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See detailLa composition du collège communal après la réforme du Code wallon de la démocratie locale
Matagne, Geoffroy ULg; Radoux, Emmanuel ULg; Verjans, Pierre ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2011), 2094

En 2005, un an après l’adoption du Code de la démocratie locale et de la décentralisation et un an avant les élections communales, le Parlement wallon adopte des innovations qui auront directement des ... [more ▼]

En 2005, un an après l’adoption du Code de la démocratie locale et de la décentralisation et un an avant les élections communales, le Parlement wallon adopte des innovations qui auront directement des effets sur ces élections et sur le fonctionnement des conseils et des collèges communaux. Parmi ces innovations, trois font l’objet d’un bilan dans ce Courrier hebdomadaire : la désignation quasi-automatique du bourgmestre, la possibilité pour des conseillers communaux de déposer une motion de méfiance collective ou individuelle contre le collège communal et l’instauration de synergies nouvelles entre le CPAS et la commune. Après avoir exposé en détail le contenu et le sens de ces trois réformes, les auteurs examinent ensuite leur impact sur les stratégies préélectorales lors des élections communales de 2006, sur l’installation des exécutifs communaux et sur leur fonctionnement. Ils concluent à un glissement vers une démocratie du public et à une prise de distance d’avec la démocratie de partis, sauf en ce qui concerne les motions de méfiance collective, qui laissent un rôle important aux groupes politiques. La réforme se présente comme une volonté de mieux tenir compte du choix des électeurs en individualisant le processus électoral. Mais cette individualisation est dans une large mesure sous le contrôle des partis. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition effect on the core-shell morphology and mechanical properties of ternary polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber/polyethylene blends
Luzinov, Igor; Xi, K.; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Polymer (1999), 40(10), 2511-2520

The morphology of ternary polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber/polyethylene (PS/SBR/PE) blends has been investigated in the limits of a constant content of the major component (PS; 75 wt%) while changing ... [more ▼]

The morphology of ternary polystyrene/styrene-butadiene rubber/polyethylene (PS/SBR/PE) blends has been investigated in the limits of a constant content of the major component (PS; 75 wt%) while changing the weight ratio of the two minor constitutive polymers. A core-shell structure for the dispersed phase has been predicted from the spreading coefficients and observed by transmission electron microscopy. Actually, upon increasing the relative content of PE with respect to SBR, the structure of the dispersed phase changes from a multicore structure to a PE/SBR core-shell morphology. The size of the PE subphase in the mixed dispersed phase increases sharply at a PE content that corresponds to phase inversion in the parent SBR/PE binary blends. The ultimate mechanical properties of these blends are sensitive to the strength of the SBR interphase between PS and PE. Some synergism has been observed in the PE/SBR composition dependence of the tensile strengths at yield and break. [less ▲]

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See detailCOMPOSITION FOR THE RELEASE AND PROTECTION OF INSTANT ACTIVE DRY YEASTS
DE PAUW, Paul; El Mejdoub, Thami ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

Patent (2009)

The present invention provides a composition for preserving the stability, the fermentative activity and for favouring the release of instant active dry yeasts. [0002] A composition of the invention can ... [more ▼]

The present invention provides a composition for preserving the stability, the fermentative activity and for favouring the release of instant active dry yeasts. [0002] A composition of the invention can be in liquid, pasta-like or powdered form. The invention concerns also the method for preparing said composition and its different applications [less ▲]

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See detailComposition n'est pas raison? Une contrefaçon liégeoise de la Théorie de l'impôt de Mirabeau (1761)
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in De Gulden Passer = Le compas d'or (1995), 73

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See detailComposition of by-products from cooked fruit processing and potential use in food products
Aguedo, Mario ULg; Kohnen, Stephan; Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg et al

in Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (2012), 27

The process that produces Lie`ge syrup (apple butter-like) results in high amounts of residues from cooked apples, pears and sun-dried dates. These unusual fruit by-products were studied for their ... [more ▼]

The process that produces Lie`ge syrup (apple butter-like) results in high amounts of residues from cooked apples, pears and sun-dried dates. These unusual fruit by-products were studied for their composition in total proteins and fats, dietary fiber (DF) and their content in total and free monosaccharides. All three by-products contained around 20% of total non-cellulosic monosaccharides and around 10% of free monosaccharides. According to two different methods, DF accounted for 70% of the dry weight (DW) with an insignificant soluble fraction; pectin represented 2–3% of DW. Apple and pear residues were composed mainly of cellulose, whereas lignin was the main fraction for dried date. The polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity of the three products were also assessed and the values showed that their antioxidant characteristics were comparable to that of various raw fruits. No phenolic acids were detected, indicating that the cooking process resulted in their extraction. The lyophilized and ground residues exhibited high water holding capacities (between 5.2 g water per g DW for pear and 8.6 for apple) and average oil holding capacities (around 2.5 g oil per g DW), whereas their color was light brownish as shown by the L*, a*, b* coordinates determined. These data open the possibility to contemplate new specific and niche applications for such by-products. Besides, it provides information about the effects of a cooking process on apple and pear pomaces, as well as on an unusual residue from a dried fruit (date). [less ▲]

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See detailThe composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Bacquet, Paul et al

in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution (2014), 2:37

Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals ... [more ▼]

Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD) than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD). Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition of degumming residues from oil physical refining : valorization for food application
Pierart, Céline ULg; Cavillot, Véronique; Kervyn de Meerendré, M. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailComposition of the Essential Oil of Leaves and Berries of Algerian Myrtle (Myrtus comunis L.)
Brada, M.; Tabli, N.; Boutopumi, H. et al

in Journal of Essential Oil Research (2012)

