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See detailComparison of Different Selection Strategies in Monte-Carlo Tree Search for the Game of Tron
Perrick, Pierre; Lupien St-Pierre, David ULg; Maes, Francis ULg et al

in IEEE Conference on Computational and Intelligence in Games 2012 (2012)

Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) techniques are essentially known for their performance on turn-based games, such as Go, for which players have considerable time for choosing their moves. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) techniques are essentially known for their performance on turn-based games, such as Go, for which players have considerable time for choosing their moves. In this paper, we apply MCTS to the game of Tron, a simultaneous real-time two-player game. The fact that players have to react fast and that moves occur simultaneously creates an unusual setting for MCTS, in which classical selection policies such as UCB1 may be suboptimal. In this paper, we perform an empirical comparison of a wide range of selection policies for MCTS applied to Tron, with both deterministic policies (UCB1, UCB1-Tuned, UCB-V, UCBMinimal, OMC-Deterministic, MOSS) and stochastic policies (Epsilon-greedy, EXP3, Thompson Sampling, OMC-Stochastic, PBBM). From the experiments, we observe that UCB1-Tuned has the best behavior shortly followed by UCB1. Even if UCB-Minimal is ranked fourth, this is a remarkable result for this recently introduced selection policy found through automatic discovery of good policies on generic multi-armed bandit problems. We also show that deterministic policies perform better than stochastic ones for this problem. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of different serological methods to detect antibodies specific to Neospora caninum in bovine and canine sera
Ghalmi, F; China, B; Jenkins, M et al

in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (2014), 26(1), 136-140

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See detailComparison of different serological methods to detect antibodies to Neospora caninum in bovine and canine sera
Ghalmi; China, B; Jenkins, M et al

in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (2014), 26

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See detailComparison of different techniques for inoculation of "Candidatus Phytoplasma mali" on apple and periwinkle in biological indexing procedure.
Aldaghi, M.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Roussel, S. et al

in Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences (2007), 72(4), 779-784

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 ULg)
See detailComparison of different techniques for inoculation of Candidatus phytoplasma mali in biological indexing
Aldaghi, M.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Roussel, S. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailComparison of different treatments of atrial fibrillation in the horse
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Muylle, Etienne; Henroteaux, Marc ULg et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1981), 28(6), 475-480

In view of the disadvantages of the traditional method of atrial defibrillation, three different methods of treatment (intravenous perfusion of quinidine sulphate, intravenous perfusion of ... [more ▼]

In view of the disadvantages of the traditional method of atrial defibrillation, three different methods of treatment (intravenous perfusion of quinidine sulphate, intravenous perfusion of dihydroquinidine gluconate and repeated oral administration of quinidine sulphate) moere tested in 6 horses (7 attacks) from the point of view of efficacy, quantity of drug required, duration and convenience of the treatment, and toxicity. The authors conclude that the intravenous perfusion of quinidine sulphate under continuous ECG monitoring seems to be the method of choke for the treatment of atrial fibrillation in the horse. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of different types of commercial FBP and OSEM SPECT reconstruction software
Seret, Alain ULg; Forthomme, Julien

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology (2009), 37(3), 179-187

This study aimed at comparing the performance of filtered backprojection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction algorithms available in several types of commercial SPECT ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at comparing the performance of filtered backprojection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction algorithms available in several types of commercial SPECT software. Methods: Numerical simulations of SPECT acquisitions of two phantoms were used: the NEMA line used for the assessment of SPECT resolution and a phantom with uniform, hot and cold rod compartments. The investigated types of software were: General Electric Xeleris and Vision, Philips Jetstream, Segami Mirage, Siemens eSoft and Icon, and Sopha Medical Vision XT. For FBP, no filtering and filtering of the projections with either Butterworth (order 3 or 6) or Hanning filters at various cut-off frequencies were considered. For OSEM, the number of subsets was 1, 4, 8, or 16 and the number of iterations was chosen to obtain a product number of iterations times the number of subsets equal to 16, 32, 48 or 64. The line phantom enabled us to obtain the reconstructed central, radial and tangential full-widths at half-maximum. The uniform compartment of the second phantom delivered the mean reconstructed pixel values and the standard deviations from which the coefficients of variation were calculated. Hot and cold contrasts were obtained from its rod compartments. Results: For FBP, full-widths at half-maximum, mean pixel values, coefficients of variation and contrasts were almost software independent. The only exceptions were: smaller (0.5 mm) full-widths at half-maximum for Vision, larger mean pixel values for Vision and XT, and better contrasts for Vision and XT for some filtering conditions. For OSEM, full-widths at half-maximum differed between the different types of software from 0.1 to 2.5 mm but these were almost independent of the number of subsets or iterations. There was a high dependence of the mean pixel value on the type of software used and a moderate dependence of the coefficient of variation. The contrasts were almost software independent. Mean pixel value varied greatly with the number of iterations for Mirage and Vision, and the coefficient of variation increased with the number of iterations for all types of software. The mean pixel value, the coefficient of variation and the contrasts were almost constant for a fixed product number of iterations times the number of subsets, whatever the number of subsets or iterations. Conclusion: Most of the types of software were equivalent for FBP or OSEM reconstruction. However, a few differences were observed for some types of software and should be considered when using them. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of different X-ray computed tomography techniques for the quantitative characterisation of the 3D microstructure of pear fruit tissue
Verboven, Pieter; Kerckhofs, Greet ULg; Mebatsion, Hibru K. et al

in Proceedings: Busse, G., Van Hemelrijck, D., Solodov, I., Anastasopoulos, A. (Eds.) (2007)

