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See detailCompeting One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story}
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP ... [more ▼]

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCompeting one-way essential complements: the forgotten side of net neutrality
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2015, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompeting one-way essential complements: the forgotten side of net neutrality
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2015, August 28)

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See detailCompetition between benzo[a]pyrene and various steroids for cytochrome P-450-dependent rat liver monooxygenases.
Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Kremers, Pierre ULg; Gielen, Jacques

in Chemico-Biological Interactions (1981), 34

Cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases are able to oxidize a large variety of endogenous and exogenous substrates. This paper describes the in vitro interaction between benzopyrene and steroids at the ... [more ▼]

Cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases are able to oxidize a large variety of endogenous and exogenous substrates. This paper describes the in vitro interaction between benzopyrene and steroids at the level of two rat liver monooxygenases: steroid-16 alpha-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). The results obtained suggest the following conclusions: (1) Steroid-16 alpha-hydroxylase is partially supported by a specific cytochrome P-450 form which is not inhibited in vitro by exogenous substrates. Steroid-16 alpha-hydroxylase is completely independent from cytochrome P1-450 (or P-448), as it is insensitive, in vitro, to alpha-naphthoflavone; (2) AHH is supported by two cytochrome P-450 forms: a specific form which is inducible by methylcholanthrene and inhibited in vitro by alpha-naphthoflavone, but is insensitive to metyrapone and steroids; and another less specific form which is inhibited by metyrapone and steroids in vitro. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition between deep impurity and dopant behavior of Mg in GaN Schottky diodes
Schmeits, Marcel; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Germain, Marianne

in Journal of Applied Physics (2001), 89

The effect of the deep acceptor Mg on the electrical characteristics of p-doped GaN Schottky diodes is analyzed. The theoretical study is based on the numerical resolution of the basic semiconductor ... [more ▼]

The effect of the deep acceptor Mg on the electrical characteristics of p-doped GaN Schottky diodes is analyzed. The theoretical study is based on the numerical resolution of the basic semiconductor equations, including the continuity equation for the Mg-related acceptor level. It gives the steady-state and small-signal analysis of p-doped GaN:Mg Schottky diodes, yielding as final result the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of the structure. It is shown that the low-frequency characteristics are determined by the carrier exchange between the Mg related impurity level and the valence band, whereas above the impurity transition frequency, the hole modulation of the depletion layer edge governs the electrical response. Detailed results are shown on the effect of temperature, applied steady-state voltage and series resistance. The study of two back-to-back connected GaN Schottky diodes reveals the appearance of typical features in the electrical characteristics, depending on the respective Schottky barrier height of the two junctions. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition between finite-size effects and dipole–dipole interactions in few-atom systems
Damanet, François ULg; Martin, John ULg

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2016), 49

In this paper, we study the competition between finite-size effects (i.e. discernibility of particles) and dipole–dipole interactions in few-atom systems coupled to the electromagnetic field in vacuum. We ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the competition between finite-size effects (i.e. discernibility of particles) and dipole–dipole interactions in few-atom systems coupled to the electromagnetic field in vacuum. We consider two hallmarks of cooperative effects, superradiance and subradiance, and compute for each the rate of energy radiated by the atoms and the coherence of the atomic state during the time evolution. We adopt a statistical approach in order to extract the typical behaviour of the atomic dynamics and average over random atomic distributions in spherical containers with prescribed k0 R with k0 the radiation wavenumber and R the average interatomic distance. Our approach allows us to highlight the tradeoff between finite-size effects and dipole– dipole interactions in superradiance/subradiance. In particular, we show the existence of an optimal value of k0R for which the superradiant intensity and coherence pulses are the less affected by dephasing effects induced by dipole–dipole interactions and finite-size effects. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition between ordering and phase separation in a model superalloy NiCrAl
Delheusy, M.; Bley, F.; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

Report (2002)

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See detailCompétition et choix du partenaire sexuel chez les primates
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (2000), 20(1), 85-112

