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See detailComparative study of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve of four mammals: man, dog, horse and cattle
Clerbaux, Th; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Detry, B et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A : Comparative Physiology (1993), 106A(4), 687-694

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See detailComparative study of the red and violet systems of cyanogen bands.
King, Arthur S.; Swings, Polydore ULg

in Astrophysical Journal (1945), 101

Comparison of bands belonging to the violet and red systems of CN showed that in emission the (1, 0) band λ 7873 (red system) is stronger than the (0, 0) band λ 3883 (violet system) at temperatures of the ... [more ▼]

Comparison of bands belonging to the violet and red systems of CN showed that in emission the (1, 0) band λ 7873 (red system) is stronger than the (0, 0) band λ 3883 (violet system) at temperatures of the electric furnace below 2300° C. Approximate equality of the main structure of the two bands is attained at 2300° C; λ 3883 becomes somewhat stronger than λ 7873 at 2600° C. At the high temperature, approximately 7300° C, of the carbon arc in air, the λ 3883 band is about two hundred times stronger than the λ 7873 band. Self-reversal appears easily in the violet band, but not in the red. The two systems react differently to a change in pressure, the red system increasing in intensity more rapidly than the violet when the pressure increases. In absorption, the (0, 0) and (1, 0) bands of the red system are much weaker than the violet bands at any temperature of the furnace. A list of the stronger absorption lines of the λ 7873 band is given. The relative intensities of the two systems in emission in the electric furnace at different temperatures and in the arc are explained by the Boltzmann populations of the upper levels in thermodynamic equilibrium. These populations differ strongly because the upper electronic level, A2Π, of the red system is much lower (e.p., 1.35 v.) than the upper level, B2∑, of the violet system (3.2 v.). From the equal intensity of the strongest lines of the two systems in emission at T = 2300° C, an approximate value of 1400 is found for the ratio of the emission transition probabilities of the strongest violet lines to those of the strongest red lines. The corresponding estimated value of the ratio of the absorption transition probabilities is 87.5, explaining the weakness of the red system in absorption in the laboratory. These considerations show that the red bands of CN should not be expected in fluorescence in comets and that previous identifications must be revised accordingly. No line of the red system of CN will be found in interstellar absorption. The intensity of the red bands in absorption in certain carbon stars in which the violet bands are weak indicates that the atmospheres of these stars have much less continuous absorption in the red than in the violet. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of the red and violet systems of cyanogen bands.
King, Arthur-S.; Swings, Polydore ULg

in Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory (1945), 700

Comparison of bands belonging to the violet and red systems of CN showed that in emission the (1, 0) band λ 7873 (red system) is stronger than the (0, 0) band λ 3883 (violet system) at temperatures of the ... [more ▼]

Comparison of bands belonging to the violet and red systems of CN showed that in emission the (1, 0) band λ 7873 (red system) is stronger than the (0, 0) band λ 3883 (violet system) at temperatures of the electric furnace below 2300° C. Approximate equality of the main structure of the two bands is attained at 2300° C; λ 3883 becomes somewhat stronger than λ 7873 at 2600° C. At the high temperature, approximately 7300° C, of the carbon arc in air, the λ 3883 band is about two hundred times stronger than the λ 7873 band. Self-reversal appears easily in the violet band, but not in the red. The two systems react differently to a change in pressure, the red system increasing in intensity more rapidly than the violet when the pressure increases. In absorption, the (0, 0) and (1, 0) bands of the red system are much weaker than the violet bands at any temperature of the furnace. A list of the stronger absorption lines of the λ 7873 band is given. The relative intensities of the two systems in emission in the electric furnace at different temperatures and in the arc are explained by the Boltzmann populations of the upper levels in thermodynamic equilibrium. These populations differ strongly because the upper electronic level, A2Π, of the red system is much lower (e.p., 1.35 v.) than the upper level, B2∑, of the violet system (3.2 v.). From the equal intensity of the strongest lines of the two systems in emission at T = 2300° C, an approximate value of 1400 is found for the ratio of the emission transition probabilities of the strongest violet lines to those of the strongest red lines. The corresponding estimated value of the ratio of the absorption transition probabilities is 87.5, explaining the weakness of the red system in absorption in the laboratory. These considerations show that the red bands of CN should not be expected in fluorescence in comets and that previous identifications must be revised accordingly. No line of the red system of CN will be found in interstellar absorption. The intensity of the red bands in absorption in certain carbon stars in which the violet bands are weak indicates that the atmospheres of these stars have much less continuous absorption in the red than in the violet. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of the reproductive characteristics of XY male and hormonally sex-reversed XX male Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis
Rougeot, Carole ULg; Nicayenzi, F.; Mandiki, S. N. et al

in theriogenology (2004), 62(5), 790-800

In order to compare the reproductive capacity of XY male versus XX male (neomales) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), we determined the sperm quality (sperm concentration and motility) and reproductive ... [more ▼]

