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See detailCryoscopie des solides de l’organisme. Procédés et résultats
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1902), (novembre),

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See detailCryoscopy: a novel enhancing method of in vivo skin imaging.
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin Research & Technology (2007), 13(4), 377-84

BACKGROUND: It is a common observation that superficial freezing of normal skin and skin tumors may create a transient superficial whitening effect. In this respect, cryoscopy refers to the direct ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: It is a common observation that superficial freezing of normal skin and skin tumors may create a transient superficial whitening effect. In this respect, cryoscopy refers to the direct observation by dermoscopy, with or without digital recording, of the visual alterations of the frozen tissues. AIMS: To define the optimal method of cryoscopy and to describe the cryoscopy patterns of normal skin and selected skin lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of (a) different cryogenic sources [solid carbon dioxide (-78.5 degrees C), liquid nitrogen (N(2), -196 degrees C), and a mixture of dimethyl ether and propane (-57 degrees C)], (b) various application methods (spraying, cotton chill tips, copper plate), and (c) freezing time was assessed with regard to clinical feasability, visualization quality, and persistance time of the whitening effect. Cryoscopy patterns of normal skin, callosities and of histologically proven seborrheic keratoses, verrucous hamartomas, molluscum contagiosum, keratoacanthomas, viral warts, condylomas, actinic keratoses, dermatofibromas, skin tags, basal cell carcinomas, angiomas, and melanocytic naevi were assessed. RESULTS: The cryoscopy images of skin highlighted the skin lines. They appeared similar regardless of the freezing source and the application method. The aspects differed according to the nature of the lesions. The cotton chill tip method provided a longer whitening period compared with the other cold sources, both in normal and lesional skin. Hence, it represented the most convenient way for performing digital recording cryoscopy. On normal skin, cryoapplication was limited to about 1.5 s due to pain, resulting in whitening times ranging from 6 to 9 s, which was too short for easy digital recording. On all studied skin tumors, a 10-s N(2) freezing time was not experienced as painful, and blanching time persisted for 20-34 s, allowing easy digital recording. The whitening time was longer with increasing freezing time on both normal and lesional skin. Every single examined normal skin site and all the skin lesions showed a strong whitening effect, except heavily cornified structures, including some keratoses, callosities, and viral warts. Increased contrast of the skin surface texture was observed in almost every studied lesion. CONCLUSION: The N(2) cotton chill tip technique appeared to be the most convenient technique for cryoscopy and provided longer whitening periods compared with the other freezing sources. Pain prevented its use on normal skin, but a series of exophytic skin lesions was conveniently accessible to cryoscopy. The differences in whitening periods of various epidermal components resulted in increased visual contrast, creating typical cryoscopy images for the different exophytic skin tumors. Cryoscopy represents a novel in vivo skin imaging technique that is rapid, non-invasive, cost-effective, and easily performed. It shows both investigative and diagnostic potentials. It is remarkable that cryoscopy pictures closely resemble those yielded by skin capacitance imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailCryothérapie et maladies rhumatismales
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2011), 78

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See detailCryotherapy in rheumatic diseases
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg

in Joint Bone Spine (2012), 79

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See detailCryptic taxa should have names. Reflections in the glasswort genus Salicornia (Amaranthaceae)
Kadereit, G; Piraiinen; Lambinon, Jacques ULg et al

in Taxon (2012), 61

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See detailLa cryptococcose pulmonaire: un probleme d'actualite.
Hotermans, G; Bury, Thierry ULg; CORHAY, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1988), 43(21), 698-703

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See detailCryptocrine Signaling in the Thymus Network and T Cell Education to Neuroendocrine Self-Antigens
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Goxe, Béatrice; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Medicine : Official Organ of the 'Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte' (1995), 73(9), 449-55

Both during phylogeny and ontogeny the thymus appears as a nodal point between the two major systems of cell-to-cell signaling, the neuroendocrine and immune systems. This review presents the experimental ... [more ▼]

