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See detailComparison of spin echo (SE), gradient echo ( GE ) and Fat Saturation MRI sequences for imaging the canine elbow
Snaps, Frédéric ULg; Saunders, J.; Park, R. D. et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (1998), 39(6), 518-523

Two comparison studies were performed. In the first conventional spin-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) sequences and a three-dimensional (3-D Fourier transform [3DFT]) echo gradient fast-imaging sequence were ... [more ▼]

Two comparison studies were performed. In the first conventional spin-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) sequences and a three-dimensional (3-D Fourier transform [3DFT]) echo gradient fast-imaging sequence were compared for imaging the canine normal elbow joint. In all three sequences, there was an isointense signal of the articular cartilage and a hyposignal of the subchondral bone, as compared with the muscles. The medial coronoid process of the ulna was clearly seen on the dorsal plane images, it appeared with a homogenous low-intensity signal. Its articulation with the radius was clearly outlined. In a second study, the 3DFT echo gradient fast-imaging sequence was compared to a fat saturation sequence on normal shoulder and elbow joints. Elbows were imaged with and without injection of saline, in an attempt to show the opposing cartilaginous articular surfaces. This distinction was possible in the shoulder joint but not in the elbow because of insufficient spatial resolution. On the three MRI sequences compared, gradient echo fast imaging with steady-state precession (GE FISP) sequence was found to be the most suitable for imaging the canine elbow joint. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of spin echo, gradient echo and fat saturation magnetic resonance imaging sequences for imaging the canine elbow
Snaps, Frédéric ULg; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Park, Richard D. et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (1998), 39(6), 518-523

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See detailComparison of spray retention on synthetic superhydrophobic surface with retention on outdoor grown wheat leaves
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

in International Advances in Pesticide Application: Aspects of Applied Biology 114, 2012 (2012, January)

A method has been designed to test the retention of drops generated by a moving agricultural nozzle using high speed imaging both on synthetic and leaf surfaces. The method allows a precise investigation ... [more ▼]

A method has been designed to test the retention of drops generated by a moving agricultural nozzle using high speed imaging both on synthetic and leaf surfaces. The method allows a precise investigation of spray retention by a characterisation of impact speed, drop diameter and impact behaviour. The paper presents a comparison of the spray behaviour on the synthetic surface with the behaviour on outdoor grown wheat leaves fixed on a microscope slide. Target surfaces were horizontal. A range of surface tension was tested using the tank-mix adjuvant Break-Thru S240 at different concentrations in distilled water. Results show the relevance of a synthetic surface for use as reference for the assessment of spray application efficiency. The drop behaviour on the superhydrophobic slide was representative of difficult-to-wet leaves surfaces. The reference surface avoids the natural variability of leaves and is therefore more suited to conduct comparative assessment of formulation retention performance. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis
Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noel; Mainil, Jacques et al

Poster (2012, July)

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See detailComparison of steam and nitrogen in the physical deacidification of soybean oil
Decap, Philippe; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Vanbrabant, Béatrice et al

in Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (2004), 81(6), 611-617

Deacidification in physical refining is one of the most sensitive steps in refining edible vegetable oils because of its large impact on the quality of the oil. The removal of volatile compounds such as ... [more ▼]

Deacidification in physical refining is one of the most sensitive steps in refining edible vegetable oils because of its large impact on the quality of the oil. The removal of volatile compounds such as FFA is accomplished at elevated temperatures and a high vacuum with a stripping gas, usually steam. The aim of this work was to verify, at the laboratory level, the advantages of using an alternative stripping gas, nitrogen, instead of steam. An ideal vapor-liquid equilibrium model (lVLE) was used to compare the stripping capacities of steam and nitrogen and to analyze the effects of various operational parameters (temperature, pressure, amount of stripping gas) on the residual acidity of the oil. There was no clear evidence that nitrogen showed a higher capacity to strip FFA than steam. The IVLE model seemed suitable to describe FFA laboratory distillation by using steam or nitrogen, provided the final residual content of FFA was not too low. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of supervised learning techniques for atmospheric pollutant monitoring in a Kraft pulp mill
Sainlez, Matthieu ULg; Heyen, Georges ULg

in Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2012)

In this paper, supervised learning techniques are compared to predict nitro- gen oxide (NOx) pollutant emission from the recovery boiler of a Kraft pulp mill. Starting from a large database of raw process ... [more ▼]

In this paper, supervised learning techniques are compared to predict nitro- gen oxide (NOx) pollutant emission from the recovery boiler of a Kraft pulp mill. Starting from a large database of raw process data related to a Kraft recovery boiler, we consider a regression problem in which we are trying to predict the value of a continuous variable. Generalization is done on the worst case configuration possible to make sure the model is adequate: the training period concerns stationary operations while test periods mainly fo- cus on NOx emissions during transient operations. This comparison involves neural network techniques (i.e., multilayer perceptron and NARX network), tree-based methods and multiple linear regression. We illustrate the potential of a dynamic neural approach compared to the others in this task. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of supraglacial lake observations derived from MODIS imagery at the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet
Leeson, A.; Shepherd, A.; Sundal, A. et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2013), 59(208), 1179-1188

