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See detailCombined detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations for large-disturbance analysis
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Grenier, Marie-Eve; Lefebvre, Daniel

(2005, August)

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term power system responses to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. A method combining detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations is ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term power system responses to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. A method combining detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations is presented, the former being used for accuracy and the latter for ef ciency reasons. Detailed time simulation is used to analyze the short-term period following a large disturbance and identify the discrete controls triggered. Next, quasi steady-state simulation is used to simulate the same time interval with the discrete controls imposed as external events, before letting the system evolve as usual in the long term. This simple method has been successfully tested on the Hydro-Québec system. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined detailed and quasi steady-state time simulations for large-disturbance analysis
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Grenier, Marie-Eve; Lefebvre, Daniel

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2006), 28(9), 634-642

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term responses of power systems to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. After outlining the power system model under the quasi steady-state ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the simulation of long-term responses of power systems to large disturbances in the presence of discrete events. After outlining the power system model under the quasi steady-state (QSS) approximation, a method combining detailed and QSS time simulations is presented, the former being used for accuracy and the latter for efficiency reasons. Detailed time simulation is used to analyze the short-term period following a large disturbance and identify the discrete controls triggered. Next, QSS simulation is used to simulate the same time interval with the discrete controls imposed as external events, before letting the system evolve as usual in the long-term. This simple method has been successfully tested on the Hydro-Quebec system. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined diagnostic value of biochemical markers in acute pancreatitis.
Viel, J F; Foucault, P; Bureau, F et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (1990), 189(2), 191-8

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See detailCombined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling of cold-formed stainless steel sections: Design
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Rasmussen, Kim J.R.

in Journal of Structural Engineering (2010), 136(4), 361-369

This paper provides a critical summary of the European standards and design methods available for calculating the strength of cold-formed stainless steel compression members. The standards considered (so ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a critical summary of the European standards and design methods available for calculating the strength of cold-formed stainless steel compression members. The standards considered (so far mainly applied to columns failing by flexural buckling) are applied to the case of lipped channel section columns failing by combined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling. As observed during the tests presented in a companion paper, distortional buckling is found to have a considerable effect on the cross-section resistance and is prone to interact with the global flexural-torsional mode. It is investigated how the different formulations account for the two buckling modes and their interaction and how accurate strength predictions they provide. A new Direct Strength Method taking into account these failure modes is then presented and compared to the tests results. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined distortional and overall flexural-torsional buckling of cold-formed stainless steel sections: Experimental investigations
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Rasmussen, Kim J.R.

in Journal of Structural Engineering (2010), 136(4), 354-360

This paper presents a series of 48 full-scale tests on press-braked stainless steel lipped channel section columns subjected to concentric compression. The tests were carried out between fixed ends in the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a series of 48 full-scale tests on press-braked stainless steel lipped channel section columns subjected to concentric compression. The tests were carried out between fixed ends in the Structures Laboratory of the University of Liège and the test specimens were designed such that distortional buckling developed in the section prior to overall flexural-torsional buckling. The stainless steel alloy was 1.4003 chromium weldable steel, popularly known as 3Cr12. Three different geometries were tested using the same experimental set-up. A critical summary of the standards and methods for calculating the carrying capacity of cold-formed stainless steel compression members is presented in a companion paper by the same authors. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined Effect of Web 2086 (Paf Antagonist) and Ketoprofen (Nsaid) on Paf-Induced Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation in Bovine
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Herion, Francine ULg; Raskinet, Renée ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1997), 44(2), 65-71

The effect of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thieno-triazolo-diazepine, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, was investigated on PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation measured ex vivo in platelet-rich ... [more ▼]

The effect of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thieno-triazolo-diazepine, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, was investigated on PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation measured ex vivo in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). WEB 2086 was infused intravenously over 1 min followed immediately by ketoprofen administration over 1 s (both drugs = 3 mg/kg), in a group of six healthy male Friesian calves. Depending on the PAF concentration, a reversible (10(-8)-10(-9) mol/l) and irreversible (10(-5)-10(-7) mol/l) platelet aggregation was observed. The reversible aggregation was completely blocked by pretreatment of the animal with WEB 2086 and ketoprofen. The inhibitory effects observed during the irreversible aggregation were 47.22%, 54.00% and 88.00% at 10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7) mol/l PAF, respectively. Moreover, the aggregation obtained in these condition became reversible. Maximal inhibitory effect of WEB 2086 and ketoprofen on PAF-induced platelet aggregation in calves was observed within 30 min after administration of both drugs. This inhibition persisted even after 24 h and was significantly different from control with P < 0.05. The combined effect of both drugs exceeded the sum of the individual effects (synergism). It was concluded that WEB 2086 and ketoprofen very effectively blocked PAF-induced bovine platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma. The study also suggested a synergism between both substances. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of climate warming and plant diversity loss on above- and below-ground grassland productivity
De Boeck, H. J.; Lemmens, CMHM; Gielen, B. et al

in Environmental and Experimental Botany (2007), 60(1), 95-104

Projections of global change predict both increases of the surface temperature and decreases of biodiversity, but studies on the combined impact of both on terrestrial ecosystems are lacking. We assessed ... [more ▼]

