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See detailCritical Review of Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods Validations in Pharmaceutical Applications
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg; Mantanus, Jérôme ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2012), 69

Based on the large number of publications reported over the past five years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is more and more considered an attractive and promising analytical tool regarding Process ... [more ▼]

Based on the large number of publications reported over the past five years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is more and more considered an attractive and promising analytical tool regarding Process Analytical Technology and Green Chemistry. From the reviewed literature, few of these publications present a thoroughly validated NIRS method even if some guidelines have been published by different groups and regulatory authorities. However, as any analytical method, the validation of NIRS method is a mandatory step at the end of the development in order to give enough guarantees that each of the future results during routine use will be close enough to the true value. Besides the introduction of PAT concepts in the revised document of the European Pharmacopoeia (2.2.40) dealing with near-infrared spectroscopy recently published in Pharmeuropa, it agrees very well with this mandatory step. Indeed, the latter suggests to use similar analytical performance characteristics than those required for any analytical procedure based on acceptance criteria consistent with the intended use of the method. In this context, this review gives a comprehensive and critical overview of the methodologies applied to assess the validity of quantitative NIRS methods used in pharmaceutical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailA critical review of surgery techniques for implanting telemetry devices into the body cavity of fish
Baras, Etienne; Birtles, Cymon; Westerloppe, Luc et al

Conference (1996, August)

Based on literature survey and personal experience, this paper presents a critical review of surgery procedures to implant telemetry devices (transmitters, transponders) into the body cavity of fish ... [more ▼]

Based on literature survey and personal experience, this paper presents a critical review of surgery procedures to implant telemetry devices (transmitters, transponders) into the body cavity of fish species. It debates on the relative adequacy of techniques which may compromise or enhance tagging success with respect to fish health and transmitter retention: anaesthesia, incision (position and length of incision), transmitter features (size and weight ratios, coating), ways of closing the incision (stitches, staples, adhesives), prophylaxy, pre- and postoperative care. Behavioural and physiological biases originating from tagging or internal presence of the transmitter are reviewed, evaluated and integrated to determine the actual duration of the post-operative perturbation and subsequent validation of telemetry data. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical Review: Biological functions of thiamine derivatives: Focus on non-coenzyme roles
Bettendorff, Lucien ULg; Wins, Pierre

in OA Biochemistry (2013), 1(1), 10

Thiamine (vitamin B1) is mainly known for its diphosphorylated derivatives (ThDP), an essential coenzyme in energy metabolism. However non-coenzyme roles have been suggested for this vitamin for many ... [more ▼]

Thiamine (vitamin B1) is mainly known for its diphosphorylated derivatives (ThDP), an essential coenzyme in energy metabolism. However non-coenzyme roles have been suggested for this vitamin for many years. Such roles have remained hypothetical, but recent data from various sources have shed a new light on this hypothesis. First, the existence of other phosphorylated thiamine derivatives, most prominently thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) can reach significant levels in E. coli, respectively during amino acid starvation and energy stress. Though much less is known about these compounds in animals, mammalian cells contain a highly specific soluble thiamine triphosphatase controlling cytosolic ThTP concentrations. Second, there is now growing evidence in favour of the existence of thiamine-binding proteins with specific roles in the nervous system, possibly in the regulation of in neurotransmitter release. Thiamine and some of its synthetic precursors with higher bioavailability have beneficial effects in several models of Alzheimer’s disease and may be beneficial for patients suffering from Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. These effects might be related to non-coenzyme roles of thiamine, possibly involving thiamine-binding proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailThe critical role of carbohydrate administration in safe, effective TGC
Preiser, J-C; Suhaimi, F; Chase, JG et al

in Clinical Nutrition (2010), 5 (Suppl 2):111

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See detailCritical role of tryptophan 154 for the activity and stability of class D beta-lactamases.
Baurin, Stephane; Vercheval, Lionel ULg; Bouillenne, Fabrice ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2009), 48(47), 11252-63

