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See detailChanges of daily potential evapotranspiration and analysis of its sensitivity coefficients to key climatic variables in Yellow River basin
Liu, Qin ULg; Yan, Changrong; Zhao, Caixia et al

in Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (2014)

Potential evapotranspiration (ET0) is generally accepted to be an important element of the hydrological cycle, and changes in sensitivity coefficients of ET0 to climate variables are of great significance ... [more ▼]

Potential evapotranspiration (ET0) is generally accepted to be an important element of the hydrological cycle, and changes in sensitivity coefficients of ET0 to climate variables are of great significance for agricultural water use planning, irrigation system design and management, especially under the condition when climate change may have important influence on water-shortage regions, such as Yellow River basin (YRB), where warmer and drier conditions might augment water demand by crop. However, little reports have focused on the related issues in the upper, middle, and lower regions of YRB. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the variation of ET0 and its response to climate variables in the upper, middle, and lower regions of YRB. Based on data for 109 meteorological stations in and around YRB from the Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA) in years of 1961-2012, ET0 was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation recommended by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO-56) and its sensitivity coefficient to climate variables (solar radiation, relative humidity, daily air temperature, and wind speed) was calculated. The results showed that the average daily ET0 value in upper region was higher than in the middle and lower region of YRB and a significantly decreasing trend of ET0 was detected with the magnitude of 0.043 mm per decade in lower region. The diurnal variation curve of solar radiation, air temperature and their sensitivity coefficients was in a single apex type in the upper, middle and lower regions of YRB, and that the sensitivity coefficients of wind speed changed following a single trough type curve. However, the curves fluctuated largely for relative humidity, wind speed along with sensitivity coefficient for relative humidity and air temperature. Furthermore, the maximum value of sensitivity coefficient for relative humidity was found in December, similarly for air temperature and solar radiation in July and August, respectively. A decreasing trend was observed for solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and sensitivity coefficient of solar radiation and air temperature. But, an increasing trend was detected for air temperature, sensitivity coefficient of relative humidity and wind speed in recent 52 years. Relative humidity is considered to be the most sensitive variable, while solar radiation is recognized as primarily controlling variable for ET0 in the whole year and recent 52 years. Moreover, the high value of sensitivity coefficients to solar radiation, relative humidity and air temperature was found in the southwest study area, while the high value of sensitivity coefficients to wind speed was in the north region. Therefore, the southwest region was recognized as the most sensitive region for response of ET0 to climate change. The findings from this research provide important information for crop planting adjustment, ecological engineering planning and water-soil resource management in YRB in an attempt to improving the healthy development of agriculture and ecological environment. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges of macrofauna stable isotope compositions in a very inconstant seagrass detritic habitat: actual diet modification or baseline shift?
Remy, François ULg; Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 20)

Decayed leaves of the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica, detached and then exported during storms, constitute an important compartment in terms of organic matter transfer from the seagrass bed to the other ... [more ▼]

Decayed leaves of the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica, detached and then exported during storms, constitute an important compartment in terms of organic matter transfer from the seagrass bed to the other habitats, particularly coastal habitats. These exported litter accumulations (ELA) support a diverse (more than 130 species) and abundant (up to 4900 id.m-2) vagile macrofauna (invertebrates > 500µm) assemblage which may play a key role in the degradation, enrichment and carbon transfer from P. oceanica dead material to coastal food chains. Indeed, preliminary results of vagile invertebrates gut content observations show that even if only a few of these species ingest a large proportion of P.oceanica dead leaves fragments, most of the others ingest a small but non-negligible part, suggesting a potential role of the whole community in the mechanical fragmentation of the dead leaves. ELA are very dynamic habitats with highly variable food availability, quality, and composition. Such an inconstant habitat may result in drastic modifications of the invertebrate community but also of its trophic structure and ecology. To test this hypothesis of influence of pulsed availability, quality and composition of food sources on the vagile macrofauna diet, we took seasonal samples in Calvi Bay (Corsica, 8°45’E; 42°35’N), at two sites between August 2011 and May 2012. Stable isotopes analysis (C&N) were conducted at an individual level on dominant macrofauna species and mixing and isotopic niche model packages in R were used. Bayesian inference “SIBER” package highlighted significant seasonal and spatial differences of diet at the community, specific and even intraspecific level. Data confirm the potential transfer of seagrass material to animal tissues but in various proportions depending of the species and the season. But one question remained: are these variations reflection a true diet change, or only a spatiotemporal baseline variation of the food sources isotopic composition? “SIAR” Bayesian mixing model showed that it depends on the species and that the two responses co-occur. We emphasized the need to work at the specific level but also with an adequate temporal resolution for sampling to encompass diet and baseline variability. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges of soil structure and earthworm community under different agricultural management
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2013, April 11)

