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See detailComparison between thermographic and holographic techniques for nondestructive testing of composites: similarities, differences and potential cross-fertilization
Georges, Marc ULg

in Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando (Ed.) SPECKLE 2015: VI International Conference on Speckle Metrology (2015, August)

Thermography and different variants of holography (holographic interferometry, speckle interferometry, shearography) are full-field non-contact techniques which are used in nondestructive testing ... [more ▼]

Thermography and different variants of holography (holographic interferometry, speckle interferometry, shearography) are full-field non-contact techniques which are used in nondestructive testing applications. In particular they are attractive for damage detection in composite materials compared to other methods measuring in one point and which require scanning and contact with the samples, like ultrasounds. Currently thermography is a step forward compared to holographic techniques for this application. Indeed it is easier to interpret. Many thermography configurations and variants exist, from exciting sources to post-processing. Such a variety exists also among the holographic techniques but to a less extent. We will see how these techniques can share some aspects and what distinguish them. Also the complementarity of both will be addressed and how to combine them. At last we will discuss how processing developed for thermography can benefit to holography and vice-versa, specifically in the domain of composite materials. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between three therapeutic strategies in the bovine respiratory disease complex
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Coghe, J.; Borceux, J. P. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2002), 443

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See detailComparison between Three- and Four-Element Windkessel Models to Characterize Vascular Properties of Pulmonary Circulation
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Gérard, Paul ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1997), 105(7), 625-32

In 11 anaesthetised pigs the accuracy of the three-element (WK3) and the four-element (WK4) Windkessel models to describe hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary circulation was compared during six ... [more ▼]

In 11 anaesthetised pigs the accuracy of the three-element (WK3) and the four-element (WK4) Windkessel models to describe hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary circulation was compared during six different experimental conditions increasing pulmonary arterial pressure: increase in left atrial pressure, increase in alveolar pressure, increase in pulmonary blood flow, endotoxin shock, mechanical obstruction of left pulmonary artery or histamine infusion. Our results showed that WK4 fitted better the data than did WK3 because values of 1-R2 decreased from 6 percent (WK3) to 1.4 percent (WK4) when WK4 was used (P < 0.0005). 1-R2 was an adequate marker of the accuracy of the linear regression used to solve equations of both models. Compliance values estimated by WK4 were decreased by 5% comparatively to WK3 (P = 0.008). However, this difference can be considered as not physiologically relevant. Values of characteristic resistance corresponding to R1 + (L/R2C) in WK4 and to R1 in WK3 were not different (P = 0.22). The relative changes in R1, R2, and C observed due to the different experimental conditions were comparable regardless of the model. In conclusion, the conversion of WK3 in WK4 by adding an inductance, whose physiological meaning is not clear, resulted in an increased statistical accuracy of the model, but did not seem to have relevant influence on parameters or their evolution during experimental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between transrectal ultrasonography and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein determination for early pregnancy diagnosis in the goat
Quesada, E; Gonzalez, F; Calero, P et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(4), 247

The aim of the present workwas to compare the efficiency of transrectal ultrasonography technique and the determination of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) concentrations in plasma samples for ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present workwas to compare the efficiency of transrectal ultrasonography technique and the determination of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) concentrations in plasma samples for pregnancy diagnosis in goats. Thirty nine Canary goats were synchronized and naturally mated every 12 hours throughout oestrous. Blood samples were collected on days 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 and transrectal ultrasonography was carried out on days 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 (Day 0¼day of the last mating). PAG concentrations were analysed by a RIA method previously validated. There were 23 pregnant goats (10 single and 13 multiple pregnancies) and 16 nonpregnant goats. The pregnancy diagnosis was a little earlier by PAG determination than transrectal ultrasonography (sensitivity: 95 and 91% on Day 24 and 100 and 96% on Day 26, respectively). The ultrasonography allowed to discriminate between single and multiple pregnancies in 70% of goats (16/23) on Day 28 of pregnancy. The PAG concentrations were significantly higher in multiple than single pregnancies from Day 19 onwards, suggesting that it could also be used as a tool to discriminate between single and multiple gestations. (Supported by D.G. de Universidades del Gobierno de Canarias). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between two intraoperative intravenous loading doses of paracetamol on pain after minor hand surgery: two grams versus one gram.
Cornesse, D.; Senard, M.; HANS, Grégory ULg et al

