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See detailComparison of 3 emerging optical NDI techniques on complex shaped composite structures based on carbon fiber
Georges, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, October 01)

Thermography, shearography and laser ultrasonics are 3 contactless emerging techniques which allow nondestructive inspection of composite structures. Thermography and shearography are full-field ... [more ▼]

Thermography, shearography and laser ultrasonics are 3 contactless emerging techniques which allow nondestructive inspection of composite structures. Thermography and shearography are full-field techniques yielding measurement of respectively local temperature variations or deformations of a structure undergoing a stress (thermal, pressure, vibration). Laser ultrasonics allows remote ultrasound generation in the composite by thermoelastic effect followed by remote measurement of the surface displacements under the effect of the ultrasound echoes without coupling. This point-like technique requires scanning. The three techniques have been selected in our project since they allow inspection of complex shaped parts. We present compared results obtained on a variety of aeronautical industrial composite parts. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of 3D Methods for Identifying the Stance Phase in Treadmill Running for Both Rearfoot and Forefoot Runners
Deflandre, Dorian ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Weertz et al

in Journal of sports Science (2016), 4

We compared six 3D methods, OptoGait, and Myotest Run for the determination of contact time for runners with different foot strike patterns. Twenty male participants were divided into two groups: the heel ... [more ▼]

We compared six 3D methods, OptoGait, and Myotest Run for the determination of contact time for runners with different foot strike patterns. Twenty male participants were divided into two groups: the heel group, who attack the ground with the heel (n = 12), and the toe group, who attack the ground with the middle/front of the foot (n = 8). They performed trials at speeds of 8 km/h then 16 km/h. To detect foot strike, the use of peak velocity of 3D markers located on the heel, the fifth metatarsal, and the great toe provided the best results for both groups. To detect the toe off, the minimum vertical position of a 3D marker placed in line with the great toe gave the most satisfactory results for both groups. In this way, the values of contact time measured with the 3D methods are consistent. Values measured with OptoGait appear consistent too, while those of the Myotest Run underestimate the contact time for both speeds. 3D analysis provides interesting opportunities for calculation of contact time for both rearfoot and forefoot runners, using specific peak velocities to determine foot strike and marker displacement to determine toe off. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of 4 point-of-care blood gas analyzers for arterial blood gas analysis in healthy dogs and dogs with cardiopulmonary disease
Roels, Elodie ULg; Gommeren, Kris ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (2016), 00(0), 1-8

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See detailComparison of 5-hydroxytryptamine concentration in the lungs of healthy and pneumonic calves
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 10th Comparative Respiratory Society Meeting (1991)

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See detailComparison of a commercial bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein ELISA test and a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radiomimmunoassay test for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle.
Karen, Aly; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Animal reproduction science (2015), 159

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy of a commercial PAG-ELISA test (Bovine Preg Test 29) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) for diagnosing pregnancy at Day ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy of a commercial PAG-ELISA test (Bovine Preg Test 29) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) for diagnosing pregnancy at Day 28 after insemination in dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was performed in 100 Holstein-Friesian cows at Day 28 after artificial insemination (AI; Day 0) to diagnose pregnancy. After TRUS examination, blood sample was collected from the coccygeal vessels of each cow to measure the concentrations of bPAGs by PAG-RIA test and Bovine Preg Test 29. Milk samples were collected at Days 0, 21 and 28 for measurement of progesterone (P4) by ELISA test. The cows were re-examined by TRUS at Day 42 to confirm the pregnancy diagnoses. The actual gold standard was based on TRUS outcomes at Day 28 that agreed with the outcomes of PAG-RIA test or PAG-ELISA test. If the outcomes of TRUS at Day 28 and PAG-RIA test and PAG-ELISA test did not agree, the gold standard was based on the outcome of TRUS at Day 42. Out of 100 inseminated cows, 41 were confirmed pregnant at Day 28 after AI. Based on the actual gold standard, the sensitivity of TRUS, PAG-ELISA and PAG-RIA tests for diagnosing pregnant cows at Day 28 were 92.7%, 90.2% and 100%, while the specificity of the three tests for diagnosing non-pregnant cows were 91.5%, 98.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the three tests were 92%, 95% and 97%, respectively. The degree of agreement (Kappa+/-S.E.) between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA test was 0.90 +/-0.04. The degrees of agreement between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA and TRUS at Day 28 were 0.80+/-0.05 and 0.76+/-0.06, respectively. In conclusion, the commercial PAG-ELISA test is a highly accurate method for diagnosing early pregnancy in dairy cows on Day 28 after AI and may be used as an alternative method to the TRUS and the PAG-RIA test. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a fluid and a solid approach for the numerical simulation of Friction Stir Welding with a non-cylindrical pin
Bussetta, Philippe ULg; Dialami, Narges; Boman, Romain ULg et al

in Proceedings of "V International Conference on Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering" (2013, June)