Supraglacial lakes (SGLs) affect the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet by storing runoff and draining episodically. We investigate the evolution of SGLs as reported in three datasets, each based on ... [more ▼]

Supraglacial lakes (SGLs) affect the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet by storing runoff and draining episodically. We investigate the evolution of SGLs as reported in three datasets, each based on automated classification of satellite imagery. Although the datasets span the period 2001–10, there are differences in temporal sampling, and only the years 2005–07 are common. By subsampling the most populous dataset, we recommend a sampling frequency of one image per 6.5 days in order to minimize uncertainty associated with poor temporal sampling. When compared with manual classification of satellite imagery, all three datasets are found to omit a sizeable (29, 48 and 41%) fraction of lakes and are estimated to document the average size of SGLs to within 0.78, 0.48 and 0.95 km2 . We combine the datasets using a hierarchical scheme, producing a single, optimized, dataset. This combined record reports up to 67% more lakes than a single dataset. During 2005–07, the rate of SGL growth tends to follow the rate at which runoff increases in each year. In 2007, lakes drain earlier than in 2005 and 2006 and remain absent despite continued runoff. This suggests that lakes continue to act as open surface–bed conduits following drainage. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of T1 and T2 - weighted and Blade MRI sequences for examination of canine normal abdomen
Hoffmann; Buttin; Haye et al

Poster (2008)

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See detailA Comparison of TEC Values Derived by Using GPS, Ionosonde and NNSS Data
Warnant, René ULg; Jodogne, Jean-Claude; Van Camp, Michel

in Kersley, Len (Ed.) Proceedings of Beacon Satellite Symposium '94 (1994)

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See detailComparison of temperature estimates from heat transport model and electrical resistivity tomography during a shallow heat injection and storage experiment
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Daoudi, Moubarak ULg; Vandenbohede, Alexander et al

in Berichte der Geologischen Bundesanstalt (2012, September), 93

Groundwater resources are increasingly used around the world as geothermal systems. Understanding physical processes and quantification of parameters determining heat transport in porous media is ... [more ▼]

Groundwater resources are increasingly used around the world as geothermal systems. Understanding physical processes and quantification of parameters determining heat transport in porous media is therefore important. Geophysical methods may be useful in order to yield additional information with greater coverage than conventional wells. We report a heat transport study during a shallow heat injection and storage field test. Heated water (about 50°C) was injected for 6 days at the rate of 80 l/h in a 10.5°C aquifer. Since bulk electric resistivity variations can bring important information on temperature changes in aquifers (water electric conductivity increases about 2%/°C around 25°C), we monitored the test with surface electric resistivity tomography and demonstrate its ability to monitor spatially temperature variations. Time-lapse electric images clearly show the decrease and then the increase in bulk electric resistivity of the plume of heated water, during respectively the injection and the storage phase. This information enabled to calibrate the conceptual flow and heat model used to simulate the test. Inverted resistivity values are validated with borehole electromagnetic measurements (EM39) and are in agreement with the temperature logs used to calibrate the parameters of the thermo-hydrogeological model for the injection phase. This field work demonstrates that surface electric resistivity tomography can monitor heat and storage experiments in shallow aquifers. These results could potentially lead to a number of practical applications, such as the monitoring or the design of shallow geothermal systems or the use of heated water to replace salt water in tracer tests. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the ability of three radioimmunoassay to detect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in bovine plasma
Perenyi, Z. S.; Szenci, Otto; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(2), 100-104

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a large family of glycoproteins that are synthesized in the superficial layer of the ruminant placenta according to a spatial and temporal expression ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a large family of glycoproteins that are synthesized in the superficial layer of the ruminant placenta according to a spatial and temporal expression pattern. When PAGs are released in the maternal blood they can be used for pregnancy diagnosis, pregnancy follow-up and for the monitoring of the trophoblastic function. Three different radioimmunoassay systems (RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3) using antisera produced against PAG I67 (RIA 1), PAG55+62 (RIA 2) and PAG55+59 (RIA 3) were used in this investigation in order to measure the PAG concentration in plasma samples withdrawn from pregnant cows and heifers during different periods following artificial insemination (AI). These systems were able to detect PAG molecules in the maternal blood as early as 21 days after AI in different concentrations (RIA 1: 0.43 +/- 0.24 ng/ml, mean +/- SD; RIA 2: 0.48 +/- 0.24 ng/ml; RIA 3: 0.64 +/- 0.37 ng/ml). On days 32 and 42 RIA 2 (4.30 +/- 1.32 ng/ml and 5.56 +/- 1.95 ng/ml) and RIA 3 (4.17 +/- 1.15 ng/ml and 5.60 +/- 1.89 ng/ml) presented significantly (p < 0.0001) higher PAG concentrations than those of RIA 1 (2.43 +/- 0.81 ng/ml and 4.01 +/- 1.48 ng/ml), respectively. After day 21, significant correlations (p < 0.0001; r >/= 0.929) were determined between the three systems. Additionally the three individual PAG profiles presented in this study showed that PAG molecules secreted in the maternal blood between 21 and 50 days after AI were better recognized by the RIA 2 and RIA 3 systems. This study clearly indicated that the ability of a RIA test to recognize PAG molecules in the maternal blood can be improved by carefully selecting the antiserum. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of the Acidity Levels in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids
Robert, Thierry ULg; Magna, Lionel; Olivier-Bourbigou, Hélène et al

in Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2009), 156(9), 115

The Broensted acidity level was evaluated for several ionic liqs. ([BMIm][BF4], [BMIm][PF6], [BMIm][SbF6], [BMIm][OTf], [BMIm][NTf2], [HNET3][NTf2], and [HBIm][NTf2]) to which a strong acid, such as HNTf2 ... [more ▼]

The Broensted acidity level was evaluated for several ionic liqs. ([BMIm][BF4], [BMIm][PF6], [BMIm][SbF6], [BMIm][OTf], [BMIm][NTf2], [HNET3][NTf2], and [HBIm][NTf2]) to which a strong acid, such as HNTf2 [NTf2=N(CF3SO2)2] and HOTf (OTf=CF3SO3), has been added. The main purpose is to tentatively measure the influence on the resulting acidity of (i) the solvent anion or cation structure and (ii) the added acid nature. The evaluation method is based on the detn. of the Hammett acidity functions H0 using UV/visible spectroscopy. The acidity of protons is mainly detd. by their solvation state, and consequently, the properties of protons depend on both the nature of the solvent and the nature and concn. of the acid. In practice, for the investigated ionic liqs., the cation as well as the added acid nature does not play a dominant role, whereas changing the anion nature may lead to very different acidities. Indeed, for a similar content of added acid, the measured acidity levels are in the order PF6- > BF4- > NTf2- > OTf-. The problems of the influence of impurities on the final acidity and of the dissocg. character of the ionic liq. are addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the adrenocortical response to both pharmacological and physiological stresses in sport horses
Linden, Annick ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1990), 37(8), 601-604

Seven sport horses were investigated to compare physiological and pharmacological stresses on the plasma glucocorticosteroid levels. <br />Venous blond was sampled and analysed for cortisol concentrations ... [more ▼]

Seven sport horses were investigated to compare physiological and pharmacological stresses on the plasma glucocorticosteroid levels. <br />Venous blond was sampled and analysed for cortisol concentrations before and after each type of stress. The physiological stress was induced by the completion of a cross-country and the phar¬macological one, by an intravenous ACTH administration (200 µg) in the came horses, one week after the course. <br />Both exercise and ACTH injection induced a highly significant cortisol increase of 79 ± 0.10 %, and 160 ± 0.18 %, respectively. The relative plasma cortisol increases due to exercise on the nue hand, and due to ACTH administration on the other hand, were correlated with a coefficient of 0.82. It was concluded that the plasma cortisol increase induced by a standardised pharmacological stress could be used in order to predict the exercise-induced stress response. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the amnesic, ataxic and hypothermic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde in mice
Closon, Catherine ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 92-92

Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, has been suggested to be involved in many behavioral effects of ethanol. However, very few studies have been published on the role of acetaldehyde in the ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, has been suggested to be involved in many behavioral effects of ethanol. However, very few studies have been published on the role of acetaldehyde in the amnesic and ataxic effects of ethanol. The aim of the present studies was to compare the profiles of ethanol and acetaldehyde in several behavioral tests, measuring motor coordination, learning and memory in mice. Female Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally with ethanol (0-3g/kg) and acetaldehyde (100-300mg/kg). The effects of these substances on a series of representative behaviors were investigated. The amnesic effects were tested with an object recognition task and a one-trial passive avoidance test. Additionally, the rectal temperatures were used to evaluate the hypothermic effects of the two substances. Finally, motor coordination was assessed using the accelerating rotarod test. The results showed that acetaldehyde, like ethanol, altered memory as shown by a reduced performance in the passive avoidance test and the object recognition task. In addition, acetaldehyde at doses between 100 and 300 mg/kg induced significant hypothermic effects, but that was of shorter duration than ethanol-induced hypothermia. Finally, significant ataxic effects of both acetaldehyde and ethanol were observed in the accelerating rotarod test. Overall, the results of the present study clearly show that acetaldehyde, like ethanol, has amnesic, hypothermic and ataxic properties in mice at least at relatively high concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of candesartan cilexetil and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in primary hypertension: the champion study
Lins, R.; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Vandenhoven, G. et al

in American Journal of Hypertension : Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (2001), 4

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