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See detailComparison of Four Refractometers for the Investigation of the passive transfer in Beef Calves
Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2011), 25

Background: Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in beef calves can be detected by refractometry. Nevertheless, different models of refractometers are available, and few studies compare them for the ... [more ▼]

Background: Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in beef calves can be detected by refractometry. Nevertheless, different models of refractometers are available, and few studies compare them for the detection of FPT. Objectives: To compare the accuracy of 4 different refractometers for measuring serum total protein concentrations in comparison with results obtained by the biuret method and, based on the serum IgG threshold of 1,600 mg/mL, to determine, for each refractometer, the optimal serum protein concentration’s lowest threshold for successful passive transfer. Animals: One hundred and eight healthy beef calves, 3–8 days of age. Methods: Observational study. The concentrations of serum total proteins were determined with 4 different models of refractometers and compared with the biuret method by a Bland–Altman statistical method. The optimal serum protein concentration’s lowest threshold for successful passive transfer was determined for each refractometer by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In addition, the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was compared with the serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (c-GT) activity and with the total immunoglobulin concentration. Results: The refractometric measurements were highly correlated with those obtained by the biuret method. Serum total protein concentration threshold values of 56, 58, 54, and 56 g/L were found respectively for the Atago, Atago ATC, Wolf ATC, and digital ATC refractometers. Immunoglobulins were highly correlated with IgG, whereas Gamma-GT only reflected colostrum uptake by the calf. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: All refractometers could be used for the assessment of passive transfer using their individual serum protein concentration threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of fracture prediction models on sheet metal blanking simulations
Canales Cardenas, Cristian ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Bussetta et al

Conference (2015, July)

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See detailComparison of free-surface and rigid-lid finite element models of barotropic instabilities
White, Laurent; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Deleersnijder, Eric et al

in Ocean Dynamics (2006), 56(2), 86-103

The main goal of this work is to appraise the finite element method in the way it represents barotropic instabilities. To that end, three different formulations are employed. The free-surface formulation ... [more ▼]

The main goal of this work is to appraise the finite element method in the way it represents barotropic instabilities. To that end, three different formulations are employed. The free-surface formulation solves the primitive shallow-water equations and is of predominant use for ocean modeling. The vorticity-stream function and velocity-pressure formulations resort to the rigid-lid approximation and are presented because theoretical results are based on the same approximation. The growth rates for all three formulations are compared for hyperbolic tangent and piecewise linear shear flows. Structured and unstructured meshes are utilized. The investigation is also extended to time scales that allow for instability meanders to unfold, permitting the formation of eddies. We find that all three finite element formulations accurately represent barotropic instablities. In particular, convergence of growth rates toward theoretical ones is observed in all cases. It is also shown that the use of unstructured meshes allows for decreasing the computational cost while achieving greater accuracy. Overall, we find that the finite element method for free-surface models is effective at representing barotropic instabilities when it is combined with an appropriate advection scheme and, most importantly, adapted meshes. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of FT-NIR transmission and UV-vis spectrophotometry to follow the mixing kinetics and to assay low-dose tablets containing riboflavin
Bodson, Cédric; Dewé, Walthère ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2006), 41(3), 783-790

For several years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become an analytical technique of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry, particularly for the non-destructive analysis of dosage forms ... [more ▼]

For several years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become an analytical technique of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry, particularly for the non-destructive analysis of dosage forms. The goal of this study is to show the capacity of this new technique to assay the active ingredient in low-dosage tablets. NIR spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive technique and does not need any sample preparation. As an example, a binary mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and riboflavin was used to prepare tablets of different weights by direct compression. A prediction model was built by using a partial least square regression fit method. The NIR assay was performed by transmission. The results obtained by NIR spectroscopy were compared with a conventional UV-vis spectrophotometry method. The study showed that tablets can be individually analysed by NIR with high accuracy. It was shown that the variability of this new technique is less important than that of the conventional method which is the UV-vis spectrophotometry. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of functional residual capacity and static compliance of the respiratory system during a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ramp procedure in an experimental model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Janssen, Nathalie ULg et al

