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See detailA cross-sectional epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the Savelugu and West Mamprusi districts of northern Ghana
Mahama, C. I.; Desquesnes, M.; Dia, M. L. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2004), 122(1), 1-13

The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity ... [more ▼]

The epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis was investigated in two districts (Savelugu and West Mamprusi) of Northern Ghana with different land use and environmental characteristics. The land use intensity and environmental change was suspected to be higher in the Savelugu District. A cross-sectional entomological survey conducted along the White Volta river and its tributaries confirmed the presence of only Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides. The challenge index as measured by the product of tsetse density and tsetse infection rate was much higher in the West Mamprusi (19.6) than in the Savelugu district (4.7). A total of 10 13 cattle (508 in Savelugu and 505 in West Mamprusi) were bled from a random selection of 16 villages in the Savelugu District and 13 villaaes in the West Mamprusi District. Blood samples were examined for trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique (BCT). Blood samples that were positive in the BCT or negative in the BCT but with packed cell volume (PCV) values below 21 were further tested with a polymerase chain reaction for trypanosomal DNA. Plasma samples of all cattle were serologically tested with an indirect ELISA for trypanosomal antibodies. The parasitological and serological prevalence of bovine trypanosomoses was significantly higher in West Mamprusi (16 and 53%, respectively) than in Savelugu District (8 and 24%, respectively). An evaluation of animal health at the village herd level, using PCV as an index of anaemia, provided various epidemiological scenarios prevalent in the entire study-area. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional evaluation of adiponectin plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
Hanssens, Linda; van Winkel, Ruud; Wampers, Martien et al

in Schizophrenia Research (2008), 106(2-3), 308-14

BACKGROUND: In recent years, several studies showed increased rates of hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome as well as cardiovascular disease in schizophrenic patients. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In recent years, several studies showed increased rates of hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome as well as cardiovascular disease in schizophrenic patients. The underlying mechanism, however, is poorly understood. Adiponectin is a recently identified adipocyte-derived protein, with low adiponectin levels being associated with metabolic abnormalities such as obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Fasting adiponectin levels were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 386 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. All patients were on monotherapy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) and underwent an extensive metabolic screening including an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Adiponectin plasma levels were inversely correlated with BMI, and differed significantly between patients with normal weight, overweight or obesity (p<0.05). Patients who met criteria for the metabolic syndrome, according to adapted National Cholesterol Educational Program - Adult Treatment Panel criteria (NCEP-ATP III) (29.3%), had significantly lower adiponectin levels than patients not meeting metabolic syndrome criteria (p<0.0001). Patients without glucose abnormalities (78%) had significantly higher adiponectin levels than patients with diabetes (5.7%) (p<0.05). After controlling for components of metabolic syndrome and sex, antipsychotic medication independently influenced adiponectin levels (p<0.0001), with the lowest mean levels in patients on clozapine and olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin levels in schizophrenic patients mirror what is observed in the general population, with the lowest levels in the most metabolically comprised subjects. However, antipsychotic medication may also influence adiponectin regulation independently, a finding that should be confirmed in longitudinal studies. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional study of adiponectin in patients with schizophrenia
Hanssens, L.; De Hert, M.; Van Eyck, D. et al

in Schizophrenia Research (2006, January), 81(Suppl. S), 135

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See detailA cross-sectional study of adiponectin in patients with schizophrenia
Hanssens, L.; De Hert, M.; Van Eyck, D. et al

in European Neuropsychopharmacology (2006, September), 16(Suppl. 4), 430-431

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See detailA cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.
Vanderschuren, Hervé ULg; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen et al

in New biotechnology (2010), 27(6), 822-8

Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the ... [more ▼]

Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Sectional Study of the Association between Pathological Conditions and Myxoma-Virus Seroprevalence in Intensive Rabbit Farms in Europe
Marlier, Didier ULg; Herbots, J.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2001), 48(1), 55-64

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily ... [more ▼]

