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See detailComparison of robust detection techniques for local outliers in multivariate spatial data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

Conference (2014, August 22)

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Spatial data may contain two types of atypical observations: global ... [more ▼]

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Spatial data may contain two types of atypical observations: global and/or local outliers. The attribute values of a global outlier are outlying with respect to the values taken by the majority of the data points while the attribute values of a local outlier are extreme when compared to those of its neighbors. Usual outlier detection techniques may be used to find global outliers as the geographical positions of the data is not taken into account in this specific search. The detection of local outliers is more complex, especially when there are more than one non spatial attributes. This talk focuses on local detection with two main objectives. First, we will shortly review some of the local detection techniques that seem to perform well in practice. Among these, one can find robust ``Mahalanobis-type'' detection techniques and a wheighted PCA approach. We suggest an adaptation to one of these to further develop its local characteristic. Then, examples and simulations, based on linear model of co-regionalisation with Matern models, are reported and discussed in order to compare in an objective way the different detection techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of rodac plates and petrifilm TM to assess the microbial contamination of food-contact surfaces : importance of additives
Deckers, Sylvie; Detry, Jean; Anceau, Christine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Food Microbiology (2008, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (2 ULg)
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See detailComparison of rodac plates and petrifilm™ to assess the microbial contamination of food-contract surfaces/ importance of additieves
Deckers, Sylvie; Detry, Jean; Anceau, Christine ULg et al

in STRESS RESPONSES IN THE MICROBIAL WORLD (2008, December 18)

Assessing the microbial contamination level of surfaces is critical in environments where high hygiene levels are required. This is typically the case in food and catering industries or in hospitals and ... [more ▼]

Assessing the microbial contamination level of surfaces is critical in environments where high hygiene levels are required. This is typically the case in food and catering industries or in hospitals and medical appliances. On a routine base, RODAC plates and other techniques based on microbial transfer are generally used to quantify the microbial load of a surface. There are however still polemics on the limitations and performances of these techniques arising from the fact that the initial contamination level of a surface is never known and due to the difficulty of reproducing field conditions in laboratory environments. The present study brings further information in that direction. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of sampling procedures for isolating pulmonary mycoplasmas in cattle
Thomas, Anne; Dizier, Isabelle ULg; Trolin, A. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2002), 26(5), 333-339

Three sampling procedures were compared to determine the optimal technique for isolating mycoplasmas in cattle with respiratory diseases. The prevalence of mycoplasmas isolated from these animals is also ... [more ▼]

Three sampling procedures were compared to determine the optimal technique for isolating mycoplasmas in cattle with respiratory diseases. The prevalence of mycoplasmas isolated from these animals is also reported. In the first group, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and nasal swab cultures were compared with the corresponding lung cultures from cattle necropsied for fatal respiratory diseases (n = 20). In a second group, nasal swabs were compared with corresponding BAL cultures in living animals with recurrent respiratory pathologies (n = 49). There was complete agreement between the paired BAL and lung cultures. In contrast, nasal cultures were not representative of the mycoplasmas present in the lower respiratory airways. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the nasal swab technique compared to BAL in living animals confirmed that the nasal swab cultures were not predictive of lower respiratory airway pathogens, such as Mycoplasma bovis. BAL is considered to be the best method for isolating M. bovis in cattle with respiratory diseases as it combines reliability and feasibility under field sampling conditions. In the present study, Mycoplasma dispar (43%) and M. bovis (29%) were mainly isolated in mixed infections. This confirms the need to search for mycoplasmas in routine examinations and to take them into account in therapeutic strategies for respiratory diseases in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of sensory characteristics of green tea in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho, Vietnam
Dang, Thi Minh Luyen ULg; Ha, Duyen Tu; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2013)

Green tea is a popular consumption product in Vietnam. Especially, tea which origins from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen has been known for long by its better quality than those coming from other regions on the ... [more ▼]