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See detailCompetition for amino acids as a potential mechanism of Aureobasidium pullulans against post-harvest apple blue mold.
Bencheqroun, S. K.; Bajji, M.; Labhilili, M. et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2007), 30(6(1)),

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See detailCompetition law - Reader
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Learning material (2016)

This reader contains the course notes accompanying an introductory competition law course I had the good fortune to teach at Leiden University in April 2016. It contains detailed course outlines, notes ... [more ▼]

This reader contains the course notes accompanying an introductory competition law course I had the good fortune to teach at Leiden University in April 2016. It contains detailed course outlines, notes, questions and practical information. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetition of phonon and magnon effects in the temperature dependence of spinwave stiffness
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Di Gennaro, Marco ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 21)

Magnons are the elementary magnetic excitations in ordered solids. Understanding such collective excitations is important for a number of technologically relevant fields, such as, magnonics [1] or spin ... [more ▼]

Magnons are the elementary magnetic excitations in ordered solids. Understanding such collective excitations is important for a number of technologically relevant fields, such as, magnonics [1] or spin caloritronics [2]. The central interactions in spin caloritronics are the couplings of phonons with electrons and spin degrees of freedom. Furthermore, understanding the effects of temperature on the phonon and spin degrees of freedom adds a further complexity. In the present work we have developed a multiscale model of ferromagnetic materials and demonstrate the effect of temperature dependent phonon displacements on the magnons spectra. Our results show that the for Fe and Ni the effect of phonon displacements acts to reduce the Curie temperature, whereas for Permalloy the opposite is true due to an increased long-ranged exchange interaction. This increased exchange interaction results in an increasing spin-wave stiffness with increasing temperature, overcoming the usual decrease due to magnon softening. To determine the effects of increasing the phonon temperature we have developed a multiscale model whereby we begin by calculating the thermal displacement of phonons, $\sqrt{\langle u^2(T) \rangle}$, calculated using the phonopy software package [3] using electronic ground state and phonon properties determined using the ABINIT software package [4]. Then the exchange constants are determined using the SPRKKR package [5]. Finally, we use linear spin wave theory to determine the effect of the phonon temperature on the exchange alone, demonstrating an increasing frequency of the acoustic magnon branch. We take into account the thermal effects of the magnetic system through the use of the atomistic spin dynamics approach. Magnon softening due to thermal effects demonstrates a more modest increase in the exchange stiffness (over the purely phononic effect), however, an overall increase is still observed. \newline \newline [1] A. V. Chumak, V. I. Vasyuchka, A. A. Serga, and B. Hillebrands, Nature Physics, {\bf 11}, 453–461 (2015). \newline [2] G. E. W. Bauer, E. Saitoh, and B. J. van Wees, Nature Materials {\bf 11}, 391 (2012). \newline [3] Atsushi Togo and Isao Tanaka, Scr. Mater., {\bf 108}, 1-5 (2015) \newline [4] X. Gonze \textit{et al.} Computer Physics Communications {\bf 180}, 2582-2615 (2009). \newline [5] T. Huhne \textit{at al.} Physical Review B, {\bf 58}, 10236 (1998). [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition partisane, changement climatique et écologie politique : convergences et conflits sur les thématiques politiques
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Flipo, Fabrice (Ed.) Les actes du Colloque "Penser l'écologie politique" (2015, June 16)

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See detailCompetition Policy and the Euromed Partnership
Petit, Nicolas ULg; Geradin, Damien

in European Foreign Affairs Review (2003)

This paper seeks to provide a critical assessment of the efforts made by the EC to stimulate the development of competition laws in the Mediterranean countries with which it is engaged in partnership ... [more ▼]