The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic constructs of soil, represented as soil structure, organic matter, and nutrients. Maintenance of ... [more ▼]

The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic constructs of soil, represented as soil structure, organic matter, and nutrients. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is necessary for soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the formation of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Little is known about the interactive effects of various tillage and crop residue management practices on earthworm populations and physical properties of soil. <br />To investigate the impacts of two tillage management systems and two cropping systems on earthworms populations and soil stucture dynamics, we carried out a three years study of the earthworm communities in experimental site having for experimental treatments : two tillage management systems and two cropping systems. In consequence, the aims of this experimentation were to determine the effects of the tillage systems on the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms and examine temporal variation of soil structure and dynamics of nutrient elements. <br />The first results reveal that tillage management had a significant affect on earthworm abundance and biomass. However, crop residue management did not affect abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms. The analyze of nutrient element dynamics showed that some nutrient elements (phosphore,…) decrease with tillage practice. This study has shown that soil structure was variable within the fields and between them, although the successive cultivation operations and the equipement used for wheat cropping were identical in the study site. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges of sub-fossil chironomid assemblages associated with volcanic sediment deposition in an Andean lake (38 degrees S), Chile
Araneda, Alberto; Cruces, Fabiola; Torres, Laura et al

in Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (2007), 80(2), 141-156

Chironomid assemblages and sedimentological parameters (grain size, organic content, mineralogy) of a short sediment core from Lake Galletue (38 degrees 41' S, 71 degrees 17' W) were analysed. The ... [more ▼]

Chironomid assemblages and sedimentological parameters (grain size, organic content, mineralogy) of a short sediment core from Lake Galletue (38 degrees 41' S, 71 degrees 17' W) were analysed. The sedimentary record includes one volcanic ash (tephra) layer, which has a completely different composition than the host sediment in terms of organic content, grain size, and mineralogy. According to the geochronology (Pb-210 and Cs-137), this ash layer corresponds to the eruption of Llaima Volcano in 1956-1957. The tephra deposition had an impact on chironomid assemblages producing, among other changes, an increase in Parakiefferiella and a decrease in Ablabesmyia, although no noticeable change was detected in the diversity index. When compared with other studies, our results also show an impact in terms of the presence of chironomid head capsules within the tephra. The presence of these head capsules could result from the effects of percolation, since the coarse grain size of the tephra particles provides large interstitial spaces. The recovery in the abundances of some taxa after the tephra input, suggests the lake is probably restoring the conditions prevailing before the tephra fall. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging Architecture's materiality and meaning through digital culture
Delvaux, Frederic ULg; Bianchi, Romuald ULg; Defawes, Georges ULg et al

in Proceedings of the international conference Changing cities : spatial, morphological, formal and socio-economic dimensions (2013)

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See detailChanging Belgian Mental Healthcare Delivery - Enacting Policy Learning
Thunus, Sophie ULg; Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2015, July)

Based on sociological analyses of Belgian mental healthcare reforms, this paper demonstrates how policy learning occurs in that field –through the process of devising policy change – and how it impacts on ... [more ▼]

Based on sociological analyses of Belgian mental healthcare reforms, this paper demonstrates how policy learning occurs in that field –through the process of devising policy change – and how it impacts on policy change, such as mediated through collective action and social interactions taking place in relation to policy change. It first defines coalitions of actors, institutional power struggles and conflicts of paradigms representing barriers and opportunities for policy change. Then, by using the phenomenology of Embodied, Inscribed and Enacted Knowledge in Policy (Freeman & Sturdy, 2014), it identifies policy learning resulting from the process of preparing and devising the ongoing “Reform 107”. By providing means to attend to the transformation of policy-relevant knowledge through social interactions, the phenomenology enabled us to identify three ways of learning (by assembling, meeting and anticipating), which are associated to three types of changes in mental health policies (negotiated change, innovation and strategic change). [less ▲]

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See detailChanging concepts in plant hormone action
Gaspar, Thomas ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Faivre-Rampant, Odile et al

in In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant (2003), 39(2, MAR-APR), 85-106