In order to compare the reproductive capacity of XY male versus XX male (neomales) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), we determined the sperm quality (sperm concentration and motility) and reproductive characteristics such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), fertilization rate and sex steroid levels (testosterone, T; 17 beta-estradiol, E2 and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) during the reproductive season. Median GSI was not significantly different between XY males (7.9%) and XX males (7.5%). Fertilization rates ranged between 30.0 and 98.0%. Sperm concentration ranged between 27.9 x 10(9) and 42.0 x 10(9) spermatozoa ml(-1). Median level of T, 11KT and E2 levels increased in the middle of the reproductive season (2136.0, 2409.0 and 3252.0 pg ml(-1), respectively) and decreased at the end (1657.0, 2006.6 and 431.0 pg ml(-1) respectively). Sperm motility was assessed by CASA and expressed by the curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), percentage of motile sperm (% MOT) and motile concentration (MOC). Overall, there were not any significant differences between XY and XX males. In conclusion, no differences of reproductive capacities were observed between XY males and XX males suggesting that the last can be crossed with females to improve the productivity of Eurasian perch by producing all-female stock. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study of the ‘architect-friendliness’ of six building performance simulation tools
Weytjens, Lieve; Attia, Shady ULg; Verbeeck, Griet et al

in Proceedings of Sustainable Buildings CIB 2010 (2010, October 11)

Concerning net zero energy buildings, providing early design support for architects has never been more important. In this context, building performance simulation tools could be a strong supportive ... [more ▼]

Concerning net zero energy buildings, providing early design support for architects has never been more important. In this context, building performance simulation tools could be a strong supportive technique, when integrated early in the architectural design process. However, despite the available range of tools, most of them do not meet the architects’ requirements. To identify this gap, this study compared the ‘architect-friendliness’ of six state-of-the-art simulation tools, to highlight the architects’ requirements for these tools and to develop guidelines for researchers and tool developers. The examined tools included ECOTECT, IES/VE – Sketch-Up, Energy10, eQuest, HEED, and Design Builder. The analysis was based on an extensive list of criteria defining the user-friendliness of tools from an architect’s point of view. The results show that no single tool is entirely adequate to assist the architect’s decision-making process. One of the major limitations is the poor communication and visualization of the output results. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study of the ‘architect-friendliness’ of six building performance simulation tools
Attia, Shady ULg; Weytjens, Lieve; De Herde, André et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development (2012), 2(3), 237-244

Concerning net zero energy buildings, providing early design support for architects has never been more important. In this context, building performance simulation tools could be a strong supportive ... [more ▼]

Concerning net zero energy buildings, providing early design support for architects has never been more important. In this context, building performance simulation tools could be a strong supportive technique, when integrated early in the architectural design process. However, despite the available range of tools, most of them do not meet the architects' requirements. To identify this gap, this study compared the ‘architect-friendliness’ of six state-of-the-art simulation tools, to highlight the architects' requirements for these tools and to develop guidelines for researchers and tool developers. The examined tools included ECOTECT, IES/VE – Sketch-Up, Energy10, eQuest, HEED, and Design Builder. The analysis was based on an extensive list of criteria defining the user-friendliness of tools from an architect's point of view. The results show that no single tool is entirely adequate to assist the architect's decision-making process. One of the major limitations is the poor communication and visualization of the output results. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of thermal and structural behaviour of four industrial lauric fats
Anihouvi, Prudent; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Dombrée, A et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2013), 6(12), 3381-3391

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See detailComparative Study of Tilidine-Naloxone and Pentazocine in Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis
Van Cauwenberge, Henry ULg; Ruhwiedel, M.; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research (1992), 12(1), 1-9

Fifty patients, twenty-five suffering from severe knee osteoarthritis and twenty-five from acute hip osteoarthritis, received pentazocine or a new preparation of tilidine-naloxone for a period of 2 weeks ... [more ▼]

Fifty patients, twenty-five suffering from severe knee osteoarthritis and twenty-five from acute hip osteoarthritis, received pentazocine or a new preparation of tilidine-naloxone for a period of 2 weeks, in a double-blind study. The two drugs were found to have the same efficacy and tolerance in both diseases with a minor but not statistically significant superiority for tilidine-naloxone. Similar quantities of drugs were taken over the study period, while patients were allowed to take as many as 8 capsules per day to relieve pain. There were quite equivalent side-effects and no marked changes in laboratory tests. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study of triaxial and uniaxial magnetic shields made out of YBCO coated conductors
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Levin, George et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