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is a solid-state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. As a consequence, the heat-affected zone is smaller and the quality of the weld is ... [more ▼]

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is a solid-state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. As a consequence, the heat-affected zone is smaller and the quality of the weld is better with respect to more classical welding processes. Because of extremely high strains in the neighbourhood of the tool, classical numerical simulation techniques have to be extended in order to track the correct material deformations. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation is used to preserve a good mesh quality throughout the computation. With this formulation the mesh displacement is independent from the material displacement. Moreover, some advanced numerical techniques such as remeshing or a special computation of transition interface is needed to take into account non-cylindrical tools. During the FSW process, the behaviour of the material in the neighbourhood of the tool is at the interface between solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. Consequently, a numerical model of the FSW process based on a solid formulation is compared to another one based on a fluid formulation. It is shown that these two formulations essentially deliver the same results in terms of pressures and temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a Fluid and a Solid Approach for the Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding with a Non‐Cylindrical Pin
Bussetta, Philippe ULg; Dialami, Narges; Boman, Romain ULg et al

in Steel Research International (2014), 85(6), 968-979

Friction stir welding (FSW) process is a solid‐state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. As a consequence, the heat‐affected zone is smaller and the quality of the weld is ... [more ▼]

Friction stir welding (FSW) process is a solid‐state joining process during which materials to be joined are not melted. As a consequence, the heat‐affected zone is smaller and the quality of the weld is better with respect to more classical welding processes. Because of extremely high strains in the neighborhood of the tool, classical numerical simulation techniques have to be extended in order to track the correct material deformations. The Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation is used to preserve a good mesh quality throughout the computation. With this formulation, the mesh displacement is independent from the material displacement. Moreover, some advanced numerical techniques such as remeshing or a special computation of transition interface is needed to take into account non‐cylindrical tools. During the FSW process, the behavior of the material in the neighborhood of the tool is at the interface between solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. Consequently, a numerical model of the FSW process based on a solid formulation is compared to another one based on a fluid formulation. It is shown that these two formulations essentially deliver the same results in terms of pressures and temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a modern broiler and layer strain during embryonic development and the hatching process.
Everaert, Nadia ULg; Willemsen, H.; De Smit, L. et al

in British poultry science (2008), 49(5), 574-82

1. This research focused on the embryonic development of broiler and layer embryos. 2. Egg, embryo and yolk weights were measured and partial pressure of gases in the air cell and blood were analysed at ... [more ▼]

1. This research focused on the embryonic development of broiler and layer embryos. 2. Egg, embryo and yolk weights were measured and partial pressure of gases in the air cell and blood were analysed at several embryonic ages. The static stiffness of the eggshell was measured before the start of incubation and at embryonic day (ED) 18 to register the change in shell strength. Times of internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP) and hatch were recorded. Plasma corticosterone, triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations were determined. 3. Relative egg weight loss was higher in layer eggs. Before ED16, layer embryos showed a slower development which was reflected in lower (relative) embryo weight, lower air cell and blood pCO(2) and higher air cell O(2). From ED16 onwards, relative growth rate accelerated in the layer strain; as a consequence the difference in relative yolk-free chick weight at hatch had disappeared between strains. 4. Differences in physiological events necessary for hatching (thyroid hormones, corticosterone, air cell pCO(2)) are most probably responsible for the observed differences in timing of pipping and hatching events between layer and broilers. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a nurse-directed weight-based heparin nomogram with a standard doctor-based regimen
FRAIPONT, V; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg; MOONEN, M et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2000), 26(4), 218

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See detailComparison of a simple clinical risk index and quantitative bone ultrasound for identifying women at increased risk of osteoporosis
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ben Sedrine, W. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002, November), 13(Suppl.3), 30-31

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See detailComparison of a simple clinical risk index and quantitative bone ultrasound for identifying women at increased risk of osteoporosis
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ben Sedrine, W. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 716-721