Green tea is a popular consumption product in Vietnam. Especially, tea which origins from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen has been known for long by its better quality than those coming from other regions on the country. The study aims at comparing and finding out if the difference between tea in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho can be figured by sensory tasting. Two products picked from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen province and two others from Phu Ho district, Phu Tho are were evaluated by a panel of twelve judges (eleven women and one man) who was set from a group of thirty eight peoples, had completed a general training and sensory tasting on tea. The experiment on dry tea (eleven descriptors) was carried out separately of the experiment on brewed tea (twenty-one descriptors) and brewed leaf (five descriptors). All attributes are made notes on the sensory unstructured intensity scale. Statistic analyses have shown typical differences by region among all of trees groups of attributes: dry leaf (10/11 attributes), liquor (6/21 attributes) and brewed leaf (5/5 attributes). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Sensory Characteristics of Green Tea Produced in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho Province, Vietnam
Dang, Thi Minh Luyen ULg; Ha Duyen, Tu; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Food Science and Engineering (2014), 4(2/February 2014 (Serial Number 31)), 104-114

Green tea is a popular product with a high consumption in Vietnam. Moreover, green tea produced in Tan Cuong commune, Thai Nguyen province, has long been recognized for its superior quality to those ... [more ▼]

Green tea is a popular product with a high consumption in Vietnam. Moreover, green tea produced in Tan Cuong commune, Thai Nguyen province, has long been recognized for its superior quality to those coming from other regions of the country. This study aims at comparing the tea from Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho and finding out if the difference can be identified through sensory analysis. Two products picked from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen province, and two others from Phu Ho district, Phu Tho province were evaluated by a trained panel of 12 judges (11 women and 1 man). The sensory evaluation of the dry tea (11 descriptors) was carried out separately from the brewed tea (21 descriptors) and brewed leaf (five descriptors) using an unstructured intensity scale (10 cm). Statistic analyses have shown differences between regions in all three groups of attributes: dry leaf, liquor and brewed leaf. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of several techniques for computing NIR calibration
Dagnelie, P.; Dardenne, P.; Palm, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Biston, R.; Bartiaux-Thill, N. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy (1991)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
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See detailComparison of shear and pull-off tests for testing adhesion of different content limestone fillers mortars used as repair system
Chendes, Remus; Dan, Sorin; Courard, Luc ULg

in STOIAN, Valeriu; DAN, Daniel; BOB, Corneliu (Eds.) et al Construction sustainability: efficient solution for design, execution and rehabilitation of the building (2013)

When a repair operation is performed and a new concrete or mortar is applied on the old concrete substrate, it is very important to have a good bond between the old concrete layer and the repair concrete ... [more ▼]

When a repair operation is performed and a new concrete or mortar is applied on the old concrete substrate, it is very important to have a good bond between the old concrete layer and the repair concrete system. The bond strengths usually determinate using pure tensile tests (pull-off tests) because of the field applicability of this category of tests. However, in most of the applications, shear stress is the main reason of the bond failure. In general, bond strength under tensile is considered smaller than bond strength in shear stress conditions. The objective of this paper is to compare the results obtained from tensile and shear tests and to potentially determine a mathematical relation between shear and tension. The materials used for tests are Ordinary Portland Cement and modified limestone fillers mortars. Specific humidity storage conditions have been selected. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of six serum ferritin immunoassays and isoferritin spectrotypes in malignancies
Vernet, M.; Renversez, J. C.; Lasne, Y. et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (1995), 53

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See detailComparison of Sm complexes with Sn compounds for syntheses of copolymers composed of lactide and cyclic carbonates and their biodegradabilities
Yasuda, Hajime; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakayama, Yuushou et al

in Reactive & Functional Polymers (2004), 61

The comparison of organolanthanide complexes, (C5Me5)(2)SmMe(THF) (Sm1) and [(C5Me5)(2)SM](2)(PhC=C= C=CPh) (Sm2), with tin compounds, Bu2Sn(OMe)(2) (Sn1) and Bu2Sn(OCH2CH2CH2O) (Sn2), in the preparation ... [more ▼]