in Critical Care (2008), 12(4), 91

INTRODUCTION: Functional residual capacity (FRC) measurement is now available on new ventilators as an automated procedure. We compared FRC, static thoracopulmonary compliance (Crs) and PaO2 evolution in ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Functional residual capacity (FRC) measurement is now available on new ventilators as an automated procedure. We compared FRC, static thoracopulmonary compliance (Crs) and PaO2 evolution in an experimental model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during a reversed, sequential ramp procedure of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) changes to investigate the potential interest of combined FRC and Crs measurement in such a pathologic state. METHODS: ARDS was induced by oleic acid injection in six anesthetised pigs. FRC and Crs were measured, and arterial blood samples were taken after induction of ARDS during a sequential ramp change of PEEP from 20 cm H2O to 0 cm H2O by steps of 5 cm H2O. RESULTS: ARDS was responsible for significant decreases in FRC, Crs and PaO2 values. During ARDS, 20 cm H2O of PEEP was associated with FRC values that increased from 6.2 +/- 1.3 to 19.7 +/- 2.9 ml/kg and a significant improvement in PaO2. The maximal value of Crs was reached at a PEEP of 15 cm H2O, and the maximal value of FRC at a PEEP of 20 cm H2O. From a PEEP value of 15 to 0 cm H2O, FRC and Crs decreased progressively. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that combined FRC and Crs measurements may help to identify the optimal level of PEEP. Indeed, by taking into account the value of both parameters during a sequential ramp change of PEEP from 20 cm H2O to 0 cm H2O by steps of 5 cm H2O, the end of overdistension may be identified by an increase in Crs and the start of derecruitment by an abrupt decrease in FRC. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of functionalized carbon nanofibers and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as supports for Fe-Co nanoparticles
Vidick, Deborah; Herlitschke, Marcus; Poleunis, Claude et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2013), 1(6), 2050-2063

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and nanofibers (CNF) have been functionalized at their surfaces with chelating phosphine (PPh2) and ammonium (NMe3+) groups, as anchoring sites for metal complexes ... [more ▼]

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and nanofibers (CNF) have been functionalized at their surfaces with chelating phosphine (PPh2) and ammonium (NMe3+) groups, as anchoring sites for metal complexes. The surface functionalization has been monitored by XPS, elemental analyses, N-2 physisorption and/or SEM surface morphology analysis at each step. Bimetallic Fe-Co nanoparticles from two different starting cluster complexes, [HFeCo3(CO)(12)] (1) and (NEt4)[FeCo3(CO)(12)] (2), have been deposited onto the surfaces of the functionalized MWCNT and CNF as well as their pristine forms for comparison. The samples have been fully characterized before and after thermal treatment. The obtained nanoparticles were shown by TEM to be better dispersed and of smaller size on functionalized than on pristine supports. Magnetic characterization revealed blocked superparamagnetic Fe-Co nanoparticles together with paramagnetic ions on CNF as well as MWCNT. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of FUV Auroral Emissions During the April 2002 Events as seen by the IMAGE/FUV and TIMED/GUVI Instruments
Gladstone, G.; Retherford, K.; Solomon, S. et al

Conference (2002, December 01)

The auroral emissions that resulted from the series of solar particle events and magnetic storms during 14-24 April 2002 provide an excellent data set for the cross-comparison of the IMAGE/FUV and TIMED ... [more ▼]

The auroral emissions that resulted from the series of solar particle events and magnetic storms during 14-24 April 2002 provide an excellent data set for the cross-comparison of the IMAGE/FUV and TIMED/GUVI auroral imagers. The IMAGE/FUV instrument comprises the SI spectral imager (121.8 nm and 135.6 nm) and the WIC imaging photometer (LBH) and observes the entire Earth from high Earth orbit. The TIMED/GUVI spectral imager (121.6 nm, 130.4 nm, 135.6 nm, LBH short, and LBH long) scans a nadir-to-limb swath from low Earth orbit. Although there is a large difference in spatial resolution, preliminary comparison of simultaneously-observed diffuse auroral emissions indicates fairly good agreement between the calibrated brightnesses determined for common spectral features. We will present a detailed simulation of one or more of the April 2002 events as seen by each imager to determine if a single description of the auroral precipitation can self-consistently account for the proton- and electron-generated FUV emissions observed from the two spacecraft. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of G1.2/G2.2 and Sydney IVF cleavage/blastocyst sequential media for the culture of human embryos: a prospective, randomized, comparative study.
Van Langendonckt, Anne; Demylle, Dominique; Wyns, Christine et al

in Fertility and Sterility (2001), 76(5), 1023-31

Objective: To compare two commercially available sequential media, G1.2/G2.2 and Sydney IVF cleavage/blastocyst media, as supports for human embryo culture. Design: Prospective randomized study. Setting ... [more ▼]

