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See detailCompetition for amino acids as a potential mechanism of Aureobasidium pullulans against post-harvest apple blue mold.
Bencheqroun, S. K.; Bajji, M.; Labhilili, M. et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2007), 30(6(1)),

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See detailCompetition law - Reader
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Learning material (2016)

This reader contains the course notes accompanying an introductory competition law course I had the good fortune to teach at Leiden University in April 2016. It contains detailed course outlines, notes ... [more ▼]

This reader contains the course notes accompanying an introductory competition law course I had the good fortune to teach at Leiden University in April 2016. It contains detailed course outlines, notes, questions and practical information. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
See detailCompetition of phonon and magnon effects in the temperature dependence of spinwave stiffness
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Di Gennaro, Marco ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 21)

Magnons are the elementary magnetic excitations in ordered solids. Understanding such collective excitations is important for a number of technologically relevant fields, such as, magnonics [1] or spin ... [more ▼]

Magnons are the elementary magnetic excitations in ordered solids. Understanding such collective excitations is important for a number of technologically relevant fields, such as, magnonics [1] or spin caloritronics [2]. The central interactions in spin caloritronics are the couplings of phonons with electrons and spin degrees of freedom. Furthermore, understanding the effects of temperature on the phonon and spin degrees of freedom adds a further complexity. In the present work we have developed a multiscale model of ferromagnetic materials and demonstrate the effect of temperature dependent phonon displacements on the magnons spectra. Our results show that the for Fe and Ni the effect of phonon displacements acts to reduce the Curie temperature, whereas for Permalloy the opposite is true due to an increased long-ranged exchange interaction. This increased exchange interaction results in an increasing spin-wave stiffness with increasing temperature, overcoming the usual decrease due to magnon softening. To determine the effects of increasing the phonon temperature we have developed a multiscale model whereby we begin by calculating the thermal displacement of phonons, $\sqrt{\langle u^2(T) \rangle}$, calculated using the phonopy software package [3] using electronic ground state and phonon properties determined using the ABINIT software package [4]. Then the exchange constants are determined using the SPRKKR package [5]. Finally, we use linear spin wave theory to determine the effect of the phonon temperature on the exchange alone, demonstrating an increasing frequency of the acoustic magnon branch. We take into account the thermal effects of the magnetic system through the use of the atomistic spin dynamics approach. Magnon softening due to thermal effects demonstrates a more modest increase in the exchange stiffness (over the purely phononic effect), however, an overall increase is still observed. \newline \newline [1] A. V. Chumak, V. I. Vasyuchka, A. A. Serga, and B. Hillebrands, Nature Physics, {\bf 11}, 453–461 (2015). \newline [2] G. E. W. Bauer, E. Saitoh, and B. J. van Wees, Nature Materials {\bf 11}, 391 (2012). \newline [3] Atsushi Togo and Isao Tanaka, Scr. Mater., {\bf 108}, 1-5 (2015) \newline [4] X. Gonze \textit{et al.} Computer Physics Communications {\bf 180}, 2582-2615 (2009). \newline [5] T. Huhne \textit{at al.} Physical Review B, {\bf 58}, 10236 (1998). [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition partisane, changement climatique et écologie politique : convergences et conflits sur les thématiques politiques
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Flipo, Fabrice (Ed.) Les actes du Colloque "Penser l'écologie politique" (2015, June 16)

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See detailCompetition Policy and the Euromed Partnership
Petit, Nicolas ULg; Geradin, Damien

in European Foreign Affairs Review (2003)

This paper seeks to provide a critical assessment of the efforts made by the EC to stimulate the development of competition laws in the Mediterranean countries with which it is engaged in partnership ... [more ▼]