The catalytic efficiency of the class D beta-lactamase OXA-10 depends critically on an unusual carboxylated lysine as the general base residue for both the enzyme acylation and deacylation steps of ... [more ▼]

The catalytic efficiency of the class D beta-lactamase OXA-10 depends critically on an unusual carboxylated lysine as the general base residue for both the enzyme acylation and deacylation steps of catalysis. Evidence is presented that the interaction between the indole group of Trp154 and the carboxylated lysine is essential for the stability of the posttranslationally modified Lys70. Substitution of Trp154 by Gly, Ala, or Phe yielded noncarboxylated enzymes which displayed poor catalytic efficiencies and reduced stability when compared to the wild-type OXA-10. The W154H mutant was partially carboxylated. In addition, the maximum values of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(M) were shifted toward pH 7, indicating that the carboxylation state of Lys70 is dependent on the protonation level of the histidine. A comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the different proteins also indicated that the Trp154 mutations did not modify the overall structures of OXA-10 but induced an increased flexibility of the Omega-loop in the active site. Finally, the deacylation-impaired W154A mutant was used to determine the structure of the acyl-enzyme complex with benzylpenicillin. These results indicate a role of the Lys70 carboxylation during the deacylation step and emphasize the importance of Trp154 for the ideal positioning of active site residues leading to an optimum activity. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical specific stream power in gravel-bed rivers
Petit, François ULg; Gob, Frédéric ULg; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2005), 69(1-4), 92-101

Experiments with marked pebbles were carried out on different sized rivers of the Belgian Ardenne (catchment areas varying from less than I km(2) to 2700 km(2)). Specific stream power required to cause ... [more ▼]

Experiments with marked pebbles were carried out on different sized rivers of the Belgian Ardenne (catchment areas varying from less than I km(2) to 2700 km(2)). Specific stream power required to cause bedload movement was evaluated and critical values were obtained. Three types of relationship between critical specific stream power (omega(0)) and grain size (D) were established. The values for coo in the largest river (the Ourthe) were the lowest and were close to the values obtained for mountainous rivers carrying large boulders. In medium sized rivers (catchment area between 40 and 500 km(2)), the critical unit stream power was higher. It is likely that it is due to the bedform's greater resistance. This resistance would use up some of the energy that can cause movement and transport of bedload. The amount of resistance of the bedform can be expressed as bedform shear stress (tau ''), determined by the relationship between grain shear stress (tau'-that determines movement and transport of the bedload) and the total shear stress (tau). This ratio varies between 0.4 and 0.5 in the medium sized rivers, compared to 0.7 in the Ourthe. In headwater streams (less than 20 km(2)), there is greater loss of energy due to bedform resistance (tau'/tau < 0.3). Critical specific stream power is higher in this third type of river than in the other two. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical state modelling of crossed field demagnetisation in HTS materials
Swartz, J. P.; Mc Culloch, M. D.; Pecher, R. et al

in Andreone, A.; Pepe, G. P.; Cristiano, R. (Eds.) et al Applied Superconductivity 2003 (Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity) (2004)

Large magnetic fields can be trapped in high temperature superconductor material, enabling their use as permanent magnets in various applications. It has, however, been observed that these materials ... [more ▼]

Large magnetic fields can be trapped in high temperature superconductor material, enabling their use as permanent magnets in various applications. It has, however, been observed that these materials experience a decay in magnetisation when a field is applied in a direction transverse to the trapped field. This paper presents the results of critical state modelling of an infinite slab of superconductor that is first fully magnetised and then exposed to magnetic field in the transverse direction. The bean and double critical state model are implemented and the results compared to each other and to that of physical experiment. The convergence of the decay is investigated as well as the effect of the magnitude of the crossed field on the final decay value. Diamagnetic and paramagnetic initial conditions are applied to the material and the results used to compare the accuracy of the bean and double critical state model. [less ▲]