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See detailComparative study of twenty nine non parametric interaction tests in two-way layouts
Van Belle, Laurent; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Multiciência (2001), 4(2), 179-196

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See detailComparative study of two diagnostic methods of bovine leukosis : hématology and immunodiffusion.
Mammerickx, Marc; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Kettmann, Richard ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1976), 1

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See detailComparative study of typical neuroleptics, clozapine and newly synthesized clozapine-analogues: correlations between neurochemistry and behaviour.
Bruhwyler, J.; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Chleide, E. et al

in Behavioural pharmacology (1992), 3(6), 567-579

While neuroleptic therapy with classical compounds has frequently been associated with extrapyramidal side effects, clozapine has revealed an interesting antipsychotic profile without producing any ... [more ▼]

While neuroleptic therapy with classical compounds has frequently been associated with extrapyramidal side effects, clozapine has revealed an interesting antipsychotic profile without producing any clearcut motor side effects. However, some adverse reactions remained that stimulated the search for improved antipsychotic agents. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavioural and neurochemical profiles of typical neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, haloperidol), clozapine, and four newly synthesized clozapine-analogues. Affinity for dopaminergic (D1,D2), serotonergic (5-HT(2)) and cholinergic (muscarinic) receptors were measured and the ratios of these different binding affinities were determined and correlated with the behavioural effects of the drugs in a complex temporal regulation task in the dog. The four clozapine-analogues showed most of the behavioural characteristics previously described for neuroleptics and their neurochemical profile, particularly their 5-HT(2)/D2 pKi ratio, was compatible with an atypical antipsychotic effect. Among these drugs, JL5 and JL13 showed a high degree of similarity with clozapine. Like clozapine, they did not induce catalepsy and stereotypy/hyperkinesia. Moreover, other motor effects were also reduced (ataxia, akinesia, dystony). and tremor and sialorrhea were completely absent with these two molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of volatile secondary metabolite of Cistus libanotis during different process
Zidane, H.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Sindic, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (2014), 6(8), 281-287

Chemical composition of the essential oils of Cistus libanotis from eastern Morocco (Tafoughalt and Jerrada) extracted from different season was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The hydro-distilled essential ... [more ▼]

Chemical composition of the essential oils of Cistus libanotis from eastern Morocco (Tafoughalt and Jerrada) extracted from different season was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from 0, 27 % to 0, 46%, the maximum amounts were observed in summer while minimum in winter for Tafoughalt, whereas the oil obtained from Jerrada had the highest yield (0, 61 %). The essential oils consisted of terpineol-4 as the most abundant component (18, 70 % - 24, 91 %), followed by γ-terpinene (9, 82 % - 12, 25 %), camphene (5, 86 % - 13, 58 %), sabinene (7, 86 % - 9, 89 %) and α-thujene (6, 92 % - 10, 12 %). Samples collected in all seasons were found to be richer in monoterpenes hydrocarbons (52, 68 % - 57, 59 %). None sesquiterpene hydrocarbons found in the oils from summer and autumn. Drying period of leaves at normal air laboratory and distillation time also affect the oil content and composition. There was variation in terpineol-4 content from 22, 23 % (4th day of drying) to 19, 27 % (29th day of drying), and from 35, 60 % (1 hour of distillation) to 24, 17 % (4 hours of distillation). It can be concluded that the harvesting season, period of drying and the time of distillation had an effect on the yield of essential oil and chemical composition of various compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparative Study of “Elastic-Plastic” and “Plastic-Plastic” Design of Steel Frames
Mergny, Elke ULg; Kaddouri, Noreddine; Vassart, Olivier et al

Scientific conference (2014, September)

The design of metallic structures is governed by construction standards such as the Eurocodes, developed in the 80s with the aim of harmonizing design and calculation procedures in Europe. As far as ... [more ▼]