This paper seeks to provide a critical assessment of the efforts made by the EC to stimulate the development of competition laws in the Mediterranean countries with which it is engaged in partnership agreements. It reviews the content of the competition provisions of the association agreements, as well as their effectiveness. In then examines the regular calls for convergence on the EC competition law model to which Mediterranean countries are object. There is indeed room for debate regarding the opportunity, as well as the nature of such convergence. The paper concludes that a deep convergence approach, whereby the non-candidate Partner countries would transpose EC competition rules in their domestic legal order, would provide many benefits for both the EC and these countries. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition pour l'azote inorganique entre le pelagos et le benthos dans un écosystème côtier oligotrophe. Effets sur la dynamique de l'écosystème.
Lepoint, Gilles ULg

Doctoral thesis (2001)

Résumé de la thèse intitulée : Compétition pour l’azote inorganique entre le benthos et le pelagos d’un milieu côtier oligotrophe. Effets sur la dynamique de l’écosystème. Dissertation présentée le 9 mai ... [more ▼]

Résumé de la thèse intitulée : Compétition pour l’azote inorganique entre le benthos et le pelagos d’un milieu côtier oligotrophe. Effets sur la dynamique de l’écosystème. Dissertation présentée le 9 mai 2001 par Gilles Lepoint en vue de l’obtention du grade de Docteur en Sciences de l’Université de Liège. Dans la Baie de la Revellata (Calvi, Corse, France), comme dans de nombreux sites côtiers méditerranéens, les biocénoses benthiques sont très développées et productives, malgré le caractère oligotrophe du compartiment pélagique et la pauvreté relative en nutriment de la colonne d’eau. Dans ce travail, nous avons abordé la résolution de ce paradoxe apparent sous l’angle de la compétition pour l’azote inorganique, élément dont la disponibilité influence la dynamique des compartiments benthique et pélagique. Notre démarche scientifique s’est déroulée en trois étapes : mesure des paramètres environnementaux pouvant influencer la dynamique de l’azote dans l’écosystème (lumière, température, concentrations en azote inorganique), mesure des concentrations relatives en azote et des biomasses des organismes étudiés (phytoplancton, macroalgues, posidonies et communauté épiphyte), mesure des vitesses spécifiques et des flux d’incorporation de nitrate et d’ammonium par ces organismes. Nous montrons que les différents producteurs de la Baie de la Revellata sont des organismes adaptés à une disponibilité faible en nutriments. Les flux d’incorporation mesurés et l’acquisition de stratégies saisonnières de type stockage / remobilisation permet aux producteurs benthiques d’assurer leurs besoins en azote. L’impact des communautés benthiques sur la dynamique du compartiment pélagique est manifeste et contribue probablement à maintenir la pauvreté en nutriments de ce système. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetitive facility location problem with attractiveness adjustment of the follower: A bilevel programming model and its solution
Kucukaydin, Hande ULg; Aras, Necati; Altinel, I. Kuban

in European Journal of Operational Research (2011), 208(3), 206-220

We are concerned with a problem in which a firm or franchise enters a market by locating new facilities where there are existing facilities belonging to a competitor. The firm aims at finding the location ... [more ▼]

We are concerned with a problem in which a firm or franchise enters a market by locating new facilities where there are existing facilities belonging to a competitor. The firm aims at finding the location and attractiveness of each facility to be opened so as to maximize its profit. The competitor, on the other hand, can react by adjusting the attractiveness of its existing facilities with the objective of maximizing its own profit. The demand is assumed to be aggregated at certain points in the plane and the facilities of the firm can be located at predetermined candidate sites. We employ Huff's gravity-based rule in modeling the behavior of the customers where the fraction of customers at a demand point that visit a certain facility is proportional to the facility attractiveness and inversely proportional to the distance between the facility site and demand point. We formulate a bilevel mixed-integer nonlinear programming model where the firm entering the market is the leader and the competitor is the follower. In order to find the optimal solution of this model, we convert it into an equivalent one-level mixed-integer nonlinear program so that it can be solved by global optimization methods. Apart from reporting computational results obtained on a set of randomly generated instances, we also compute the benefit the leader firm derives from anticipating the competitor's reaction of adjusting the attractiveness levels of its facilities. The results on the test instances indicate that the benefit is 58.33% on the average. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetitive inhibitors of the CphA metallo-beta-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophila
Horsfall, L. E.; Garau, G.; Lienard, B. M. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2007), 51(6), 2136-2142