Myrtus communis L. essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were 0.3% (w/w) and 0.1% for leaves and berries, respectively. Using GC and GC/ MS techniques, twenty five components ... [more ▼]

Myrtus communis L. essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the yields were 0.3% (w/w) and 0.1% for leaves and berries, respectively. Using GC and GC/ MS techniques, twenty five components were identified in berry oil representing 89.5% of the oil composition. Linalool was the major compound in berry oil (36.2%) followed by estragole (18.4%) and 1,8-cineole (11.4%). Leaf oil was composed of 28 compounds representing 95.4% of the total composition of the oil. α-pinene was the major constituent of leaf oil at concentration of (46.9%), followed by 1,8-cineole (25.2%). The two Algerian oils were characterized by the lack of myrtenyl acetate. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition of the essential oil of Piper acutifolium Ruiz. and Pav. from Peru.
Lognay, Georges ULg; Bouxin, P.; Marlier, M. et al

in Journal of Essential Oil Research (1996), 8(6),

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See detailThe composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in 3 cases of polyneuritis equi
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

in In Proccedings of the Second congress of the European College od Equine Internal Medicine (ECEIM) (2007, February 02)

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See detailThe Composition of the Inflammatory Infiltrate in Three Cases of Polyneuritis Equi
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2008), 40(2), 185-8

Polyneuritis equi (PNE) is a rare neurological disease in the horse. Because of the suspicion in PNE of a T-lymphocyte mediated immune response against the myelin, the objective of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Polyneuritis equi (PNE) is a rare neurological disease in the horse. Because of the suspicion in PNE of a T-lymphocyte mediated immune response against the myelin, the objective of this study was to determine the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in the involved nerves of 3 horses with PNE, studied retrospectively. T-lymphocytes were demonstrated in the lesions, which suggests a T-lymphocyte mediated immune response against myelin. In addition, the presence of B-lymphocytes indicated a local production of antibodies. More research, involving a prospective study, is needed to determine whether the T-lymphocytes are cytotoxic or T-helper lymphocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition of the walls of stem and leaves of vitrifying carnation
Kevers, Claire ULg; Goldberg, R.; Chu-Ba, J. et al

in Biologia Plantarum (1988), 30(3), 219-223

Vitrification of stem explants of carnation was brought about by culturing in liquid medium. Cellulose and lignin levels were decreased in vitrified stems and leaves. Isolated cell walls of vitrified ... [more ▼]

Vitrification of stem explants of carnation was brought about by culturing in liquid medium. Cellulose and lignin levels were decreased in vitrified stems and leaves. Isolated cell walls of vitrified tissues were also characterized by low calcium content, low Ca2+/uronic acids ratio, low ratio of uronic acids to neutral sugars due to higher amounts of the latters. All these characteristics may account for the high wall plastic potential previously measured in vitrifying internodes. © 1988 Academia. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. rich essential oils from Cameroon and identification of a minor diterpene: ent-13-epi manoyl oxide.
Noudjou, Félicité; Kouninki, Habiba; Hance, Thierry et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2007), 11(3), 193-199

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See detailComposition saline du sang et des tissus des animaux marins
Fredericq, Léon ULg

in Annales de la Société de Médecine de Gand (1884)

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See detailCompositional and kinetic controls on liquid immiscibility in ferrobasalt-rhyolite volcanic and plutonic series
Charlier, Bernard ULg; Namur, O.; Grove, T. L.

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2013), 113

We present major element compositions of basalts and their differentiation products for some major tholeiitic series. The dry, low-pressure liquid lines of descent are shown to approach or intersect the ... [more ▼]

We present major element compositions of basalts and their differentiation products for some major tholeiitic series. The dry, low-pressure liquid lines of descent are shown to approach or intersect the experimentally-defined compositional space of silicate liquid immiscibility. Ferrobasalt-rhyolite unmixing along tholeiitic trends in both volcanic and plutonic environments is supported by worldwide occurrence of immiscible globules in the mesostasis of erupted basalts, unmixed melt inclusions in cumulus phases of major layered intrusions such as Skaergaard and Sept Iles, and oxide-rich ferrogabbros closely associated with plagiogranites in the lower oceanic crust. Liquid immiscibility is promoted by low-pressure, anhydrous fractional crystallization that drives the low Al2O3, high FeO liquids into the two-liquid field. Kinetic controls can be important in the development of two-liquid separation. The undercooling that occurs at the slow cooling rates of plutonic environments promotes early development of liquid immiscibility at higher temperature. In contrast rapid cooling in erupted lavas leads to large undercoolings and liquid immiscibility develops at significantly lower temperatures. Unmixing leads to the development of a compositional gap characterized by the absence of intermediate compositions, a feature of many tholeiitic provinces. The compositions of experimental unmixed silica-rich melts coincide with those of natural rhyolites and plagiogranites with high FeOtot and low Al2O3, suggesting the potential role of large-scale separation of immiscible Si-rich liquid in the petrogenesis of late-stage residual melts. No trace of the paired ferrobasaltic melt is found in volcanic environments because of its uneruptable characteristics. Instead, Fe-Ti±P-rich gabbros are the cumulate products of immiscible Fe-rich melts in plutonic settings. The immiscibility process may be difficult to identify because both melts crystallize the same phases with the same compositions. The two liquids might form incompletely segregated emulsions so that both liquids continue to exchange as they crystallize and remain in equilibrium. Even if segregated, both melts evolve on the binodal surface and exsolve continuously with decreasing temperature. The two liquids do not differentiate independently and keep crystallizing the same phases with differentiation. Further evolution by fractional crystallization potentially drives the bulk liquid out of the two-liquid field so that very late-stage liquids could evolve into the single melt phase stability field. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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