 40(2), 158-159

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See detailCopolymerization of vinyl acetate with 1-octene and ethylene by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization
Bryaskova, Rayna ULg; Willet, Nicolas ULg; Degée, Philippe et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2007), 45(12), 2532-2542

The cobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate was extended to copolymerization with I-alkenes (ethylene or 1-octene). In agreement with the low amount of I-alkene that could be incorporated ... [more ▼]

The cobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate was extended to copolymerization with I-alkenes (ethylene or 1-octene). In agreement with the low amount of I-alkene that could be incorporated into the copolymer, a gradient structure was predictable, but a. rather low polydispersity was observed. A poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(octene) copolymer was also successfully synthesized, leading to a poly (vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(octene) amphiphilic copolymer upon the methanolysis of the poly (vinyl acetate) block. [less ▲]

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See detailCopolymers of epsilon-caprolactone and quaternized epsilon-caprolactone as gene carriers
Vroman, Benoît; Mazza, Michaël; Fernandez, Manuela R et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2007), 118(1), 136-144

New copolymers of E-caprolactone (CL) and gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone quaternized by pyridine (Py + CL) were investigated as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Copolymers with two molar ... [more ▼]

New copolymers of E-caprolactone (CL) and gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone quaternized by pyridine (Py + CL) were investigated as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Copolymers with two molar compositions (50 Py + CL/50 CL and 80 Py + CL/20 CL), each with a diblock or a random structure, were used to prepare nanoparticulate complexes with DNA. Average size and surface charge of the complexes and extent of the complexation were measured. The DNA condensation by the copolymers was analysed by a gel retardation assay. Cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of the copolymers were also evaluated in HeLa cells and compared with polyethylenimme 50 kDa. The size of the polyplexes was approximately 200 nm. The zeta potential first increased with the copolymer/DNA charge ratio and became positive for charge ratios in the 2-4 range depending on the type of copolymer. DNA was completely condensed within the nanoparticles and the degree of interaction was very high. Cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency were found to be comparable to polyethylenimine 50 kDa. The experimental results suggest that the novel copolymers can be used as novel gene delivery vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper And Vegetation At The Kansanshi Hill (Zambia) Copper Mine
Leteinturier, B.; Baker, Ajm.; Bock, Laurent ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Botany (2001), 134(1),

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See detailCopper bromide complexed by fluorinated macroligands: towards microspheres by ATRP of vinyl monomers in scCO2
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg et al

in Chemical Communications (2008), (3), 314-316

We report the successful synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by atom transfer radical polymerization using a catalyst ligated to a polymeric ligand having a dual role, i.e., the complexation of ... [more ▼]

We report the successful synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by atom transfer radical polymerization using a catalyst ligated to a polymeric ligand having a dual role, i.e., the complexation of the copper salt and the stabilization of the growing PMMA particles; at the end of the polymerization, the catalyst is removed by supercritical fluid extraction leading to PMMA microspheres with low residual catalyst content. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper endemism in the Congolese flora: a database of copper affinity and conservational value of cuprophytes.
Faucon, M. P.; Meerseman, A.; Shuta, A. et al

in Plant Ecology and Evolution (2010), 143

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See detailCopper extraction from scrap cables by biotechnological means
Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Bastin, David ULg; Bareel, Pierre-François

in Proceedings of the XXV International Mineral Processing Congress (2010, September)

The papaer reports on laboratory results regarding bio leaching of metallic copper from cable-bearing scraps derived from recycling of end-of-life vehicles. The copper has been met in pure form as ... [more ▼]

The papaer reports on laboratory results regarding bio leaching of metallic copper from cable-bearing scraps derived from recycling of end-of-life vehicles. The copper has been met in pure form as irregular shaped wires often coated with tin. The complex nature of the material renders both gravity and physicochemical separation unsuitable for efficient copper separation. Hence a bacterially assisted leaching with mixed consortium of mesophylic microorganisms has been tested for recevery of the remaining copper. Continuous adaptation of the cultures to the substrate has been envisaged in order to guarantee sufficient degree of ferric iron regeneration by bacteria during leaching. It has been established that under optimal leaching conditions such as acid consumption, pulp density, pH and temperature, it is possible to recover nearly 98 % of the copper in solution within acceptable leaching duration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe copper flora of Katanga: a phytogeographical analysis
Leteinturier, B.; Malaisse, François ULg

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2000), 23(1-4),

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See detailCOPPER LEACHING FROM WASTE ELECTRIC CABLES BY BIOHYDROMETALLURGY
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg et al

in Minerals Engineering (2015)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper phthalocyanine blue pigments in conservation
Defeyt, Catherine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

The phthalocyanine family, and more specifically the copper phthalocyanines (CuPcs) are the most important blue and green artists’ pigments from the end of the 20th century. This thesis focuses on the ... [more ▼]

The phthalocyanine family, and more specifically the copper phthalocyanines (CuPcs) are the most important blue and green artists’ pigments from the end of the 20th century. This thesis focuses on the CuPc blue pigments used in the artists’ paint formulations. CuPc blue extensive use as modern artists’ pigment and its implications in conservation science are pointed out. Their discovery, chemical composition, molecular structure and general properties are also reviewed. Additionally, the polymorphism and the influence of the crystal form on the final properties of the phthalo blue pigments are discussed. A methodology using non-destructive techniques and statistical analysis is then presented. This new procedure allows the identification of the CuPc crystal form in paint layers and is suitable for artwork analysis. Some CuPc polymorphs are prone to crystallization defects in presence of aromatic solvents, leading to a reduction of color strength and a shift in hue. Crystallization resistance of the CuPc polymorphs has then been assessed by means of crystallization tests performed on dry pigments and on paint films. Case studies are then presented. La famille Soler by Picasso has been studied by imaging and non-invasive analytical techniques. The successive underlying compositions have been revealed and the pigments used for the different compositions have been characterized. Then micro-samples taken from Delvaux’s paintings and Francis and Lichtenstein’s studio paints have been analyzed to characterize the blue pigments preferred by these artists. The crystal form of the phthalo blue pigments identified from four micro-samples taken from two Léger and Pechstein fake paintings have been investigated as well. Finally, the historic phthalo blue samples from the Getty Conservation Institute Reference Collection have been studied. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper recovery from waste electric cables by biohydrometallurgy
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper tolerance and accumulation in two cuprophytes of South Central Africa: Crepidorhopalon perennis and C. tenuis (Linderniaceae)
Faucon, Michel-Pierre; Chipeng, François; Verbruggen, Nathalie et al

in Environmental & Experimental Botany (2012)

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See detailCopper tolerance in the cuprophyte Haumaniastrum katangense (S. Moore) P.A. Duvign. & Plancke
Chipeng, François; Hermans, Christian; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2010), 328(1-2), 235-244

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (14 ULg)