Objective: To compare two commercially available sequential media, G1.2/G2.2 and Sydney IVF cleavage/blastocyst media, as supports for human embryo culture. Design: Prospective randomized study. Setting: University-based IVF clinic. Patient(s): Two hundred forty-nine patients undergoing IVF treatment for the first or second time, randomly allocated at the time of oocyte retrieval, to either culture in G1.2/G2.2 or Sydney IVF media. Intervention(s): Oocyte recovery, IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo culture, transfer on day 3 or day 5/6. Main Outcome Measure(s): Developmental stage on day 3, blastocyst rate, pregnancy outcome as assessed by βhCG positive test, implantation rates, and ongoing pregnancies. Result(s): Embryos cultured in G1.2/G2.2 media displayed a faster kinetics of cleavage, compaction, blastulation, and hatching, but a lower day 3 embryo quality than those grown in Sydney IVF media. For patients with at least five embryos, G1.2/G2.2 media yielded higher implantation rates (26.2%) in our day 3 embryo transfer program when compared to Sydney IVF medium (15.5%), whereas similar implantation rates were obtained for day 5/6 embryo transfer for both media (43.1% and 36.1%, respectively). Conclusion(s): In our day 3 embryo transfer program, G1.2/G2.2 media were superior to Sydney IVF media, whereas both media yielded similar outcomes in our blastocyst transfer program. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of gaseous cryotherapy with more traditional forms of cryotherapy following total knee arthroplasty
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Brouwers, M.; Darot, S. et al

in Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2012), 55

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See detailComparison of gene expression in canine sino-nasal aspergillosis and idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis: a microarray study
Vanherberghen, Morgane ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Peters, IR et al

in Proceedings of the 19th Annual ECVIM-CA Congress (2009)

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See detailComparison of genetic association strategies in the presence of rare alleles
Mahachie John, Jestinah ULg; Cattaert, Tom ULg; De Lobel, Lizzy et al

in BMC Proceedings (2011)

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See detailComparison of GPS-derived vTEC over Cyprus with NeQuick Model
Haralambous, Haris; Bidaine, Benoît ULg

in Doherty, P.; Hernández-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.-M. (Eds.) et al The International Beacon Satellite Symposium BSS2010 (2010, June)

This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric vertical total electron content (vTEC) values evaluated from Nicosia (35.1 N, 33.4 E) ground-based GPS station in Cyprus and the corresponding predictions ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric vertical total electron content (vTEC) values evaluated from Nicosia (35.1 N, 33.4 E) ground-based GPS station in Cyprus and the corresponding predictions with the latest version of the NeQuick model during periods of low (2008), and high (2001) solar activity for different seasons. According to the study the NeQuick predictions generally underestimate vTEC values during high solar activity periods and overestimate vTEC values during low solar activity periods. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of gradient-based and gradient-free methods for optimal stacking sequence of composites
Bruyneel, Michaël ULg; Colsoul, Freddie; Zein, Samih

in Proceedings of the SAMPE Technical Conference 2013 (2013, October)

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See detailA comparison of grey-box and black-box approaches in nonlinear state-space modelling and identification
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Schoukens, Johan; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2015, March)

In the present contribution, it is shown that, in the case of mechanical systems where nonlinearities are physically localised, the general structure of black-box nonlinear state-space models can be ... [more ▼]

In the present contribution, it is shown that, in the case of mechanical systems where nonlinearities are physically localised, the general structure of black-box nonlinear state-space models can be drastically simplified. A more parsimonious, grey-box state-space representation is derived, which is found to be compatible with Newton's second law of dynamics. For demonstration purposes, black-box and grey-box state-space models of the Silverbox benchmark, i.e. an electrical mimicry of a single-degree-of-freedom mechanical system with cubic nonlinearity, are identified using a maximum likelihood estimator. It is found that the grey-box approach allows to reduce markedly modelling errors with respect to a black-box model with a comparable number of parameters. It is also suggested that the greater accuracy of the grey-box model lends itself to the computation of reliable confidence bounds on the model parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of ground-based remote sensing and in-situ observations of CO, CH4 and O3, accounting for representativeness uncertainty
Henne, S.; Steinbacher, M.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

Conference (2013, April)

The EC project NORS (Demonstration Network Of ground-based Remote Sensing Observations in support of the GMES Atmospheric Service) aims at demonstrating the value of ground-based remote sensing data for ... [more ▼]