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See detailComparison of Eae, Tir, Esp a and Esp b Genes of Bovine and Human Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
China, B.; Goffaux, F.; Pirson, V. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1999), 178(1), 177-82

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments revealed the presence of constant and variable regions. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions were developed, in order to determine the subtype of each gene present in a particular isolate. AEEC strains isolated from calves dead of diarrhea, from healthy calves and from infected humans were compared. The same pathotypes were found in sick and healthy calves but in inverted proportion. These pathotypes were also found in human AEEC. Although, the human EHEC strains from serotype O157 possessed their own pathotype. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of early stages of colorectal cancer by label free proteomics
QUESADA CALVO, Florence ULg; MEUWIS, Marie-Alice ULg; Bertrand, Virginie ULg et al

in Acta Gastroenterologica (2015, February 27)

Introduction and objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cancer in women and the third in men. Identification of the mechanisms of progression in these early CRC stages is ... [more ▼]

Introduction and objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cancer in women and the third in men. Identification of the mechanisms of progression in these early CRC stages is important to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) specimens are materials that enable proteomic clinical research. Hence our aim was to address the comparison of FFPE samples from early CRC stages patients using shotgun proteomic analysis. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 36 CRC tissue samples (pT1N0M0, n=16 and pT2N0M0, n=20) compared together and with 40 control tissue samples (20 patients with diverticulitis, using paired inflamed (DI) and healthy tissue (DH)). Each tissue slice was macrodissected to enrich in epithelial cells. We used FFPE-FASP kit (Expedeon) for sample preparation and protein digests were analyzed using 2D-nanoAquity UPLC separation online with Q-Tof Synapt HDMSTM G2 using ion mobility as additional separation. We performed protein identification and differential analysis using Progenesis QI for proteomics (Nonlinear Dynamics). Results and discussion: We selected 149 proteins differentially distributed between T1 and T2 CRC stages which were not significantly different between CRC and DH or DI. Only 30 proteins were significantly more abundant in T1 versus T2 and 119 were distributed inversely, with a minimum fold ratio of 2. Among those, ATP synthase subunit beta, Aspartate-tRNA ligase, Haptoglobin and Kininogen were identified. . Moreover, we validated Kininogen and 3 others proteins with a significant differential distribution between pT1N0M0 and pT2N0M0 stages by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: This FFPE retrospective study comparing T1 and T2 CRC highlighted proteins already previously identified as potential CRC biomarkers. These proteins may reflect important early changes in cancer development and may help understanding early tumor progression. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Egg Composition and Conservation Ability in Two Belgian Local Breeds and One Commercial Strain
Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2009), 8(8), 768-774

The study was conducted to evaluate the egg quality of two Belgian local chicken breeds (the Ardennaise and the Famennoise) and to compare it with a commonly bred commercial strain (Lohmann brown). Two ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted to evaluate the egg quality of two Belgian local chicken breeds (the Ardennaise and the Famennoise) and to compare it with a commonly bred commercial strain (Lohmann brown). Two criteria were used to describe egg quality: egg composition (measured through yolk to albumen ratio) and its stability during conservation (measured through pH). Egg weight, size, composition as well as albumen pH were measured on 140 eggs. Measurements were performed at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after laying. The egg weight was highest in the Lohmann strain (62.86 g), followed by the Famennoise breed (55.51 g) and lowest in the Ardennaise (50.31 g). Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly higher in the Ardennaise (0.53) when compared with the Famennoise (0.49) and Lohmann breeds (0.43). Albumen pH at laying was lowest in the Lohmann when compared with the local breeds. However, no statistical differences among the three breeds could be detected for this parameter at days 14 or 21 postlaying. The high pH in local breed eggs is often reported to be caused by a lower conservation ability. The present results suggest some physiologically higher pH at laying not resulting from defaults in conservation. As a measure of egg freshness, pH must be adapted by the various poultry breeds. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of emergence times and quality between isoflurane and sevoflurane in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) undergoing neurosurgical procedure
Bertrand, Henri ULg; Springer, Svenja; Burnside, Wesley et al

in Laboratory Animals (2017)

Volatile agents for anaesthesia are widely used for anaesthetizing laboratory primates, and isoflurane is one of the most frequently used agents. Sevoflurane has been shown to offer a more rapid recovery ... [more ▼]