The comparison of organolanthanide complexes, (C5Me5)(2)SmMe(THF) (Sm1) and [(C5Me5)(2)SM](2)(PhC=C= C=CPh) (Sm2), with tin compounds, Bu2Sn(OMe)(2) (Sn1) and Bu2Sn(OCH2CH2CH2O) (Sn2), in the preparation of random and diblock copolymers composed Of L-lactide (L-LA) or D,L-LA and epsilon-caprolactone (CL), and the preparation of triblock copolymers composed Of L-LA/CL/L-LA was studied and the biodegradabilities of the resulting copolymers with proteinase K and a compost were examined. Poly(L-LA-ran-CL) shows much higher degradability than poly(L-LA) with proteinase K, and poly(L-LA), poly(L-LA-ran-CL) and poly(L-LA-b-CL) (b means block) prepared with Sm1 had better degradability than those synthesized with the Sn1 compound. The degradability Of Poly(L-LA-ran-CL) with proteinase K is higher than that Of poly(L-LA-b-CL). Poly(LA-ran-CL) and poly(LA-b-CL) prepared with Sml revealed higher degradability than those obtained with Sn1 using a compost. Triblock copolymers, poly(L-LA-b-CL-b-L-LA), synthesized with Sm2 revealed nearly the same degradability with those obtained with Sn2 using a compost. Finally, biocompatibility was studied with macrophage activation assay using RAW 264.7, and metabolic viability assay using Cell Titer Aqueous non-radioactive Cell. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Sm complexes with Sn compounds for syntheses of copolymers composed of lactide and cyclic carbonates and their biodegradabilities
Nakayama, Yuushou; Yasuda, Hajime; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro et al

in Reactive & Functional Polymers (2005), 63(2), 95-105

The comparison of organolanthanide complexes, (C5Me5)(2)SmMe(THF) (Sm1) and [(C5Me5)(2)SM](2)(PhC=C=C=CPh) (Sm2), with tin compounds, Bu2Sn(OMe), (Sn1) and Bu2Sn(OCH2CH2CH2O) (Sn2), in the preparation of ... [more ▼]

The comparison of organolanthanide complexes, (C5Me5)(2)SmMe(THF) (Sm1) and [(C5Me5)(2)SM](2)(PhC=C=C=CPh) (Sm2), with tin compounds, Bu2Sn(OMe), (Sn1) and Bu2Sn(OCH2CH2CH2O) (Sn2), in the preparation of random, diblock, and triblock copolymers composed Of L-lactide (L-LA) or D,L-LA and cyclic carbonates, trimethylene carbonate (TMC) or 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate (DTC) is reported. The biodegradabilities of the resulting copolymers with proteinase K and a compost were examined. The copolymerization of L-LA with cyclic carbonates by Sm1 or Sm2 afforded copolymers with relatively low melting points (< 160 degrees C) due to the accompanying epimerization in comparison with those obtained with Su1 or Sn2. In the degradation of the polymers with a compost, the copolymers based on D, L-LA were more degradable than those based on L-LA. On the other hand, the effect of the incorporated cyclic carbonate on its degradability was more drastic in the copolymers based on L-LA than those in the copolymers based on D, L-LA. The introduction of only a small amount of the cyclic carbonates into PLLA significantly enhanced the degradability of PLLA with a compost or proteinase K. In the enzymatic degradation of L-LA-containing polymers, the copolymerization of L-LA with TMC was also quite effective to improve the degradability of PLLA. Triblock copolymerization tends to be effective to enhance the degradability of PLLA. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of soil properties under four vegetation units from six metalliferous hills in Katanga
Kaya Muyumba, Donato ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Ngongo Luhembwe, Michel et al

Conference (2013, April 12)

In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these ... [more ▼]

In Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo), numerous metalliferous hills are distributed along what is called the copperhill belt from Kolwezi to Lubumbashi. Very specific vegetation developed on these hills within the miombo forest in response to very specific soil conditions, among which the copper content. Previous studies have already shown the existence of gradients of copper from the mineralized rocks outcropping at the top of the hills to the foot slopes on colluviums. After a characterization of the vertical variability of soil properties in pits distributed along the main slopes, we investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in six hills located between the towns of Tenke and Fungurume. Observation 1-square meter plots were installed in four vegetation units and sixty of them were selected according to their relative importance on the six hills. The soil from the top 10cm was sampled and analyzed for pH, Total Organic Carbon, available P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Co and Mn and soluble Cu and Co. Analysis of variance was performed in order to assess whether the effects of the “Hill” and of the “Vegetation Unit” were significant to explain soil chemical variability. Additionally, short transects were sampled at the boundaries from adjacent vegetation units in order to evaluate the gradual or rough nature of change in soil properties under these units. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (16 ULg)