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily performed on the basis of typical skin lesions whereas that of amyxomatous forms must be based on virus isolation or detection of specific antibodies to myxoma virus (MV). The seroprevalence of MV was studied between March 1998 and February 1999 in 16 farms from three European countries considered free of myxomatosis on the basis of the absence of typical clinical signs. MV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%) in all 16 farms; the seroprevalences corrected for test inaccuracy (95% confidence interval) were 55+/-7.7% and 37+/-6.1% for does and broilers, respectively. The association between herd sizes, types of rabbitries, and presence of recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles and seroprevalence of MV antibodies was tested in logistic multiple regressions. In all models, the seroprevalence of MV antibodies was significantly higher in herds (does and broilers) with recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles than in herds without these problems. The seroprevalence was also higher in herds (does and broilers) where animals were housed totally or partially in outdoors rabbitries than in totally enclosed rabbitries. The effect of herd sizes on the presence of MV antibodies was the same in does and broilers; intermediate sizes were at lower risk than the smaller and larger ones. [less ▲]

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See detailA cross-sectional study to assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador
Cabezas Guerra, Maria del Carmen ULg; Fornasini, Marco; Dardenne, Nadia ULg et al

in BMC Public Health (2013), 13

Background: HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the ... [more ▼]

Background: HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. Results: Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6-51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR=1.73 [1.39 –2.15]), older subjects (OR=1.35 [1.02 – 1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR=3.72 [2.44 – 5.65]), manual labor workers (OR=2.93 [1.82 – 4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR=2.26 [1.79 – 2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6-35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR=2.28 [1.52 – 3.43]), married subjects (OR=1.34 [1.07 – 1.68]), manual labor workers (OR=1.80 [1.34 – 2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR=1.44 [1.14 – 1.83]). Conclusions: HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cross-talk between dendritic and regulatory T cells: good or evil?
Hubert, Pascale ULg; Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Caberg, Jean-Hubert ULg et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2007), 82(4), 781-94

Immune responses against pathogens require fine regulation in order to avoid excessive inflammation, which could be harmful to the host. Moreover, the immune system must be tolerant to non-pathogenic ... [more ▼]

Immune responses against pathogens require fine regulation in order to avoid excessive inflammation, which could be harmful to the host. Moreover, the immune system must be tolerant to non-pathogenic antigens in order to prevent allergy, autoimmunity and transplant rejection. There is accumulating evidence that interactions between dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T (Treg) cells play a crucial role in the balance between immune response and tolerance. Communications between these cells are complex, bi-directional and mediated by soluble or cell surface molecules. The maturation status of DC, which may be influenced by different microenvironmental factors, is considered as an important checkpoint for the induction of peripheral tolerance through modifications of the activation status of T cells. Moreover, several lines of experimental evidence suggest that different subsets or the functional status of DC are also involved in the promotion of Treg cell differentiation. A better knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of the immune response induced or inhibited by DC via their interactions with Treg cells could be relevant for the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-talk Modeling of Wnt, BMP and ERK Pathways during Osteochondrogenic Differentiation
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Vandeput, M.; Roberts, S. et al

in Proceedings of the TERMIS-EU meeting (2010, June)

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See detailA Cross-Validation Approach to Approximate Basis Function Selection of the Stall Flutter Response of a Rectangular Wing in a Wind Tunnel
Kukreja, Sunil L.; Vio, Gareth A.; Andrianne, Thomas ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference (2012, April 25)

The stall flutter response of a rectangular wing in a low speed wind tunnel is modelled using a nonlinear difference equation description. Static and dynamic tests are used to select a suitable model ... [more ▼]

The stall flutter response of a rectangular wing in a low speed wind tunnel is modelled using a nonlinear difference equation description. Static and dynamic tests are used to select a suitable model structure and basis function. Bifurcation criteria such as the Hopf condition and vibration amplitude variation with airspeed were used to ensure the model was representative of experimentally measured stall flutter phenomena. Dynamic test data were used to estimate model parameters and estimate an approximate basis function. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Words. Issues and Debates in Literary and Non-literary Translating
Pagnoulle, Christine ULg; Mason, Ian