A plant hormone is not, in the classic animal sense, a chemical synthesized in one organ, transported to a second organ to exert a chemical action to control a physiological event. Any phytohormone can be ... [more ▼]

A plant hormone is not, in the classic animal sense, a chemical synthesized in one organ, transported to a second organ to exert a chemical action to control a physiological event. Any phytohormone can be synthesized everywhere and can influence different growth and development processes at different places. The concept of physiological activity under hormonal control cannot be dissociated from changes in concentrations at the site of action, from spatial differences and changes in the tissue's sensitivity to the compound, from its transport and its metabolism, from balances and interactions with the other phytohormones, or in their metabolic relationships, and in their signaling pathways as well. Secondary messengers are also involved. Hormonal involvement in physiological processes can appear through several distinct manifestations (as environmental sensors, homeostatic regulators and spatio-temporal synchronizers, resource allocators, biotime adjusters, etc.), dependent on or integrated with the primary biochemical pathways. The time has also passed for the hypothesized 'specific' developmental hormones, rhizocaline, caulocaline, and florigen: root, stem, and flower formation result from a sequential control of specific events at the right places through a coordinated control by electrical signals, the known phytohormones and nonspecific molecules of primary and secondary metabolism, and involve both cytoplasmic and apoplastic compartments. These contemporary views are examined in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging dynamics of the Loire river in Burgundy (France) during the last 200 years
Leteinturier, B.; Engels, Patrick ULg; Petit, François ULg et al

in Géomorphologie : Relief, Processus, Environnement (2000)

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See detailThe changing face of disability insurance
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

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See detailChanging facial phenotype in Cohen syndrome: towards clues for an earlier diagnosis.
El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Blair, Edward; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel et al

in European journal of human genetics : EJHG (2013), 21(7), 736-42

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial ... [more ▼]

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailCHANGING FAN CULTURE
Comeron, Manuel ULg

Conference (2007, November)

Sport competitions are not just a game; they should be a celebration of social links and understanding among different cultures and traditions. Therefore it is important to ensure that they take place ... [more ▼]

Sport competitions are not just a game; they should be a celebration of social links and understanding among different cultures and traditions. Therefore it is important to ensure that they take place peacefully and in a secure and safe environment. In many cases, the most violent incidents have an international dimension, since large numbers of supporters cross national borders to attend major events. A stronger cooperation between the various communities for the prevention of incidents requires a more structured dialogue between all the stakeholders, including national and local governments, law enforcement agencies, judicial authorities, sport organisations e.g. clubs, supporters’ associations etc. The goal is to deliver a multidisciplinary approach that shares best practice across Europe, and improves day-to-day cooperation between all the actors. [less ▲]

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See detailCHANGING FIELDWORK PRACTICE TO ENABLE EFFECTIVE ARCHIVE-MODEL COMPARISON - A SUGGESTED FRAMEWORK
Briant, Rebecca; Cohen, Kim; Cordier, Stéphane et al

Conference (2014, September)

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See detailChanging incidence and improved survival of gliomas.
Ho, Vincent K. Y.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Enting, Roelien H. et al

in European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) (2014), 50(13), 2309-18

BACKGROUND: Tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a relatively rare but serious health burden. This study provides insight into the incidence and survival patterns of gliomas in the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a relatively rare but serious health burden. This study provides insight into the incidence and survival patterns of gliomas in the Netherlands diagnosed in adult patients during the time period 1989-2010, with a focus on glioblastoma and low-grade gliomas. METHODS: Data on 21,085 gliomas (excluding grade I tumours) were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry, including tumours of the CNS without pathological confirmation. We calculated the age-standardised incidence rates and the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) for all glioma subtypes. Crude and relative survival rates were estimated using information on the vital status obtained from the Dutch Municipal Personal Records Database. RESULTS: Incidence of gliomas in adults increased over time, from 4.9 per 100,000 in 1989 to 5.9 in 2010 (EAPC 0.7%, p<0.001). Two thirds were astrocytoma, 10% oligodendroglioma/oligoastrocytoma, 3% ependymoma and 21% were unspecified. Within the group of astrocytic tumours, the proportion of glioblastoma rose, while the proportion of anaplastic and unspecified astrocytoma decreased. Unspecified neoplasms also decreased, but this was significant only after 2005. Over the course of the study period, glioblastoma patients more often received multimodality treatment with chemotherapy concomitant and adjuvant to radiotherapy. The crude two-year survival rate of glioblastoma patients improved significantly, from 5% in the time period 1989-1994 to 15% in 2006-2010, with median survival increasing from 5.5 to 9months. The incidence of low-grade gliomas did not change over time. Survival rates for low-grade oligodendroglial and mixed tumours show a modest improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate for the total group of gliomas slightly increased, with a decrease of anaplastic and unspecified tumours and an increase of glioblastoma. Following the introduction of combined chemoradiation, two-year survival rates for glioblastoma significantly improved. Survival improved for low-grade gliomas except for low-grade astrocytic tumours. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Changing Landscape of Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: A European Perspective
CAERS, Jo ULg; de Larrea, Carlos; Leleu, Xavier et al