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See detailA Critical Study of Primate Reintroduction Projects in the Mesoamerican Region.
Martin, Sarah ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Libois, Roland ULg

Poster (2008)

Very little is known about primate reintroduction projects in Mesoamerica. The aim of this study was to focus on existing projects concerning primate re-introductions, conservation-introduction ... [more ▼]

Very little is known about primate reintroduction projects in Mesoamerica. The aim of this study was to focus on existing projects concerning primate re-introductions, conservation-introduction, translocation, as well as on reinforcement-supplementation of parallel initiatives. In order to create a database, a survey was sent to a panel of scientists in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, and we visited five projects in Costa Rica from March to August 2006. A total of 19 projects were found: Costa Rica hosted the higher number (7) while Salvador and Nicaragua did not host any. Fourteen out of those 19 projects concerned confiscated animals. Six of the 7 Costa Rican projects used confiscated primates; the other ones came from wild populations or were born in captivity. Alouatta palliata and Ateles geoffroyi are the most common species subject to reintroduction effort in the Mesoamerican region. A wide range of factors seem to influence reintroduction success such as: the project’s budget, the release site, the mode of transportation, the caging setting, the support from local communities, the presence of environmental education programs, but also the age of primates, etc. Each project seems to work as a completely separated entity, with its own definition of reintroduction success and its own policy. There’s no communication between the projects, no matter if they are based in the same country or work on the same species. A reintroduction guideline for this region should be established as well as a regional network coordinating the information. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical survey of hierarchical methods for state estimation of electric power systems
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Pavella, Mania ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems (1983), 102

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See detailCritical thickness for ferroelectricity in perovskite ultrathin films
Junquera, J.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg

in Nature (2003), 422(6931), 506-509

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See detailA critical view on the parametric fire model of Eurocode 1
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2006, May 31)

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See detailCriticality of trapping in a dynamic epidemic model
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Journal of Physics : A Mathematical & General (1996), 29(2), 309-316

We study a simple model mimicking the two-dimensional growth of a solid interface B through a liquid L in presence of particles A which are pushed by the advancing front. The model considers a short-range ... [more ▼]

We study a simple model mimicking the two-dimensional growth of a solid interface B through a liquid L in presence of particles A which are pushed by the advancing front. The model considers a short-range repulsive interaction between the particles and the advancing front (the so-called Uhlmann, Chalmers and Jackson mechanism). As particles are pushed by the advancing front, this leads to the formation of aggregates which are hindrances to the growth and which can be trapped leading to the formation of internal patterns. A transition between indefinitely growing clusters and frozen ones takes place for a critical particle fraction x(c) = 0.560 +/- 0.005 which is larger than the critical fraction of the corresponding epidemic model with static particles. At that critical threshold x, both percolating clusters and internal patterns are numerically found to be fractal with the same dimension D-f = 1.87 +/- 0.03 close to the classical percolation exponent 91/48. The correlation length exponent v is found to be v = 1.34 +/- 0.08 close to the classical percolation exponent 4/3. The criticality of the internal patterns is unexpected. [less ▲]

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See detailCriticism and engagement in the Belle Epoque. The autonomy of literature and the social function of the writer during the third Republic
Denis, Benoît ULg

in Dorleijn, Gillis J.; Grüttemeier, Ralph; Korthals Altes, Liesbeth (Eds.) The Autonomy of Literature at the Fins de Siècle (1900 and 2000) (2007)

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See detailDe criticus is een gnoe. Een gesprek met Hugo Brems
Spinoy, Erik ULg; Vandevoorde, Hans

in Yang : Tijdschrift voor Literatuur en Kommunikatie (1991), 27(152), 75-94

This is the text of an interview with Hugo Brems, one of the foremost academic critics of and experts on contemporary Dutch and Flemish poetry.