Book published by L3 (1995)

Those sixteen contributions on the art of translating move from general considerations on what is involved in the process and specific strategies, to field-related topics such as legal translation ... [more ▼]

Those sixteen contributions on the art of translating move from general considerations on what is involved in the process and specific strategies, to field-related topics such as legal translation, teaching and assessing translations, to case studies in literary translation (Sinclair Lewis, nabokov, Queneau, Mistral, Lowell and Pound). [less ▲]

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See detailA crossed random effects model to detect differential item functioning
Frederickx, Sofie; Magis, David ULg; Tuerlinckx, Francis et al

Conference (2008, June)

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See detailCrossed random effects models for the detection of differential item functioning in psychometrics
Magis, David ULg; Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis et al

Conference (2008, October)

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See detailCrossing a "Human River of Shattered Lives": Caryl Phillips's Diasporic Fiction/Visions
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Literary Criterion (2000), 35(1-2), 157-169

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See detailCrossing abilities of ALS Target-Site Resistant Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides HUDS.)
Maréchal, Pierre-Yves ULg; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2011)

Black-grass crossings were conducted outdoor for two successive years in a way to determine the percentage of resistant black-grass that can be engendered in one generation, after the introduction of one ... [more ▼]

Black-grass crossings were conducted outdoor for two successive years in a way to determine the percentage of resistant black-grass that can be engendered in one generation, after the introduction of one Target-Site resistant individual. After germination, plants were genotyped and couples of resistant and susceptible individuals were formed, then planted outdoor and enclosed with a pollen-proof cloth to avoid any external pollen contamination. Seeds were collected and tested in glasshouses with herbicide spraying. DNA analyses were also performed on surviving plants to distinguish hetero- from homozygotes. The resistance level of the progeny seems to be fairly high and Mendelean distribution is generally confirmed. The offspring of self-crossings was also observed to assess the facultative autogamy ability, according to the genotype and the presence of mutant ALS alleles (position W-574). [less ▲]

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See detailCrossing of two mobile averages: A method for measuring the roughness exponent
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1998), 58(5), 6832-6834

Self-affine signals characterized by a defined Hurst (roughness) exponent H can be investigated through mobile averages. The density rho of crossing points between any two moving averages is a measure of ... [more ▼]

Self-affine signals characterized by a defined Hurst (roughness) exponent H can be investigated through mobile averages. The density rho of crossing points between any two moving averages is a measure of long-range power-law correlations in the signal. The method is compared to the detrended fluctuation analysis. We rake advantage of our findings in order to propose a practically powerful and accurate technique for determining H and apply it right away to cases with persistent or antipersistent correlations. [less ▲]

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See detailCrosslinked polyimide foams derived from pyromellitic dianhydride and 1,1-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1-phenyl-2,2,3-trifluoroethane with poly(α-methylstyrene)
Charlier, Y.; Hedrick, James L; Russel, T. P. et al

in Polymer (1995), 36(6), 1315-1320

A new route for the synthesis of high glass transition temperature, thermally stable polymer foams with pore sizes in the nanometre regime has been developed, using compositionally asymmetric microphase ... [more ▼]

A new route for the synthesis of high glass transition temperature, thermally stable polymer foams with pore sizes in the nanometre regime has been developed, using compositionally asymmetric microphase-separated block copolymers where the minor component (poly(α-methylstyrene)) is thermally labile and the major component (polyimide) is thermally stable. The minor component can unzip to its monomer upon heating, and the decomposition products can diffuse out of the film, leaving behind pores embedded in a matrix of the thermally stable component. In this study, the polyimide block was crosslinked with ethynyl functionalities to obtain a stable porous structure. The decomposition of the α-methylstyrene in the block copolymer was studied by thermogravimetric, dynamic mechanical and thermomechanical analyses. Mild conditions were required to avoid rapid depolymerization of the α-methylstyrene and plasticization of the polyimide matrix. The foams showed pore sizes with diameters up to a micrometre in size as well as the expected reduction in the mass density. However, the crosslinking of the matrix as a means of stabilizing the expected nanofoams was not successful. [less ▲]

