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See detail(Contre-)lexiques du pouvoir ou l'opposition en dictionnaires
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2010, June 04)

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See detailContre-culture
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in Groensteen, Thierry (Ed.) Dictionnaire esthétique et thématique de la bande dessinée (2014)

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See detailContre-lexiques du pouvoir au XIXe siècle
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Saignes; Salha, Agathe (Eds.) Du Grand Inquisiteur à Big Brother: sciences, techniques et pouvoir dans la littérature et les arts (2013)

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See detailLa contre-performance du cheval de CSO – une cause médicale
Van Erck, E.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in 36èmes Journées AVEF (2008)

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See detailContre-propagande sur l’Indochine. La France officielle face à l’anticolonialisme en Belgique francophone (1946-1950)
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

in Guerres Mondiales et Conflits Contemporains (2011), 241

This contribution will study the image of the first phase of the Indochina War (1946-1950) – and through it the global image of France – in French-speaking Belgium. As the war was then seen as aiming at a ... [more ▼]

This contribution will study the image of the first phase of the Indochina War (1946-1950) – and through it the global image of France – in French-speaking Belgium. As the war was then seen as aiming at a restoration of the colonial order, the French cause was harmed by a double counter-propaganda. One was of course coming from the far-left but, more surprisingly, the other came from Catholic circles. One must note that the French counterattack was lacking pertinence, coherence or efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailContrebande de cigarettes: un exemple moderne de délinquance d'entreprise
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique [= RICPTS] (2001), (1), 3-25

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See detailLa contrefaçon des médicaments : outils pour lutter contre ce fléau
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Mbinze Kindende, Jérémie; Lecomte, Frédéric et al

Scientific conference (2010, July 31)

The increase of counterfeit drug medicines is very remarkable all over the world and particulary in developing countries where many dramatic consequences on public health and economics have been reported ... [more ▼]

The increase of counterfeit drug medicines is very remarkable all over the world and particulary in developing countries where many dramatic consequences on public health and economics have been reported. Therefore, several tools to fight against counterfeit are presented including the simple ones such as organoleptic tools that can be applied by any one and the complex ones namely the analytical tools that belongs to the competence of laboratory. [less ▲]

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See detailUne contrefaçon liégeoise des Œuvres du philosophe de Sans-Souci
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Bach, R.; Desné, R.; Hassler, G. (Eds.) Formen der Aufklärung und ihrer Rezeption / Expressions des Lumières et de leur réception : Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag v. Ulrich Ricken (1999)

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See detailUne contrefaçon liégeoise exemplaire : les Œuvres du philosophe bienfaisant (1764)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (1994), 265

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See detailContrefaçons liégeoises et maestrichtoises de Beaumarchais. Un exercice bibliographique
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Bulletin de l'Institut Archéologique Liégeois (1996), 107

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See detailLes contrefaçons maastrichoises d’Imirce de l’abbé Dulaurens par Jean-Edme Dufour (1774, 1776)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg; Kleinermann, C.

in Livre et l'estampe (Le) (2007), LIII(167), 79-101

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See detailContrer les effets du manque de lumière : La luminothérapie
Blain, Pascal ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

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See detailContribuer à la formation d'amateurs éclairés
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Chabanne, Jean-Charles; Parayre, Marc; Villagordo, Eric (Eds.) La rencontre avec l'oeuvre. Eprouver, pratiquer, enseigner les arts et la culture (2012)

Pour nous, l'avenir des formations artistiques dans l'enseignement obligatoire est conditionné par le succès d'un apprentissage de la communication portant sur la conduite esthétique. C'est sur cette ... [more ▼]

Pour nous, l'avenir des formations artistiques dans l'enseignement obligatoire est conditionné par le succès d'un apprentissage de la communication portant sur la conduite esthétique. C'est sur cette conviction que s'appuie la recherche-action qui est présentée ici, recherche dont l'objectif était de mettre à la disposition des professeurs de français du secondaire des exemples de dispositifs d'apprentissage relatifs au développement de deux compétences de communication : celle de motiver, sous une forme scolaire déterminée, un jugement de gout portant sur une oeuvre d'art (littérature, théâtre, cinéma, peinture) et celle d'argumenter, dans une forme analogue, un jugement de valeur portant sur un objet du même ordre. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à l'amélioration de l'accès à une eau potable de qualité pour les populations de la région nord du Burkina Faso
Some, Issam; Guel, Boubié; Hantson, Anne-Lise et al