This paper seeks to provide a critical assessment of the efforts made by the EC to stimulate the development of competition laws in the Mediterranean countries with which it is engaged in partnership agreements. It reviews the content of the competition provisions of the association agreements, as well as their effectiveness. In then examines the regular calls for convergence on the EC competition law model to which Mediterranean countries are object. There is indeed room for debate regarding the opportunity, as well as the nature of such convergence. The paper concludes that a deep convergence approach, whereby the non-candidate Partner countries would transpose EC competition rules in their domestic legal order, would provide many benefits for both the EC and these countries. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition pour l'azote inorganique entre le pelagos et le benthos dans un écosystème côtier oligotrophe. Effets sur la dynamique de l'écosystème.
Lepoint, Gilles ULg

Doctoral thesis (2001)

Résumé de la thèse intitulée : Compétition pour l’azote inorganique entre le benthos et le pelagos d’un milieu côtier oligotrophe. Effets sur la dynamique de l’écosystème. Dissertation présentée le 9 mai ... [more ▼]

Résumé de la thèse intitulée : Compétition pour l’azote inorganique entre le benthos et le pelagos d’un milieu côtier oligotrophe. Effets sur la dynamique de l’écosystème. Dissertation présentée le 9 mai 2001 par Gilles Lepoint en vue de l’obtention du grade de Docteur en Sciences de l’Université de Liège. Dans la Baie de la Revellata (Calvi, Corse, France), comme dans de nombreux sites côtiers méditerranéens, les biocénoses benthiques sont très développées et productives, malgré le caractère oligotrophe du compartiment pélagique et la pauvreté relative en nutriment de la colonne d’eau. Dans ce travail, nous avons abordé la résolution de ce paradoxe apparent sous l’angle de la compétition pour l’azote inorganique, élément dont la disponibilité influence la dynamique des compartiments benthique et pélagique. Notre démarche scientifique s’est déroulée en trois étapes : mesure des paramètres environnementaux pouvant influencer la dynamique de l’azote dans l’écosystème (lumière, température, concentrations en azote inorganique), mesure des concentrations relatives en azote et des biomasses des organismes étudiés (phytoplancton, macroalgues, posidonies et communauté épiphyte), mesure des vitesses spécifiques et des flux d’incorporation de nitrate et d’ammonium par ces organismes. Nous montrons que les différents producteurs de la Baie de la Revellata sont des organismes adaptés à une disponibilité faible en nutriments. Les flux d’incorporation mesurés et l’acquisition de stratégies saisonnières de type stockage / remobilisation permet aux producteurs benthiques d’assurer leurs besoins en azote. L’impact des communautés benthiques sur la dynamique du compartiment pélagique est manifeste et contribue probablement à maintenir la pauvreté en nutriments de ce système. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetitive facility location problem with attractiveness adjustment of the follower: A bilevel programming model and its solution
Kucukaydin, Hande ULg; Aras, Necati; Altinel, I. Kuban

in European Journal of Operational Research (2011), 208(3), 206-220

We are concerned with a problem in which a firm or franchise enters a market by locating new facilities where there are existing facilities belonging to a competitor. The firm aims at finding the location ... [more ▼]

We are concerned with a problem in which a firm or franchise enters a market by locating new facilities where there are existing facilities belonging to a competitor. The firm aims at finding the location and attractiveness of each facility to be opened so as to maximize its profit. The competitor, on the other hand, can react by adjusting the attractiveness of its existing facilities with the objective of maximizing its own profit. The demand is assumed to be aggregated at certain points in the plane and the facilities of the firm can be located at predetermined candidate sites. We employ Huff's gravity-based rule in modeling the behavior of the customers where the fraction of customers at a demand point that visit a certain facility is proportional to the facility attractiveness and inversely proportional to the distance between the facility site and demand point. We formulate a bilevel mixed-integer nonlinear programming model where the firm entering the market is the leader and the competitor is the follower. In order to find the optimal solution of this model, we convert it into an equivalent one-level mixed-integer nonlinear program so that it can be solved by global optimization methods. Apart from reporting computational results obtained on a set of randomly generated instances, we also compute the benefit the leader firm derives from anticipating the competitor's reaction of adjusting the attractiveness levels of its facilities. The results on the test instances indicate that the benefit is 58.33% on the average. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (7 ULg)