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See detailCrosslinking of star-shape PCLs through Diels-Alder reactions for the preparation of shape memory polymers
Defize, Thomas ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2012, May 10)

Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a semi-crystalline polymer, is one of the most widely studied polymers for the development of shape memory materials when chemically cross-linked. PCL presents several ... [more ▼]

Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a semi-crystalline polymer, is one of the most widely studied polymers for the development of shape memory materials when chemically cross-linked. PCL presents several advantages such as a melting transition temperature close to human body temperature, a high biocompatibility and is (bio)degradable. So, this polymer is highly relevant for both biomedical devices such as stents or resorbable suture wires and also for degradable packaging. However, after cross-linking, the material can not be reprocessed, preventing any reuse/recycling of the material. One of the purposes of this work is to find a solution to this major drawback, which would then allow, for example, to reshape packaging films after use or to recycle trimmings remaining after fabrication. Amongst current trends in the design of new polymer and composite materials, the use of organic reactions that are able to create and reversibly disrupt chemical bonds upon an external stimulus (temperature, irradiation,…) is currently gaining more and more attention as it can lead to applications in various areas such as remendable materials, drug delivery systems, stimulus-degrading materials or recyclable materials. This contribution aims at reporting a new concept for the preparation of well defined and recyclable PCL based reversibly cross-linked shape memory polymer by the formation of reversible carbon-carbon bonds. Amongst all the reversible links described in the literature, thermally (4+2) reversible cycloadditions present interesting features such as the creation of robust bonds and well defined reversibility conditions. As an example, the application of furan/maleimide adducts as covalent link, which cycloreversion is largely favored in the range of temperature (90-120°C), is widely reported. For this purpose, commercially-available star-shaped PCL precursors have been selected and selectively modified at their chain ends either by a diene (furan, anthracene) or a dienophile (maleimide). Typically, PCL-based shape memory materials have been prepared by mixing a stoichiometric amount of diene-bearing and maleimide-bearing PCLs in a twin-screw mini-extruder at a temperature which favors cycloreversion. The polymer blend is then cured at 65°C (just above PCL melting temperature), with the purpose to increase chains mobility and improve the formation of the adducts. Cross-linked PCLs were obtained, as evidenced by swelling experiments. The shape memory properties of the materials have been studied by cyclic tensile thermomechanical analysis. The influence of the nature of the Diels-Alder moieties on the cross-linking rate and on the shape memory properties has been studied. Reversibility of the network formation in the case of furan, used as diene, has been assessed by rheology and by recycling experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailCrossmodal plasticity but no functional specialization in the occipital cortex of adventitiously blind human
Collignon, O; Albouy, G ULg; Dormal, G et al

in NeuroImage (2011), 56(Suppl. 1),

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See detailCrossover from intravalley to intervalley vortex motion in type-II superconductors with a periodic pinning array
Raedts, S.; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Moshchalkov, V. V. et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2006), 73(17),

We have determined the transition from intravalley vortex motion (Campbell regime) to intervalley motion (critical state regime) in Pb thin films with and without a square array of holes (antidots) by ... [more ▼]

We have determined the transition from intravalley vortex motion (Campbell regime) to intervalley motion (critical state regime) in Pb thin films with and without a square array of holes (antidots) by means of ac susceptibility chi(T,H) measurements. The Campbell regime is characterized by a maximum dissipation chi(')(max) dependent on the ac excitation h but nearly temperature independent. In contrast, in the critical state regime, the height of the dissipation peak remains constant, whereas its position shifts to lower temperatures with increasing h. We introduce an alternative way for determining the temperature dependence of the ac onset of the Bean critical state by analyzing the critical current density J(T) extracted from the chi(')(T) data at several h. We demonstrate that the presence of a periodic pinning array strongly affects the extension of the crossover area in the h-T diagram between these regimes. We show that this effect can be ascribed to the lower dispersion of the pinning energy together with the higher topological order for the antidot sample. [less ▲]

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