Poster (2014, March 19)

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See detailContribution à l’amélioration de l’épidémiosurveillance des maladies animales en Afrique francophone de l’Ouest et du Centre
Ouagal, Mahamat ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Livestock is an important source of income in most developing countries. In Africa, it often makes up 10% to 20% of the gross national product at level. One of the major constraints to the development of ... [more ▼]

Livestock is an important source of income in most developing countries. In Africa, it often makes up 10% to 20% of the gross national product at level. One of the major constraints to the development of this sector is animal diseases, which sometimes generate significant economic losses with social consequences that are often very burdensome for farmers. They restrict trade between countries. Reducing the impact of these constraints necessarily involves the prevention and the control of diseases. For this purpose, an adequate knowledge of the epidemiology of the diseases is a prerequisite to define a strategy for their prevention and/or the design of appropriate monitoring measures. One of the essential tools of production remains the epidemiological information network for the surveillance of animal diseases. It is also a tool for decision in international trade involving livestock products. For this purpose, its effectiveness is a guarantee for its credibility. An effective network system must be well organized, meet scientific standards and satisfy the efficiency characteristics which are sensitivity, specificity, acceptability, responsiveness and cost. In west and central Africa, epidemiological surveillance networks of animal diseases are mostly created in the 1990s through the Pan African Program for the Control of Epizootics. A 2004 assessment carried out by this program revealed that these networks are at different stages and found weaknesses in their efficiency. To contribute to the improvement of these systems, an analysis of some performance parameters of these networks has been conducted and suggestions for improvement were made. To achieve this overall objective, the following specific objectives were listed: (i) analyze the technical and functional organization of epidemiological surveillance networks in West and Central Africa; (ii) compare the effectiveness of active surveillance and passive surveillance, the two main monitoring methods used by the networks in West and Central Africa using the case study of the epidemiological surveillance network, in Chad, namely REPIMAT; (iii) assess the sensitivity of an epidemiological surveillance network from an approach based on prevalence of a disease such as Foot and Mouth Disease; (iv) develop performance indicators for regular monitoring of the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in West and Central Africa, again by taking the case of REPIMAT; and finally, (v) estimate the cost incurred by an epidemiological surveillance network in West and Central Africa, for example the REPIMAT. Each of these specific objectives leads to a specific study of which results are presented below: Organization of epidemiological surveillance networks in West and Central Africa The survey on technical and institutional organizations networks in west and central Africa was organised on the basis of a written questionnaire. It involved nine networks of which five were in West Africa (Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Togo, Guinea) and four in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad). The results of this survey showed that the oldest epidemiological surveillance network is that of Chad, REPIMAT. There are more similarities than differences between these networks. In general, network monitoring of animal diseases in west and central Africa are technically and institutionally well formalized. The establishment and operation of the networks surveyed are mainly financed by foreign aid. In general, these are epidemiological surveillance networks that monitor several diseases. All countries surveyed have a central national laboratory for the analysis of samples collected. However, only four countries (Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea and Senegal) can make a diagnosis of all diseases selected for monitoring. The laboratories are considered as partners with surveillance networks in most of the countries surveyed. All networks use the PID/ARIS for data management. In addition to the latter, countries such as Guinea, DRC, Senegal and Chad use a national database developed with Access®. On average, 26% of veterinary stations on the total networks surveyed are involved in the monitoring. This proportion varies from 7% to 91%. However, insufficient diagnostic capacity of laboratories and inadequate operational steering committees are the two main weaknesses of the networks concerned with this survey. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad The comparison between active and passive surveillance involved 106 REPIMAT surveillance stations randomly divided into 52 active surveillance stations and 54 passive surveillance stations. Vaccination status of nine diseases and their respective prevalence levels are monitored by the network. A work plan was developed for each station. The stations of active surveillance make monthly visits to four herds (villages) to look for monitored diseases and also organise four information meetings with farmers how to react in case of suspicion of the monitored diseases. Passive surveillance stations only organise, monthly, four information meetings with farmers. Suspicions in each station are recorded on a specific form developed for each disease. The agent mentions if the suspicion is performed following a breeder call, a visit from herds or a sensitization meeting. Monitoring lasted 24 months. The results of this study showed that regardless of the type of surveillance, diseases monitored with the exception of rare diseases (Rinderpest, and Rift Valley fever) are reported by the monitoring agents. However, we note that the number of calls recorded following suspicions of farmers (41%) was significantly higher (p <0.05) than suspicions made during visits to herds (30%) or in meetings (29%). For moderately prevalent diseases, the suspicions are mainly calls farmers (77%) and regardless of the type of monitoring (73% for active surveillance and 84% for passive surveillance). On the other hand, for FMD, a disease with high prevalence, 37% of suspicions are recorded by visiting farms. Overall, no significant difference was observed between the types of surveillance because of a low rate of disease onset during sensitization meetings by the active surveillance stations. Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness meetings appears to be a mode for surveillance in the conditions of Chad and cheaper. However, for rare diseases, the specific methods of active surveillance (such as, for example, sentinel flocks) seems preferable. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network for Foot and Mouth Disease in Chad Evaluation of the sensitivity of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network for Foot and Mouth Disease in Chad The study on the network sensitivity was carried out in REPIMAT by taking the surveillance of FMD as an example. FMD is the disease most frequently suspected by REPIMAT. However, the reporting of cases is limited to clinical suspicion. The samples for the purpose of laboratory diagnostic for confirmation of these suspicions are not made. In order to assess the sensitivity of REPIMAT for this disease, a serological survey was conducted in eight of the nine regional delegations with the highest cattle population of the country. The samples were analyzed by the National Reference Laboratory for FMD in Brescia (Italy) with the support of the European Commission action against FMD. The 3ABC and SP-ELISA tests were used for the detection of antibodies and the serotype of the virus. The number of FMD suspicions reported within the network was compared with the seroprevalence. Epidemiological information on the disease, including the circulating serotypes in Chad, was also provided. A total of 796 cattle sera were collected. The seroprevalence rate at individual level was 35.6% (95% CI: 32.2 to 39.0) and that at the herd level was 61.9% (95% CI: 51.9 to 71.2). A strong correlation was observed between the estimated prevalence and number of clinical suspicions reported within REPIMAT. The disease is present in all livestock regional delegations surveyed with a high prevalence in the delegations located in the south, the wettest area, and where cross-border movements are the most important. Serotypes A, O, SAT1and SAT2 were identified. Development of operating performance indicators of Chad epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases: REPIMAT The maintenance and effectiveness of a disease monitoring system requires regular evaluation to identify timely deficiencies that may occur. For this purpose, the performance indicators are essential tools. One approach for developing performance indicators as well as their application in the operation of 43 monitoring stations REPIMAT was carried out. An analysis of the objectives and operation mechanism of REPIMAT allowed retaining three main components, namely the field workers, the animation cell and the laboratory. The activities of each of these components were listed. The analysis of the outcomes of these activities resulted in the development of the performance indicators that can be used in the operation of REPIMAT. The application of these indicators has highlighted the weaknesses of each component. Estimated cost of a network for animal diseases epidemiological surveillance in Central Africa: the case of Chad network In sub-Saharan Africa, most of the networks for epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases were temporarily financed by external aid. The sustainability of such decision support tools should have been insured by national public funds. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs involved in running an animal disease epidemiological surveillance network by taking the example of such network in Chad (REPIMAT) and its weight in the state budget. These costs were then compared to those of other epidemiological surveillance in West Africa networks. The results of this study showed that the total annual operating and implementing cost of REPIMAT is estimated at € 666 349 (437 096 291 FCFA) for the entire system comprising 106 monitoring stations constituting the local level, 26 livestock sectors, nine regional livestock delegations representing the intermediate level and an animation cell constituting the central level. This cost represents only 3% (2% of fixed costs and 1% of variable costs) of the budget allocated by the Chadian Ministry of Livestock. Fixed costs (72%) weighed more than variable costs (28%) regardless of the levels of intervention. This estimate is similar to the estimated costs of epidemiological surveillance networks in Benin, Ghana, Mauritania and Senegal. Considering only the variable costs (operation), the annual cost of operating a surveillance station, the most important entity in the system was only 932 € or 611 352 FCFA. The surveillance cost is mainly related at the local level (surveillance stations) and intermediate level (livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) to the cost involved in health surveillance as well as the equipment it requires. This thesis allowed to analyze some parameters of effectiveness of a surveillance network for animal diseases including general organization, type of surveillance, sensitivity, cost and to develop a tool for continuous monitoring of operating a network. It is difficult to meet all the efficiency criteria of an animal disease surveillance network, however, the few parameters studied which are interrelated will help if they are used properly to improve the efficiency of an epidemiological surveillance system of animal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à l’analyse des paramètres influençant la création de l’interface entre un béton et un système de réparation. Appétence et adhérence : cause et effet d’une liaison
Courard, Luc ULg