in Acta chirurgica Belgica (2010), 110(5), 529-32

BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is widely used for postoperative analgesia at a recommended dose of 1 g every six hours in adult patients. Increasing the loading dose to 2 g was suggested to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is widely used for postoperative analgesia at a recommended dose of 1 g every six hours in adult patients. Increasing the loading dose to 2 g was suggested to improve immediate postoperative analgesia without increased toxicity in healthy adult patients. We tested the hypothesis that a loading dose of 2 g of intravenous paracetamol results in better postoperative analgesia after surgery as compared with a dose of 1 g. METHODS: Sixty adult patients scheduled for minor hand surgery under intravenous regional anaesthesia were randomized into two groups. The first group received 1 g of intravenous paracetamol before surgery while the second group received 2 g. Verbal numeric pain score, analgesic consumption, first night sleep quality, and patient's satisfaction were recorded during the first 24 hours. RESULTS: Verbal numeric pain scores during the first 24 hours after surgery were significantly lower in the 2 g paracetamol group as compared to the 1 g paracetamol group. No differences were found between the two groups with regard to rescue analgesic consumption, sleep quality and patient's satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: An intraoperative loading dose of 2 g paracetamol improves postoperative analgesia after minor hand surgery as compared to 1 g paracetamol. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between various methods for the evaluation of the fire resistance of concrete filled hollow steel columns
Fellah, Farid; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Seridi, Ahcène et al

in Proceeding of the Romanian Academy. Series A, Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science (2011), 12(4), 324-331

Hollow steel columns filled with bar-reinforced concrete are used extensively in the construction of high-rise buildings. Many research works devoted to the fire resistance of these profiles have been ... [more ▼]

Hollow steel columns filled with bar-reinforced concrete are used extensively in the construction of high-rise buildings. Many research works devoted to the fire resistance of these profiles have been performed in Europe and in North America. Though calculation methods are now proposed in codes, more practical tools are needed by the design engineers. It is not easy to develop such methods due to the large scatter of experimental results. In this article three methods based on quite different procedures are examined. Comparisons have been made between the results obtained by the three methods and test results. The potentialities of each method are examined, but also the domains in which they should be used with care, or even they should not be used. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between VeinoPlus Sport and TENS on the recovery on young soccer players
God, Maxime; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Evrard, Frédéric et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2015, September), 3(Suppl 1), 106

Introduction Every physical activity is tiresome for the body; muscles produce metabolites and lactic acid which limit its working ability. It is then necessary to efficiently and quickly recover after ... [more ▼]

Introduction Every physical activity is tiresome for the body; muscles produce metabolites and lactic acid which limit its working ability. It is then necessary to efficiently and quickly recover after the effort. In fact, a bad recovery could bring prejudice to the following performance and the athlete's physical state. Active recovery and balneotherapy together with new techniques such as cryotherapy and electro stimulation are upcoming tools to recover better. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of 2 types of electro stimulator : « VeinoPlus Sport » (VPS) and « TENS » on amateur soccer players after Yo-Yo-type effort. Material and methods In an identical context, each athlete (20 soccer players; average age 17,1 ± 0,79) benefited from VPS and TENS during 2 different treatment sessions after 2 Yo-Yo-type efforts. Four blood samples were taken (lactate, blood gases, ions, cardiac markers,...) and an explosiveness Myotest evaluation was conducted respectively before effort, just after effort, after recovery, and after the second effort. A questionnaire on the fatigue state was filled out by each athlete. For the statistical analysis, we used the Anova algorithm of the StatPlus system and a Scheffé test. Results All athletes have ran a greater distance in their second effort especially in the VPS group but differences were insignificant. The test lead to a significant variation of lactate, HCO3- ions and myoglobin. The study of other blood parameters and of the explosiveness parameters didn't show any significant variations. Nevertheless according to the subjective athlete's opinion the VPS group has noted less legs pain, less overall fatigue, less diminishment of strength and fitter than the TENS group between 12 and 24 hours after effort. Finally all athletes have said to like the use of a electro-stimulation recovery device better than their normal daily recovery techniques without expressing any preferences between VPS and TENS. Discussion - Conclusion This comparative study only shows minor differences, non significant, between the two devices. The two groups have ran the greatest distance during the second effort which suggests that the test wasn't tiresome despite biological signs of "fatigue". However on subjective criteria of recovery and well-being a slight preference was shown for the VPS device. The results should be taken into consideration in a other comparative study of the recovery devices with more tiresome effort. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison between visual estimates and image analysis measurements to determine Septoria leaf blotch severity in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Mackels, Christophe et al

in Plant Pathology (2015)