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries. Patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a high risk of future fracture. However, access to BMD measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high-risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We compared two methods, a simple clinical risk assessment tool, the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in identifying subjects with low BMD by DXA in 722 southern Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from the community in Hong Kong. Using the published cutoff value of -1 (versus 0 or higher) for OSTA to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, basing on our local population peak young mean value, the sensitivity and specificity was 88% and 54% respectively. The optimal cutoff T-score of -2.35 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 81% and 65%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.78, which was not significantly different from that of 0.80 for OSTA. Both OSTA and QUS correlated significantly with BMD at the femoral neck (0.62 and 0.36, respectively, P both <0.001). When these cut-off values were used to identify subjects with either lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, the sensitivity and specificity was 79% and 60%, respectively, for OSTA, and 69% and 70%, respectively, for QUS. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the sensitivity to 91%, but the specificity was reduced to 44%. We conclude that the simple clinical risk assessment tool OSTA is a free and effective method for identifying subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of a tablet version of the Quality of Life Systemic Inventory for Children (QLSI-C) to the standard paper version
Toucheque, Malorie ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg et al

in Psychological Assessment (2016), 28(6), 780-785

Integration of e-Health technologies for purposes of both assessment and intervention has recently become an interest area in pediatric psychology. The purpose of this study is to present psychometric ... [more ▼]

Integration of e-Health technologies for purposes of both assessment and intervention has recently become an interest area in pediatric psychology. The purpose of this study is to present psychometric characteristics of a technology-based (i.e., tablet administration) approach for measuring quality of life (QOL) in children. Eighty children (8-12 years) completed the Quality of Life Systemic Inventory for Children (QLSI-C) twice over a two-week delay, in a crossover design that used paper and tablet-based modes of administration. Equivalence of scores across methods was examined using Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), augmented by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlations. Test-retest reliability was assessed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlations while internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s coefficient. Results showed a good concordance across methods of administration (ICCs = .72 to .91; r = .56 to .83). Paired t-test showed no significant differences between the tablet and paper version of the QLSI-C. Internal consistency reliability yielded acceptable Cronbach’s alphas for all QLSI-C scores, with all α >.70. Test-retest reliability for the tablet-administered QLSI-C was good (r = .66 to .90). Paired t-test showed no significant difference between time 1 and 2 for the QLSI-C scores, except for the state score. Findings established the reliability of the tablet-administered QLSI-C scores. This technology approach to assessment is more attractive for children, decreases time for administration, and enhances the ease of scoring. These advantages might encourage both clinicians and researchers to consider using e-Health developments in assessment in pediatric psychology. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of accuracy of sonography, rectal palpation, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins tests for pregnancy diagnosis in cows
Gajewski, Z.; Petrajtis, M.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Proceedings of the XIth Middle European Buiatrics Congress (2010)

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See detailComparison of accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography, progesterone and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins tests for discrimination between single and multiple pregnancy in sheep
Karen, A.; El Amiri, B.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(2), 314-322

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and, compare the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonographic (US) and the progesterone (P4-RIA) and ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (ovPAG-RIA) tests ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and, compare the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonographic (US) and the progesterone (P4-RIA) and ovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (ovPAG-RIA) tests for the discrimination between single and multiple pregnancy in sheep. One hundred pregnant Awassi x Merino ewes were scanned by transabdominal ultrasonography (3.5 MHz linear-array transducer) at Days 43-56 and 81 of these ewes were scanned at Days 76-87 of gestation. The ewes were scanned in dorsal recumbency at the bare area of the inguinal regions (without pre-scanning shaving of the ventral abdominal wall). After each scan, blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein to estimate the levels of P4 and ovPAG by radioimmumoassay. At lambing, 61 ewes gave birth to single lambs and 39 ewes gave birth to multiples. The sensitivity of the transabdominal US, the P4-RIA and the ovPAG-RIA tests for determining ewes carrying multiples was 54, 64.1 and 64.1% at Days 43-56. At Days 76-87 of gestation these accuracies were 60.0, 66.7 and 76.6% for the US, P4-RIA and PAG-RIA tests, respectively. The specificity of the transabdominal US, the P4-RIA and the ovPAG-RIA tests for determining ewes carrying singles, was 78.6, 60.7 and 62.3% at Days 43-56 and 78.4, 64.7 and 70.6% at Days 76-87 of gestation, respectively. It is concluded that the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonographic (without pre-scanning shaving of the ventral abdominal wall), the P4- and the ovPAG-RIA tests for determination of the fetal numbers in Awassi x Merino crossbred ewes is too low to be used in the field. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of accuracy of ultrasonography, progesterone and pregnancy-associated 4 glycoprotein tests for pregnancy diagnosis in semi-domesticated reindeer
Savela, Hannele; Vahtiala, S.; Lindeberg, H. et al