Various inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases have been reported; however, none are effective for all subgroups. Those that have been found to inhibit the enzymes of subclass B2 (catalytically active with ... [more ▼]

Various inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases have been reported; however, none are effective for all subgroups. Those that have been found to inhibit the enzymes of subclass B2 (catalytically active with one zinc) either contain a thiol (and show less inhibition towards this subgroup than towards the dizinc members of B1 and B3) or are inactivators behaving as substrates for the dizinc family members. The present work reveals that certain pyridine carboxylates are competitive inhibitors of CphA, a subclass B2 enzyme. X-ray crystallographic analyses demonstrate that pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid chelates the zinc ion in a bidentate manner within the active site. Salts of these compounds are already available and undergoing biomedical testing for various nonrelated purposes. Pyridine carboxylates appear to be useful templates for the development of more-complex, selective, nontoxic inhibitors of subclass B2 metallo-beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetitive interaction of a synthetic polycation (PDMAEMA) to human platelets and erythrocytes
Flebus, Luca ULg; Lombart, François ULg; martinez, Lucia et al

Poster (2013, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (10 ULg)
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See detailCompetitively Neutral Universal Service Obligations
Gautier, Axel ULg; Wauthy, Xavier

in Information Economics and Policy (2012), 24

Universal service obligations impose specific costs on the universal service provider and the latter may call for an appropriate compensation. Most often, a two-step procedure is put forward to finance ... [more ▼]

Universal service obligations impose specific costs on the universal service provider and the latter may call for an appropriate compensation. Most often, a two-step procedure is put forward to finance the universal service in a competitive environment. Firstly, the cost of the universal service is assessed; secondly, the provider must be compensated for this cost. We argue that this procedure is problematic because the implementation of a compensation scheme affects the behavior of market participants and leads to an overcompensation of the universal service provider. We put forward an alternative approach to this problem that fully acknowledges the distortions that result from the compensation mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétitivité des filières rizicoles burundaises: le riz de l'Imbo et le riz des marais
Gahiro, Léonidas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Le riz est une culture récente, pratiquée surtout dans la plaine de l'Imbo et dans les marais de moyenne altitude du Burundi. D'une part, les ressources disponibles et les technologies de production ... [more ▼]

Le riz est une culture récente, pratiquée surtout dans la plaine de l'Imbo et dans les marais de moyenne altitude du Burundi. D'une part, les ressources disponibles et les technologies de production rendent le riz de l'Imbo plus compétitif que le riz des marais. D'autre part, la majorité des qualités locales s'avèrent moins compétitives que celles importées de l'Asie et la Tanzanie. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 245 (41 ULg)
See detailLa compétitivité du transport intermodal
Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2016, November 02)

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See detailCompétitivité et attractivité en Wallonie et à Liège : vers une nouvelle géographie économique ?
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Philipkin, Gilles; Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
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See detailCompétitivité, valorisation des ressources et objectifs de sécurité alimentaire pour la filière sucrière au Maroc
Redani, Latifa ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The general objective of this work is to examine the coherence between food security policies and economic efficiency and valuation of resources policies for the sugar sub-sector in Morocco. A food ... [more ▼]