Both during phylogeny and ontogeny the thymus appears as a nodal point between the two major systems of cell-to-cell signaling, the neuroendocrine and immune systems. This review presents the experimental observations which support a dual role in T cell selection played by the thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine polypeptide precursors. Through the mode of cryptocrine intercellular signaling thymic neuroendocrine-related precursors synthesized in thymic epithelial cells have been shown to influence the early steps in T cell differentiation. In addition, thymic neuroendocrine-related polypeptides are a source of self-antigens which are presented by the major histocompatibility system of the thymic epithelium. Preliminary data also suggest that the intrathymic T cell education to neuroendocrine self-antigens is not strictly superimposible to the antigen presentation by dedicated presenting cells. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) was identified as one dominant member of the insulin family expressed by thymic epithelial and nurse cells. The intrathymic presentation of IGF-II or IGF-II derived self-antigens is under current investigation. If further confirmed, the central tolerogenic properties of IGF-II could be considered in the elaboration of a strategy for an efficient and safe prevention of insulin-dependent diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptocrine Signaling in the Thymus Network. Implications for Central T-Cell Tolerance of Neuroendocrine Functions
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Cormann-Goffin, Nadine; Vandersmissen, Eric et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1994), 741

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See detailCryptospores and spores from the Ordovician to the Llandovery. A review
Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Acta Universitatis Carolinae. Geologica (1999), (1/2), 271--274

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See detailCryptospores and trilete spores from the Llandovery, Nuayyim-2 Borehole, Saudi Arabia
Steemans, Philippe ULg; Higgs, K. T.; Wellman, C. H.

Conference (2000)

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See detailCrystal chemistry and geothermometric applications of primary pegmatite phosphates.
Hatert, Frédéric ULg

in PEG2013 – 6th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Abstract book (2013)

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See detailCrystal chemistry of a near end-member triplite, Mn2+2(PO4)F, from Codera valley (Sondrio province, Central Alps, Italy)
Vignola, P; Gatta, D; Hatert, Frédéric ULg et al

in PEG2013 – 6th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Abstract book (2013)

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See detailCrystal chemistry of lithium in pegmatite phosphates: A SIMS investigation of natural and synthetic samples
Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Ottolini, Luisa; Keller, Paul et al

in Estudios Geologicos (2009), 19(2), 131-134

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See detailThe crystal chemistry of lithium in the alluaudite structure
Hatert, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2003)

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See detailThe crystal chemistry of lithium in the alluaudite structure: a study of the (Na1-xLix)(1.5)Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)(3) solid solution (x=0 to 1)
Hatert, Frédéric ULg

in Mineralogy and Petrology (2004), 81(3-4), 205-217

Phosphates of compositions (Na1-xLix)(1.5)Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)(3) were synthesized by solid state reactions in air, and pure alluaudite-type compounds were obtained for x = 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50. Rietveld ... [more ▼]

Phosphates of compositions (Na1-xLix)(1.5)Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)(3) were synthesized by solid state reactions in air, and pure alluaudite-type compounds were obtained for x = 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50. Rietveld refinements of X-ray powder diffraction data indicate the occurrence of Mn2+ in the M(1) site, and of Fe3+ and Mn2+ in the M(2) site. For x = 0.25 and 0.50, A(1) is occupied by Li+ and Na+, whereas A(2)' is occupied by Na+ and vacancies. A careful examination of the number of electrons occurring in the A sites of the alluaudite-type compounds (Na1-xLix)MnFe2(PO4)(3) and (Na1-xLix) CdIn2(PO4)(3) confirms that lithium occupies only the A(1) crystallographic site of the alluaudite structure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe crystal chemistry of lithium in the alluaudite structure: A study of the (Na1-xLix)Cdln(2) (PO4)(3) the solid solution (x=0 to 1)
Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Antenucci, Diano ULg; Fransolet, André-Mathieu ULg et al

in Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2002), 163(1), 194-201

Several compounds of the (Na1-xLix)CdIn2(PO4)(3) solid solution were synthesized by a solid-state reaction in air, and pure alluaudite-like compounds were obtained for x = 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50. X-ray ... [more ▼]

Several compounds of the (Na1-xLix)CdIn2(PO4)(3) solid solution were synthesized by a solid-state reaction in air, and pure alluaudite-like compounds were obtained for x = 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50. X-ray Rietveld refinements indicate the occurrence of Cd2+ in the M(1) site, and of In3+ in the M(2) site of the alluaudite structure. This non-disordered cationic distribution is confirmed by the sharpness of the infrared absorption bands. The distribution of Na+ and Li+ on the A(1) and A(2)' crystallographic sites cannot be accurately assessed by the Rietvled method, probably because the electronic densities involved in the Na+ --> Li+ substitution are very small. A comparison with the synthetic alluaudite-like compounds, (Na1-xLix)MnFe2(PO4)(3), indicates the influence of the cations occupying the M(1) and M(2) sites on the coordination polyhedra morphologies of the A(1) and A(2)' crystallographic sites. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science. [less ▲]

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