in Theriogenology (2009), 72

The aim of the study was to compare transrectal ultrasound with progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) as pregnancy detection methods for semi-domesticated reindeer in field ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to compare transrectal ultrasound with progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) as pregnancy detection methods for semi-domesticated reindeer in field conditions. Female reindeer (n=195) were scanned transrectally by a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer and blood sampled either in Dec 2005 (n=33), Dec 2006 (n=92) or Jan 2007 (n=70) during early- or mid-gestation. Plasma levels of P4 and PAG were assessed by RIA. Based on calving records, the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and the overall accuracy of the three tests were calculated. The overall calving rate calculated from the calving records was 86.2%. The overall accuracy of transrectal ultrasound was 99.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of transrectal ultrasound were 99.4% and 100%, respectively. In the plasma P4 test, the threshold level of 5.5 nmol/L gave the highest overall accuracy (93.3%). The sensitivity of the P4 test decreased from 96.4% to 81.5%, when the threshold level increased from 5.0 nmol/L to 8.0 nmol/L, while the specificity remained at 85.2% over the range of these cut-off values. The overall accuracy of the plasma PAG test decreased from 96.4% to 64.1% when the plasma PAG threshold level increased from 0.5 ng/mL to 3.5 ng/mL, whereas sensitivity decreased from 99.4% to 58.3%. Specificity increased from 77.8% to 100% when the plasma PAG threshold level reached 3.0 ng/mL. Transrectal ultrasound showed higher diagnostic values than plasma P4-RIA and PAG-RIA in diagnosing pregnancy of reindeer, with the advantage that diagnoses can be made in real-time in field conditions [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of acid and enzymatic methods for insulin dosage: Analytical performances and impact on glomerular filtration rate evaluation
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Thibaudin, L.; Souvignet, M. et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2012), 413(5-6), 556-560

Among issues susceptible to hamper a reliable measurement of inulin clearance, those regarding the dosage of inulin are largely neglected. We have compared the analytical performances of 2 commonly used ... [more ▼]

Among issues susceptible to hamper a reliable measurement of inulin clearance, those regarding the dosage of inulin are largely neglected. We have compared the analytical performances of 2 commonly used methods of inulin dosage (one “acid” and one “enzymatic” method) and studied their potential impact on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) value given by inulin clearance. Repeatability, uncertainty and the beta-expectation limits were evaluated from pre-determined serum and urine pools of inulin. Agreement between the two methods was analyzed from 99 inulin clearances performed in renal transplant patients. Impact of the method of dosage on GFR evaluation was simulated according to the respective beta-expectations limits of each method. Overall, intra-assay coefficient of variability and relative bias were inferior to 5% and 10% for both methods. Contrary to the acid method, analytical performance of the enzymatic method was not influenced by the presence of glucose. The relative difference in GFR values obtained with the two methods in transplant patients was − 0.4 ± 10%. Simulations suggested that changes in inulin concentration attributable to analytical error could modify the value of GFR from − 12% to + 28%. In conclusion, while analytical performances are globally acceptable for both methods, they are not strictly equivalent. The impact on the determination of GFR, albeit limited, is not negligible and adds to other sources of inaccuracy. International standardization for the dosage of inulin is necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of active and electrostimulated recovery strategies after fatiguing exercise
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Makrof, Souleyma; Demoulin, Christophe ULg

in Journal of Sports Science & Medicine (2010), 9

The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks) which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR) recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer), an electrostimulated (ESR) recovery (25-min continuous and nontetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the quadriceps) or a strictly passive recovery (PR). Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10) were evaluated before (pre-ex), immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex), after the recovery period (post-rec), as well as 75 minutes (1h15) and one day (24h) after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 ± 10.7%, AR: 105.3 ± 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 ± 10.5%). VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and postrec (p < 0.001); there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64). In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of active thermography techniques for the inspection and defect characterisation of carbon fiber composites
Fernandes, Henrique; Georges, Marc ULg; Crabus, Georges et al

Conference (2015, December)

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See detailComparison of acute biochemical variations induced by ingestion of different calcium salts in healthy volunteers
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Denis, D; Bartsch, Valérie ULg et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme et des Maladies Osteo-Articulaires (1992), 59

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