in Oncologist (2016), 21

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder and bridges monoclonal gammopathyof undeterminedsignificance tomultiplemyeloma(MM), based on higher levels of circulating ... [more ▼]

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder and bridges monoclonal gammopathyof undeterminedsignificance tomultiplemyeloma(MM), based on higher levels of circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin and bone marrow plasmocytosis without end-organ damage. Until a Spanish study reported fewer MM-related events and better overall survival among patients with highrisk SMM treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, prior studies had failed to show improved survival with earlier intervention, although a reduction in skeletal-related events (without any impact on disease progression) has been described with bisphosphonate use. Risk factors have now been defined, and a subset of ultra-high-risk patients have been reclassified by the International Myeloma Working Group asMM, and thus will require optimalMMtreatment, based on biomarkers that identify patients with a.80% risk of progression. The number of these redefined patients is small (∼10%), but important to unravel, because their risk of progression to overt MM is substantial ($80% within 2 years). Patients with a high-risk cytogenetic profile are not yet considered for early treatment, because groups are heterogeneous and risk factors other than cytogenetics are deemed to weight higher. Because patients with ultra-highrisk SMM are now considered as MMand may be treated as such, concerns exist that earlier therapy may increase the risk of selecting resistant clones and induce side effects and costs. Therefore, an even more accurate identification of patients who would benefit from interventions needs to be performed, and clinical judgment and careful discussion of pros and cons of treatment initiation needs to be undertaken. For the greater majority ofSMMpatients, the standard of care remains observation until development of symptomatic MM occurs, encouraging participation in ongoing and upcoming SMM/early MM clinical trials, as well as consideration of bisphosphonate use in patients with early bone loss. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging of blood culture isolates in a referral neonatal intensive care unit.
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Mitchison, R.; Davies, P. A.

in Archives of Disease in Childhood (1981), 56

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See detailChanging of blood culture isolates in neonates
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Oto, A.; Mitchison, R. et al

in Early Human Development (1980)

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See detailChanging pattern of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Frere, Pascale ULg; Hermanne, J.-P.; Debouge, M.-H. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2002), 29(7), 589-94

Adequate infection prophylaxis and empirical antibiotic therapy are of critical importance after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We examined the evolution of bacterial susceptibility to ... [more ▼]

Adequate infection prophylaxis and empirical antibiotic therapy are of critical importance after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We examined the evolution of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in 492 patients (198 allografts and 294 autografts) transplanted between 1982 and 1999 and evaluated whether ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and an empirical antibiotic regimen (glycopeptide + third-generation cephalosporin) were still valid. We collected all susceptibility tests performed during the initial hospitalization on blood cultures as well as routine surveillance cultures and analyzed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and to major antibiotics used in our unit. Gram-positive cocci rapidly became resistant to ciprofloxacin (susceptibility around 70% in 1990 to less than 20% in 1998) but sensitivity to glycopeptides remained unaltered. There was a rapid decline in the number of patients colonized with Gram-negative bacilli in the early years of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis. However, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin fell sharply from around 90% in 1990 to around 30% in 1999. In parallel, susceptibility to ceftazidime also decreased to less than 80% in recent years. Piperacillin (+/- tazobactam) did not show any variation over time and its efficacy remained too low (about 60%). Imipenem as well as recently introduced cefepim and meropenem showed stable and excellent profiles (>90% susceptibility). In conclusion: (1) quinolone prophylaxis has now lost most of its value; (2) the choice of a third-generation cephalosporin for empirical antibiotic therapy may no longer be the best because of the emergence of Gram-negative strains resistant to beta-lactamases, such as Enterobacter sp. More appropriate regimens of empirical antibiotic therapy in HSCT recipients may be based on the use of a carbapenem or fourth-generation cephalosporin. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging Patterns of Political Participation of Citizens of Immigrant Origin in the Brussels Capital Region. The October 2000 Elections
Martiniello, Marco ULg; Rea, Andrea; Jacobs, Dirk

in Journal of International Migration & Integration (2003), 3(2), 201-221

The October 2000 elections did constitute a landmark for the political participation of immigrant origin citizens in the Brussels Capital Region. There was a remarkable increase of elected Belgian ... [more ▼]