The general objective of this work is to examine the coherence between food security policies and economic efficiency and valuation of resources policies for the sugar sub-sector in Morocco. A food security policy implies state intervention and thus leads implicitly to market distortions, while a resource valuation policy would imply a free market. To address this issue, I will firstly adopt an approach that involves a sugar market analysis (measuring determinants of demand and changes in international prices against their impact on food security). Then, an economic analysis which attempts at assessing the competitiveness of the various segments of the sugar sub-sector will be undertaken. Finally, an analysis of the relative valuation of resources (capital, labor and irrigation water) by sugar crops compared to different irrigated crops will be led, in order to determine their private and social returns on. The analysis of demand during the period between 2000 and 2010 shows that the trend of domestic consumption witnessed major increases, which lead to the enhancement of food insecurity for sugar in the future. The analysis of volatility of world sugar prices from 1960 to 2010, through the decomposition method of time series, allows the isolation of an accidental effect, which reflects variability due neither to seasonal effects nor to trend. This accidental effect is mainly marked during three periods: 1973-1975, 1980-1981 and 2009-2010. In terms of food security, these fluctuations in world sugar prices have no impact on household access to sugar, yet they have a significant impact on state budget. Any variation in prices in the international market is absorbed by the compensation system since prices are regulated by this system. The food safety policy conducted during the sixties and seventies have mitigated the country's dependence on imports and thus reduce the impact of world sugar price fluctuations. However, this policy has often been criticized in terms of market efficiency and valuation of resources. The economic analysis of the sugar sub-sector in Morocco shows that the different segments of the value chain don’t enjoy the same level of protection. If the production segment of sugar beet doesn’t receive any protection, the processing segment of raw sugar will remain protected. However, the level of this protection has generally declined during the post structural adjustment period. In terms of competitiveness, while the sugar beet crop becomes competitive, the effective competitiveness of the industrial segment, and given the significant distortions in the world market, is difficult to assess. The analysis of the valuation of resources (capital, labor and water) shows that sugar crops, especially sugar beets, value relatively better capital resources and labor than most horticultural crops. They occupy an important position in terms of employment and value added created per hectare. However, the valuation of irrigation water remains low for sugar beet (excluding the region of Doukkala). But the technology trend shows substantial opportunities for improvement. Food security policy for sugar has been efficient since it helped establish a competitive national production which is generally able to value resources better. The distortions introduced by state intervention gave the time to farmers to improve their technical skills and to become competitive in the framework of international market, marked as it was by significant distortions. Finally, a food security policy is in no way inconsistent with a policy of valuation of resources on the condition that when the sub-sector becomes competitive, a way to market mechanisms must be given. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetiveness and incentive production of cotton sector in Mali
Koné, B.; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Berti, Fabio ULg et al

in Research Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Management (2015), 4(12), 509-517

The Cotton production of has enormous problems originate from external factors (higher fertilizer prices, the producer price fluctuation) and internal factors (internal credit, claims of producers of ... [more ▼]

The Cotton production of has enormous problems originate from external factors (higher fertilizer prices, the producer price fluctuation) and internal factors (internal credit, claims of producers of short period payment of cotton seed to creditors), whose effects influence supply of Malian cotton. This work intervenes during an economic crisis when measures have been taken to increase cotton production in Mali. The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of input subsidies and increase seed cotton prices in relation with the global market of cotton fiber on the performance of the cotton sector in Mali. Surveys were conducted with a sample of 240 farms in four CMDT zones with two villages by area in 2008 /09, 2010/ 11 and 2011 /12, and the data from the CMDT (CMD, 2012) were used to develop a matrix of Policy Analysis. The results of analysis showed an improvement in the level of competitiveness of the cotton sector in Mali, and the level of incentives for the production of seed cotton with a subsidy of 50 % of the normal market price and the price increase of cotton seed with motivating factors. [less ▲]

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See detailCompilation commentée de la littérature portant sur le soutien public et privé à la culture par d'autres voies et moyens que la subvention publique directe
Husson, Jean-François ULg; Paindavoine, Isabelle; Sepulchre, Vincent ULg

Report (2009)

Revue de la littérature et de sources officielles concernant les instruments budgétaires et fiscaux, autre que le financement budgétaire direct, concourant au financement de la culture. Le rapport aborde ... [more ▼]

Revue de la littérature et de sources officielles concernant les instruments budgétaires et fiscaux, autre que le financement budgétaire direct, concourant au financement de la culture. Le rapport aborde la situation en Belgique et dans plusieurs autres pays : France, Grande-Bretagne, Allemagne, Italie, Hongrie, Pays-Bas, Suisse, Etats-Unis et Canada. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (19 ULg)