The EC project NORS (Demonstration Network Of ground-based Remote Sensing Observations in support of the GMES Atmospheric Service) aims at demonstrating the value of ground-based remote sensing data for quality assessment and improvement of the GMES products. As part of NORS CO, CH4, O3 and NO2 tropospheric products as obtained by ground-based remote sensing within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) are compared to continuous surface in-situ measurements that are reported on common international reference scales within the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Programme. However, a direct comparison between the different methods is hindered by different sampling volumes, introducing uncertainties due to representativeness. Here we present a novel method that utilises high-resolution, backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling to characterise the transport history of different sampling volumes. Sampling volumes are defined as infinitesimally small point volumes for the in-situ observations and as separate profile segments with horizontal and vertical extent for the remote sensing observations. The characterisation is then used (a) to filter times for which a direct comparison between in-situ and remote sensing data is unfavourable (large representativeness uncertainty) and (b) to construct vertical profiles from the in-situ observations, taking additional information from large scale atmospheric composition models into account. These so called “in-situ” profiles are supposed to be more comparable to the remote sensing profile as the surface value itself, while conserving the high accuracy information of the latter and projecting it onto the profile. Therefore, these profiles allow for a more direct comparison and validation of the remotely sensed profiles. The technique was first applied at two of the four NORS demonstration sites (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland and Izana, Spain) and to the comparison of remote sensing Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) measurements of CO, CH4, and O3 with the responding in-situ observations. While previous studies generally showed good agreement between the two kinds of observation, considerable amounts of scatter were evident. Selecting only situations with relatively small representativeness uncertainty reduces this scatter. Folding the “in-situ” profiles with the averaging kernels of the FTIR retrieval gives a more realistic comparison result that is not influenced by any a-priori assumptions. Results are also discussed with respect to season, time of day and weather type. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of growth limits of Listeria monocytogenes in milk, broth and cheese
Jordan, Kieran; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg; Belessi, C et al

Conference (2010, June)

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See detailComparison of growth limits of Listeria monocytogenes in milk, broth and cheese.
Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg; Belessi, X.; Butler, F. et al

in Journal of applied microbiology (2010), 109(5), 1790-9

AIM: To determine growth initiation differences of Listeria monocytogenes between a cheesemaking context, milk and tryptic soy broth (TSB). METHODS AND RESULTS: A laboratory-scale cheese was made with a ... [more ▼]

AIM: To determine growth initiation differences of Listeria monocytogenes between a cheesemaking context, milk and tryptic soy broth (TSB). METHODS AND RESULTS: A laboratory-scale cheese was made with a mix of two strains of L. monocytogenes at four initial pH values, five water activity (a(w)) values and two contamination levels at 30 degrees C. Counts of L. monocytogenes were determined at time 0 and after 8h of cheese manufacture. Milk and TSB at the same pH and a(w) conditions were inoculated with the L. monocytogenes mix in multi-well plates. Growth was determined by plating each well onto Agosti & Ottaviani Listeria Agar after 8h of incubation at 30 degrees C. Each condition was repeated six times, and growth initiation probability was modelled with logistic regression models. Growth initiation boundaries were obtained for each matrix type. The results showed that the growth limits were matrix dependent. In the three matrix types, a(w) was the most important factor affecting the probability of growth initiation. Contamination level affected growth TSB and cheesemaking conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The interface wideness and position in cheese, milk and TSB were dissimilar, indicating that the use of models evaluated in TSB or milk could not be used to predict the behaviour of L. monocytogenes under cheesemaking conditions. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Predictive models generated in liquid media are not necessarily adaptable to solid food, and the generation of real food models is necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of gut microbiota highfat induced modifications in young and old mice models
Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Neyrinck, A.; Delhalle, Laurent et al

Poster (2014, October 17)

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See detailComparison of Heterogeneous Transport Processes Observed with Electrical Resistivity Tomography in Two Soils
Garré, Sarah ULg; Koestel, Johannes; Günther, Thomas et al

in Vadose zone journal (2010), 9(2), 336-349

Preferential flow in soils can manifest itself in several ways. To illustrate this, we analyzed solute transport during a step tracer experiment in two soils expected to differ in their governing ... [more ▼]

Preferential flow in soils can manifest itself in several ways. To illustrate this, we analyzed solute transport during a step tracer experiment in two soils expected to differ in their governing transport processes: a loamy sand and a silty soil. By combining electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), time domain reflectometry, and effluent measurements, we observed different preferential flow phenomena. The transport process was characterized using voxel- and column-scale effective convective–dispersive equation (CDE) parameters, local velocities, and leaching surfaces. At the column scale, transport in the loamy sand was dominated by a homogenous convective–dispersive transport behavior, but at the scale of the voxel, preferential transport was observed. Transport in the silty soil was considerably more heterogeneous. Preferential flow was identified using ERT, voxel- and column-scale effective CDE parameters, local velocities, and leaching surfaces. In these soils, a clear influence of soil layering on solute transport was observed. [less ▲]

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