The October 2000 elections did constitute a landmark for the political participation of immigrant origin citizens in the Brussels Capital Region. There was a remarkable increase of elected Belgian politicians of non-EU–mainly Moroccan–origin. In this contribution we want to discuss the changing patterns of political participation of immigrant origin citizens in the Brussels Capital Region as seen in the most recent local elections. We contextualize the electoral success of Turkish and (mainly) Moroccan politicians and the poor involvement of EU citizens in the recent elections. To this purpose, we also discuss the political situation in the bilingual region of Brussels, Belgian citizenship law and regulations for political participation of foreign residents. [less ▲]

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See detailChanging public viewpoints on wind energy development in Belgium
Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Abstracts. Energy Landscapes: Perception, Planning, Participation and Power. European Conference of the Landscape Research Group, Dresden, 16‐18 September 2015 (2015, September)

The amount of wind turbines has increased exponentially in Belgium in the last eight years (175 in 2007, 771 in 2015). During this period, especially in the last two years, critics of this energy have ... [more ▼]

The amount of wind turbines has increased exponentially in Belgium in the last eight years (175 in 2007, 771 in 2015). During this period, especially in the last two years, critics of this energy have become more organised, virulent, and active in delaying or stopping many projects. The landscape impact of wind energy is central to their arguments. We wonder if people’s attitudes towards wind turbines and landscape changed in the last years in Belgium and how they changed. This paper compares public perception of wind energy in two researches about landscape perception. The two studies used slightly different methodologies but with similarities in the designs, allowing some comparisons. The first research (2007‐2009) aimed to study the perceived landscape impact and the social acceptance of wind turbines in Belgium. 1542 Belgians were surveyed about their landscape preferences using a photo‐questionnaire, including some pictures with wind turbines. 75 stakeholders of wind energy projects were also interviewed. The second research (2012‐2014) aimed to examine deeper the landscape preferences among 54 residents in three areas in Wallonia where wind turbines are present, using the previous photographs. During the conduct of the first research, changing attitudes were already observed. People had become more familiar with wind turbines and were less reluctant. The symbolic positive aspect of wind energy was highlighted seven years ago. This view continues. However, people seem more categorical in their viewpoint. All respondents have now been confronted to wind energy, which was not the case seven years ago. Some persons are not against wind farms but their increase in number start to overwhelm them. Others point they get used to the turbines, as long as they are not too many and too close. The huge increase in wind farms in the last seven years has changed the acceptance of wind energy. Some doubts about the real efficiency of this energy also shaped the attitudes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe changing roles of teachers as required by educational innovations : research and teaching
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg; Bayer, E.

Report (1967)

Objective description o.f teacher behavior in the classroom remains necessary. And since we have not yet a really satisfying instrument for that description, research also remains necessary. To convey a ... [more ▼]

Objective description o.f teacher behavior in the classroom remains necessary. And since we have not yet a really satisfying instrument for that description, research also remains necessary. To convey a correct picture of teachin processes, it seems that research has still to solve some problems of observational procedures and to refine the analysis techniques, but it mainly must : 1. extract the teaching variables from the various concenptual systems used and empirically described and introduce them into a theoretical framework 2. define experimentally the conditions of a valid measurement of these variables 3. test the currently hypothetized relationships between these variables and the teachers personalities and properties, methods and systems of teaching, the pupils activities and personalities and their learnings. The recent papers of Biddle1, Gage and Unruh2 seem to present a promising base to discuss these problems and to build a useful framework for rosearch. When we have an efficient, easy to handle instrument at our disposal, the shall then be ablB to investigate whether the teaching methods observed are really in the line of the objectives chosen or not. Of course, another kind of research is also needed, but though important, it is of secondary rank in our perspective. When the general method best suited for reaching the objections imposed by our modern culture have been defined, we must then also define the best way to use the different aids, techniques, processes in that context, to train teachers, etc. It is evident, for instance, that there is an optimum duration of exposure of a definite class of individuals, learning definite subjects, to TV teaching, audio-lab training. [less ▲]