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by ... [more ▼]

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by image analysis (assumed actual values) on individual leaves of winter wheat in order to explore accuracy and reliability of estimates, and to ascertain whether there were any general characteristics of error. Specifically, (i) we determined the accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB over the full range of severity from 0 to 100%, and we investigated (ii) whether certain 10% ranges in actual disease severity between 0 and 100% were more prone to estimation error compared with others, and (iii) whether leaf position affected accuracy within those ranges. Lin's concordance correlation analysis of all severities (0 to 100%) demonstrated that all raters had estimates close to the actual values (agreement: ρc = 0.92-0.99). However, agreement between actual SLB severities and estimates by raters was less good when compared over short 10% subdivisions within the 0-100% range (ρc = -0.12 to 0.99). Despite common rater imprecision at estimating low and high SLB severities, individual raters differed considerably in their accuracy over the short 10% subdivisions. There was no effect of leaf position on accuracy or precision of severity estimate on separate leaves (L1-L3). Pursuing efforts in understanding error in disease estimation should aid in improving the accuracy of assessments, making visual estimates of disease severity more useful for research and applied purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between wind speed observed at 100m height and wind speeds simulated by the WRF and MAR models
Doutreloup, Sébastien ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2014, June 06)

In the context of FLEXIPAC project funded by "RELIABLE" program of Walloon Region (Belgium), the Laboratory of Climatology and Topoclimatology (LCT) of the University of Liège (Belgium) aims to adjust the ... [more ▼]

In the context of FLEXIPAC project funded by "RELIABLE" program of Walloon Region (Belgium), the Laboratory of Climatology and Topoclimatology (LCT) of the University of Liège (Belgium) aims to adjust the WRF regional model (v.3.4.) forced by ERA-Interim model. Our analysis shows that wind speeds at 100m height simulated by WRF are systematically overestimated compared to wind speeds extracted from wind productions of two wind farms. In order to identify this problem, four comparisons were performed in this contribution. Firstly, we compare WRF model with reanalysis based forcing model. Secondly, we compare two WRF simulations, where one of them has a more precise spatial resolution. Thirdly, we smooth WRF outputs in time (6-hr running mean) in order to study the accuracy of the 30-min variability generated by WRF model. Finally, we comp compare the WRF model with the MAR (v3.3.) regional model using the same forcing at its lateral boundaries. This last one seems to suggest that the MAR model better simulates wind speeds at 10m and at 100m than WRF model and then that wind speed underestimation by WRF is well linked to the WRF physics itself. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison by image processing of target supports of spray droplets
Degre, Aurore ULg; Mostade, Olivier; Huyghebaert, Bruno et al

in transaction of the American society of Agricultural engineers (2001), 44(2), 217-222

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See detailComparison low cost chemical sensors analytical instruments for odour monitoring in a municipal waste plant
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Molitor, Noémie ULg; Adam, Gilles et al

in Chemical Engineering Transactions (2016), 54

The gas sensing performances of low cost commercial chemical sensors are compared to the ones of standardized chemical analysers. Real time measurements are performed on the field of three municipal solid ... [more ▼]

The gas sensing performances of low cost commercial chemical sensors are compared to the ones of standardized chemical analysers. Real time measurements are performed on the field of three municipal solid waste plants (MSW). Long-term campaigns of several months have been organised during the period 2010-2015. The sensors and the reference analysers have worked simultaneously. The selected sensors are commercial metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOx, Figaro). The sensors-array devices are developed at the ULg laboratory (SAM). Analysers are certified and operated by the official Wallonia public scientific institute (ISSeP). In addition to odour, other target compounds are considered: methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, but also NMHC as limonene, pinene and BTEX The laboratory has a long experience in using chemical sensors for odour in-field measurements, especially for landfills and composting plants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performances of chemo-resistors array for continuous monitoring of compounds typical of municipal wastes in comparison to reference analysers. It highlights weaknesses and strengths of the two kinds of devices. The obtained results are considered for odour event detection as well as for chemical compound quantification and are discussed to evaluate the efficiency of metal oxide sensors for a low cost gas emissions assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of bronchodilators in feline airways: In vitro and in vivo investigations
Leemans, Jérôme ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Delvaux, F. et al

in In proceedings: 15th Congress European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine – companion animals (2005)