Doctoral thesis (1998)

Consacrer son temps à étudier le matériau "béton", voilà qui peut paraître anachronique, voire désuet : en effet, un matériau vieux de plus d'un siècle (sinon de plusieurs siècles si on pense aux Romains ... [more ▼]

Consacrer son temps à étudier le matériau "béton", voilà qui peut paraître anachronique, voire désuet : en effet, un matériau vieux de plus d'un siècle (sinon de plusieurs siècles si on pense aux Romains), que les ingénieurs utilisent, calculent, mettent en œuvre, coulent, coffrent et ferraillent à longueur de journée, peut-il encore livrer des secrets que nous ne connaissons pas ? La réponse est à la fois oui et non. Non, parce qu'il est clair que nous pouvons donner sans hésiter la résistance en compression, en traction ou le retrait d'un béton de composition donnée. Oui, parce qu'il est beaucoup plus compliqué d'expliquer la cohésion, l'hydratation ou de chiffrer la perméabilité et la durabilité d'un béton. Ce dernier point est essentiel car il ne faut pas oublier que ce qui fait la force du béton, outre son prix, c'est qu'il est un matériau durable. Durable, mais non intemporel : d'autant que les agressions deviennent plus importantes et concentrées, qu'elles trouvent sans cesse de nouvelles formes et de nouveaux moyens de transport. Le béton n'est pas immuable et indestructible : il vit et par conséquent il faut le protéger, le soigner, le rénover comme toute "chose" vivante. La philosophie générale de la réparation des ouvrages d'art ainsi que les principaux produits sont définis et décrits dans un premier chapitre. Le deuxième chapitre tente d'appliquer les théories de l'adhésion au problèmes particuliers des liants hydrauliques et des supports poreux et rugueux. La notion de cohésion est évoquée dans le troisième chapitre, dans la mesure où elle constitue pour nous un processus tout à fait similaire à celui observé dans le cadre restreint de la réparation des bétons par des produits à base de liants hydrauliques. Nous avons réalisé dans le quatrième chapitre l'exercice qui consistait de la façon la plus exhaustive possible à dresser la liste et à classer par catégories l'ensemble des facteurs liés au support, à la couche d'apport et à l'environnement, et qui agissent sur la qualité du lien créé entre le support en béton et le système de réparation. L'étude de l'interaction du support en béton avec un produit de réparation nécessite bien entendu une connaissance approfondie des propriétés mécaniques, physiques et chimiques des matériaux en présence, ce qui a fait l'objet du cinquième chapitre. Le sixième chapitre a, quant à lui, été consacré à la mesure des propriétés d'adhérence et à la description au microscope des différentes interfaces observées. Trois paramètres réputés fondamentaux ont été étudiés, dans le but de quantifier leur effet sur l'adhésion et surtout d'analyser leur synergie éventuelle : la préparation de surface, qui définit la rugosité du support et est à la base du mécanisme d'interpénétration (septième chapitre); les propriétés thermodynamiques des phases liquides et solides en présence qui régissent la création et la stabilité de l'interface (huitième chapitre); les phénomènes de transfert à l'interface, en particulier par absorption capillaire et par diffusion, qui contribuent à la qualité et la durabilité des liaisons établies (neuvième chapitre). Pour terminer, les conclusions résument l'ensemble des résultats, avant de lancer quelques pistes pour des travaux de recherche à venir. L'observation est à la base de toute science : nous avons essayé d'adopter la démarche du naturaliste qui analyse, décrit, représente l'objet de son observation sans interférer, ou à tout le moins en tentant de le faire, sur les phénomènes observés. C'est une façon de travailler peu aisée pour un ingénieur qui, par sa formation, est plus orienté vers l'utilisation de lois ou de modèles et donc la prévision de comportements "a priori" plutôt que l'observation "a posteriori". Mais c'est aussi ce qui a fait le principal intérêt de ce travail. [less ▲]

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