The design of metallic structures is governed by construction standards such as the Eurocodes, developed in the 80s with the aim of harmonizing design and calculation procedures in Europe. As far as industrial halls are concerned, there is a lack of detailed recommendations about the methods to use for the calculation of internal forces. Several design methods exist, taking into account – or not – the existence of plastic hinges and the redistribution of internal forces. One of these methods, which is used by the majority of continental European structural engineers, is based on a global elastic analysis of the structure and is sometimes called “The French method”. It considers that both the structure and the cross sections behave elastically, with no plastic hinges, and thus no redistribution of internal forces. The Eurocodes then allow the plastic cross-sectional resistance to be considered within the results of the elastic global analysis, on the condition that the section class is a class 1 or class 2 (one could also talk about “Elastic-Plastic” design). This method thus considers that failure happens at the birth of the first hinge. If the section class is a class 3 or 4, one will talk about the ‘Elastic-Elastic” design. Another method, not usually used in continental Europe, is nevertheless particularly developed by the British Standards and some other Anglo-Saxon standards: it is based on a plastic analysis of the structure in order to calculate the internal forces, and is sometimes called "The British method”. It takes advantage of the possible redistribution of internal forces, considering the rotation due to the formation of plastic hinges (one could also talk about “Plastic-Plastic” design). The “Plastic-Plastic” design does not consider that failure appears at the formation of the first hinge. Indeed, the approach consists in applying the load incrementally and assumes that the structural elements behave elastically until one of their cross sections reaches the maximum value of the plastic moment capacity. This results in a redistribution of the moments, without necessarily reaching a collapse mechanism. The “Elastic-Plastic” design will usually lead to heavier and thus more expensive structures. However, when deflections govern design rather than ultimate resistance, there is less advantage in using “Plastic-Plastic” design, as far as it allows larger deflections. In this work, a comparative study was performed, considering a large range of industrial halls. The study is based on the development of software which allows the determination of different collapse loads given by each method. The study was also performed using commercial software based on shell elements. Finally, a deformation criterion was introduced to evaluate the effective usefulness of the “Plastic-Plastic” design. This paper will thus compare both methods (“Elastic-Plastic” and “Plastic-Plastic”) and summarize the advantages and disadvantages they provide, for a large range of steel frames. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study on optimum insulation thickness of walls and energy savings in equatorial and tropical climate
Kameni Nematchoua, Modeste; Ricciardi, Paola; Reiter, Sigrid ULg et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment (2017)

The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well ... [more ▼]

The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well that energy supply does not always satisfy demand. Thermal insulation technology can be one of the leading methods for reducing energy consumption in these new buildings. However, choosing the thickness of the insulation material often causes high insulation costs. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving and payback period were calculated for buildings in Yaounde´ and Garoua cities, located in two climatic regions in Cameroon. The economic model including the cost of insulation material and the present value of energy consumption and the cost over a life time of 22 years of the building, were used to find the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving, and payback period. Materials that extruded polystyrene were chosen and used for two typical wall structures (concrete block (HCB) and compressed stabilized earth block wall (CSEB)). The early cooling transmission loads, according to wall orientations and percentage of radiation blocked were calculated using the explicit finite-difference method under steady periodic conditions. As a result, it was found that the west- and east-facing walls are the least favourite in the cooling season, whereas the south and north orientations are the most economical. Although wall orientation had a significant effect on the optimum insulation thickness, it had a more significant effect on energy savings. In equatorial region (Yaounde´), for south orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.08 m for an energy savings of 51.69 $/m2. Meanwhile, in tropical region (Garoua), for north orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.11 m for an energy savings of 97.82 $/m2. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study on sound production in different Holocentridae species
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg; Brié, Christophe et al

in Frontiers in Zoology (2011), 8

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See detailA comparative study on the ecology of the black howler monkey living in limestone karst hills and in a riparian forest in Belize
Trolliet, Franck ULg; Evans, Kayley; Kowalzik, Barbara et al

Conference (2010, October 11)

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See detailComparative study on the enantioseparation of glutethimide using dual cyclodextrin systems and cyclodextrin modified MEKC in capillary electrophoresis
Abushoffa, Adel M.; Burjanadze, Naira; Blaschke, Gottfried et al

in Journal of Separation Science (2002), 25(1-2), 10-16

In order to critically evaluate the potential of dual cyclodextrin (CD) systems in CE, enantioseparation of the neutral chiral analyte glutethimide (GT) was performed using: a) charged CDs; b ... [more ▼]

In order to critically evaluate the potential of dual cyclodextrin (CD) systems in CE, enantioseparation of the neutral chiral analyte glutethimide (GT) was performed using: a) charged CDs; b) combinations of charged and neutral CDs (dual CD systems), and c) CD-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MECK). The results of this comparative study indicate that properly designed dual CD systems may in certain cases represent a valuable alternative to CD-MEKC and electrokinetic chromatography involving charged CDs for enantioseparation of neutral analytes. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study, by stimulation, of bull and cow evaluation methods
Leroy, Pascal ULg

in 32nd Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Zagreb, 1981 (1981)

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)