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See detailComparison of hydrodynamic parameters obtained by 2D measurements in a flat rectangular column with X-ray radiography and data from literature on 3D columns
Calvo, Sébastien ULg; Beugre, Djomice Antoine ULg; Crine, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2010)

Hydrodynamic tests are performed in a flat rectangular column packed with two sheets of Mellapak 250 Y (Sulzer structured packing). Measurements are realized with a single phase liquid flow as well as ... [more ▼]

Hydrodynamic tests are performed in a flat rectangular column packed with two sheets of Mellapak 250 Y (Sulzer structured packing). Measurements are realized with a single phase liquid flow as well as with a gas-liquid counter-current flow. Hydrodynamic parameters are compared to experimental results obtained in 3D columns found in the literature, as well as to literature model predictions and to values computed using an in-house Lattice Boltzmann CFD simulation code. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of 125I and 3H testosterone radioimmunoassay methods in bovine serum
Miklos, M.; Renaville, Robert ULg; Tözser, J.

in Klin Kiserl Lab Med (1994), 22

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See detailComparison of 15N labelled forages and 15N incorporation into microbe for microbial estimation in nylon bag residues : influence on the effective N degradability.
Kamoun, Mohammed; Beckers, Yves ULg; Thewis, André ULg et al

in Giesecke, D. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology (1994, September)

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See detailA Comparison of 2 Mitral Annuloplasty Rings for Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Clinical and Echocardiographic Outcomes.
Fattouch, Khalil; Moscarelli, Marco; Castrovinci, Sebastiano et al

in Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (2016), 28(2), 261-268

Controversies regarding the choice of annuloplasty rings for treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation still exist. Aim of the study is to compare early performance of 2 different rings in terms of rest ... [more ▼]

Controversies regarding the choice of annuloplasty rings for treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation still exist. Aim of the study is to compare early performance of 2 different rings in terms of rest and exercise echocardiographic parameters (transmitral gradient, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and mitral valve area), clinical outcomes, and recurrence of mitral regurgitation. From January 2008 till December 2013, prospectively collected data of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and undersizing mitral valve annuloplasty for severe chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation at our Institution were reviewed. A total of 93 patients were identified; among them 44 had semirigid Memo 3D ring implanted (group A) whereas 49 had a rigid profile 3D ring (group B). At 6 months, recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation, equal or more than moderate, was observed in 4 and 6 patients in the group A and B, respectively (P = 0.74). Group A showed certain improved valve geometric parameters such as posterior leaflet angle, tenting area, and coaptation depth. Transmitral gradient was significantly higher at rest in the group B (P < 0.0001). During exercise, significant increase of transmitral gradient and systolic pulmonary artery pressure was observed in group B (P < 0.0001). Mitral valve area was not statistically significantly smaller at rest in between groups (P = 0.09); however, it significantly decreased with exercise in group B (P = 0.01). At midterm follow-up, patients in group B were more symptomatic. In patients with chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation, use of semirigid Memo 3D ring when compared to the rigid Profile 3D may be associated with early improved mitral valve geometrical conformation and hemodynamic profile, particularly during exercise. No difference was observed between both groups in recurrent mitral regurgitation. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of 2D turbulence models for steady flows computation in a macro-rough channel
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Meile, Tobias; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in 2nd International Symposium on Shallow Flows (2008, December 11)

A 2D numerical flow model, developed at the Laboratory of Hydrology, Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions (HACH) at ULg, has been applied to flows in a macro-rough channel using three ... [more ▼]

A 2D numerical flow model, developed at the Laboratory of Hydrology, Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions (HACH) at ULg, has been applied to flows in a macro-rough channel using three different approaches to compute the turbulence effects. Both the first and second ones are based on algebraic expressions of the turbulent viscosity, and the third one uses a depth-integrated k- type model involving two additional partial differential equations. Data for the comparison have been provided by experiments conducted at the Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions (LCH) at EPFL, showing different two-dimensional flow characteristics in varied configurations of large scale cavities in depressions at the side walls of the flume. Despite the strongly different modeling approaches used in the three models to handle the turbulence effects, the numerical models give generally similar and satisfactory agreement between experimental and numerical results regarding backwater curves. [less ▲]

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