Volatile agents for anaesthesia are widely used for anaesthetizing laboratory primates, and isoflurane is one of the most frequently used agents. Sevoflurane has been shown to offer a more rapid recovery than iso- flurane in a number of species, but no comparisons have been made in non-human primates. This study compared the recovery characteristics of isoflurane and sevoflurane in rhesus macaques undergoing experi- mental neurosurgery. Twelve primates (7 males and 5 females) were randomly allocated to the treatment groups. They were sedated with ketamine (10 mg/kg) and anaesthesia was induced with propofol (usually 8 mg/kg intravenously [IV]). Anaesthesia was maintained with either sevoflurane (SEVO) (2.2 0.4%) or iso- flurane (ISO) (1.2 0.2%) and alfentanil (0.2–0.5 mg/kg/min IV) for 332–592 min. Animals were mechanically ventilated. Meloxicam (0.3mg/kg) and methylprednisolone infusion (5.4mg/kg/h) were also administered. Time to extubation after cessation of anaesthesia was significantly shorter with sevoflurane (ISO: 7.0 1.8 min; SEVO: 3.6 1.5; *P 1⁄4 0.005) as was the time to the animal sitting unaided (ISO: 15.7 8.2 min; SEVO: 7.1 1.7min; *P1⁄40.004). No significant difference in the quality of recovery following isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia was found. In conclusion, isoflurane and sevoflurane are both suitable volatile agents for the maintenance of general anaesthesia in rhesus macaques undergoing experimental neurosur- gical procedures. The two volatile agents presented a similar emergence quality profile, however sevoflurane anaesthesia was associated with a faster recovery, offering the possibility of conducting earlier post-operative neurological assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of ENFA and GLM modelling for summer habitat suitability of the sperm whale in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea
Praca, Emilie; Gannier, Alexandre; Das, Krishna ULg et al

Conference (2007)

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See detailComparison of experimental results and numerical modelling of unreinforced load-bearing masonry structures subjected to earthquake loading
Mordant, Christophe ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Degée, Hervé

in Proceedings of the SECED 2015 Conference: Earthquake Risk and Engineering towards a Resilient World (2015, July)

This paper presents a comparison of experimental tests results on unreinforced load-bearing masonry structures subjected to earthquake loading with numerical predictions. First, simple walls are submitted ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comparison of experimental tests results on unreinforced load-bearing masonry structures subjected to earthquake loading with numerical predictions. First, simple walls are submitted to cyclic and shaking table tests. Some of them include soundproofing devices in order to investigate their influence on the general behaviour in static and dynamic conditions. Additional walls with an opening and T-shaped walls are then tested under cyclic loading. The study is focused on the frame effect, the contribution of the perpendicular wall to the global strength and the efficiency of the connection. These aspects are also studied through shaking table tests on two masonry frames with T- or L-shaped piers. The main information is expressed in terms of force-displacement curves, mechanical properties and energy dissipation for the cyclic tests. The shaking table tests provide results in terms of dynamic and mechanical properties. Comparison of the results with numerical predictions is finally performed thanks to the software TREMURI. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of explant responses treated with leachate and leonardite sources of humic substances during in vitro rooting of woody plants.
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(1), 158-165

As heterogeneous mixtures of compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues, humic substances (HS) are mostly recognized for their biostimulation ... [more ▼]

As heterogeneous mixtures of compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues, humic substances (HS) are mostly recognized for their biostimulation of plant growth that firstly involve the root development and architecture before further putative improvement of nutrients uptakes. To avoid the interferences currently reported from external origins, the successive steps of rooting have been carried out using shoots and isolated leaves of birch and alder vitro-plants. Extracts issued from landfill leachate (LHS) has been compared to a stable formulation from leonardite ("Humifirst" 12% humic acid 3% and fulvic acid) commercialized by TRADECORP company's (HHS). Chemical analysis showed that LHS source typically contain much higher N (mainly as ammonium (93%) and chloride concentration than HHS. Used at low concentration (10 ppm) during root induction/initiation phase, both HS sources may be slightly unfavorable to the root formation (21% of reduction in primary root number) of alder but not of birch. While, in root elongation phase, there is an increase in the primary root length and lateral root number. The direct effects of HS on in vitro root development vary from one species to another depending on the root treatment stage. Results showed that both explants type response are equivalent in the development of a complete rooting system. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morphological traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed
Coopman, F.; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Groen, A. F. et al

in Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics (2004), 121(2), 128-134

In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With ... [more ▼]

In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the newborn and inner pelvic sizes of the dam. In this study external morphological traits of newborns are compared with inner morphological traits of the dam. Results of this study indicate that in the DM-BBB, CS is the only means to successful calving. Therefore, no calving ease scores are available to select for less dystocia in this breed. Selection for fewer CS must be achieved by focusing on lower birth weight (BW) and decreased muscular conformation at birth, both having a sufficiently high heritability. Simultaneously, pelvic sizes of the dam should be increased. It is very likely that the look of the DM-BBB will change when selecting for less dystocia. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of fattening performances of booars casrated or immunized against GnRF and evaluation of the vaccination efficiency
Wavreille, Jose; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Romnée, J. M. et al

in EAAP (Ed.) Book of absracts of the 62nd annual meeing of the european federation of animal science (2011, August 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
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See detailComparison of feeding behaviour and performance of weaned piglets fed with two types of dry feeders with integrated Drinkers
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Proceedings of the 32nd International congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (1998)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (3 ULg)