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See detailLa critique dans la pratique sociologique : questions introductives
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Recherches (2008), 5

Defending a critical position in sociology depends simultaneously on a triple choice by the researcher in the fields of ontology, epistemology and ethics. From an ontological point of view, the social may ... [more ▼]

Defending a critical position in sociology depends simultaneously on a triple choice by the researcher in the fields of ontology, epistemology and ethics. From an ontological point of view, the social may be defined as primarily holistic, atomistic, or as being the result of mutual structuration by the parts and the whole. Espitemologically, the position of the researcher may be more realist (social phenomena do exist independantly from our point of view about them) or more constructivist (social phenomena are essentially what people or researchers think they are). considering ethics, the social researcher may act rather as an expert (leaving to the funder of the research the question of the relevance of the object to be investigated) or rather as an intellectual (that chooses himself what is worth investigating or not). The relation between sociology and critics depends crucially on what position the researcher takes within this tri-dimensional frame. [less ▲]

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See detailLa critique dans la pratique sociologique
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2007, June)

La posture critique que peut adopter le sociologue dépend de trois présupposés : éthique, ontologique, et épistémologique. Du point de vue ontologique, le sociologue peut voir le social comme holiste ... [more ▼]

La posture critique que peut adopter le sociologue dépend de trois présupposés : éthique, ontologique, et épistémologique. Du point de vue ontologique, le sociologue peut voir le social comme holiste, individualiste ou relationaliste. Du point de vue épistémique, il peut adopter une posture réaliste ou constructiviste, et du point de vue éthique, il peut adopter une posture de neutralité (expert) ou d'engagement (intellectuel). La critique se déploiera très différemment selon les combinaisons de posture adoptées. [less ▲]

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See detailCritique de l'analyse des graphes isocinétiques
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Isocinétisme et Médecine Sportive (1998)

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See detailLa critique de l’histoire sacrée chez les utopistes français. Le cas de Simon Tyssot de Patot (1655-1738)
Saal, Caroline ULg

in Actes du Neuvième congrès de l'Association des Cercles francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

Contrairement au préjugé presque unanime qui veut que l'histoire soit absente de l'utopie car la perfection de cette dernière suppose et nécessite la stabilité, les utopies constituent en réalité une mine ... [more ▼]

Contrairement au préjugé presque unanime qui veut que l'histoire soit absente de l'utopie car la perfection de cette dernière suppose et nécessite la stabilité, les utopies constituent en réalité une mine d'informations sur le rapport au passé de leurs écrivains et sur leur perception de l'histoire. L'influence de l'histoire sacrée se ressent remarquablement dans ces passés imaginés. Cependant, sa place s'explique également par l'envie de l'auteur d'exprimer son scepticisme par rapport à son contenu. Ainsi, nous proposons de nous pencher sur le cas de Simon Tyssot de Patot , protestant français, exilé aux Pays-Bas très jeune, qui se sert de la liberté d'expression que procure l'utopie pour remettre en question le fond comme la forme de l'histoire religieuse. Vies des saints ou dogmes anciens, bien des épisodes sont passés au crible par cet autodidacte dans ses utopies, nous livrant l'occasion de découvrir les limites de pénétration des récits officiels de l'histoire religieuse. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (12 ULg)
See detailLa critique de l'information
Pochet, Bernard ULg

in Râdulescu, Michaëla St.; Darbord, Bernard; Solca, Angela (Eds.) Méthodologie de l'apprentissage de la recherche universitaire (2010)

Il est maintenant tout à fait possible de réaliser une bibliographie scientifique en ne quittant pas son bureau. Comme sur Internet le pire et le meilleur se côtoient, il est devenu impératif d'utiliser ... [more ▼]

Il est maintenant tout à fait possible de réaliser une bibliographie scientifique en ne quittant pas son bureau. Comme sur Internet le pire et le meilleur se côtoient, il est devenu impératif d'utiliser les bons outils de recherche documentaire et d'être particulièrement critique. Cet article présente une méthode simple permettant de se faire une idée de la qualité d'un document. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (24 ULg)