Projections of global change predict both increases of the surface temperature and decreases of biodiversity, but studies on the combined impact of both on terrestrial ecosystems are lacking. We assessed the impact of these two global changes on above- and below-ground productivity of grassland communities. Experimental ecosystems containing one, three or nine grassland species were grown in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures, while the other half were warmed by 3 degrees C. Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that any increases in evapotranspiration due to warmer conditions would result in a drier soil. Warming led to a decreased productivity of both above-ground plant parts (-18%) and roots (-23%), which coincided with a significantly lower soil water content. Complementarity in resource use and/or facilitation slightly enhanced above-ground productivity in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Interactive effects between temperature treatment and species richness level were found below-ground, however, where warming nullified the positive effect of richness on root productivity. Future warmer conditions could further increase losses of productivity associated with declining species numbers. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of climate, resource availability, and plant traits on biomass produced in a Mediterranean rangeland
Chollet, Simon; Rambal, Serge; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Ecology (2014), 95(3), 737-748

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities ... [more ▼]

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities. However, the combined effects of these different factors remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to unravel the causes of variations in the standing biomass of plant communities using a long-term experiment conducted in a Mediterranean rangeland of Southern France. Two management regimes, sheep grazing and grazing associated with mineral fertilization, were applied to different areas of the study site over the past 25 years. Abiotic (temperature, available water, nutrients) and biotic (components of the functional structure communities) factors were considered to explain interannual and spatial variations in standing biomass in these rangelands. Standing biomass was highly predictable, with the best model explaining ;80% of variations in the amount of biomass produced, but the variation explained by abiotic and biotic factors was dependent on the season and on the management regime. Abiotic factors were found to have comparable effects in both management regimes: The amount of biomass produced in the spring was limited by cold temperatures, while it was limited by water availability and high temperatures in the summer. In the fertilized community, the progressive change in the functional structure of the communities had significant effects on the amount of biomass produced: the dominance of few productive species which were functionally close led to higher peak standing biomass in spring. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of deltamethrin, temperature and salinity on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Tu, H.T.; Silvestre, F; Meulder, B.D. et al

in Chemosphere (2012), 86(1), 83-91

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See detailCombined Effects of Experimental Heavy-Metal Contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and Starvation on Quail's Body Condition: Parallelism with a Wild Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) Population Found Stranded at the Belgian Coast
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Rutten, Astrid; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Biological Trace Element Research (2001), 82(1-3, Summer), 87-107

Combined effects of heavy-metal contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and starvation were tested on common quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and used as a model for comparison with a wild common guillemot ... [more ▼]

Combined effects of heavy-metal contamination (Cu, Zn, and CH3Hg) and starvation were tested on common quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and used as a model for comparison with a wild common guillemot (Uria aalge) population found stranded at the Belgian coast. Appropriate heavy-metal levels were given to the quails to obtain concentrations similar to those found in the seabirds's tissues. The contaminated animals were then starved for 4 d to simulate the evident malnutrition symptoms observed at the guillemot's level. In such conditions, food intake and total-body weight are shown to decrease in contaminated individuals with simultaneous significant hepatic and renal increase of the heavy-metal concentrations. Like guillemots, higher heavy-metal levels were observed in those contam- inated quails that had also developed a cachectic status characterized by a general atrophy of their pectoral muscle and complete absence of subcutaneous and/or abdominal fat depots. Although likely the result of a general protein catabolism during starvation, it is suggested that these higher metal levels could as well enhance a general muscle wasting process (cachectic status). [less ▲]

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See detailCombined effects of silymarin and methylsulfonylmethane in the management of rosacea: clinical and instrumental evaluation.
Berardesca, Enzo; Cameli, Norma; Cavallotti, Claudia et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7(1), 8-14

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea. METHODS: Forty-six patients affected by stage I ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methylsulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea. METHODS: Forty-six patients affected by stage I-III rosacea entered this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were treated for 1 month. Clinical and instrumental evaluations were done at baseline, after 10 and 20 days, and at the end of the study. Itching, stinging, erythema, and papules were investigated clinically as well as hydration and erythema instrumentally with capacitance and color measurements. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement was observed in many clinical and instrumental parameters investigated (P < 0.001). In particular, improvement of skin redness, papules, itching, hydration, and skin color occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of silymarin and S-MSM can be useful in managing symptoms and condition of rosacea skin, especially in the rosacea subtype 1 erythemato-telangiectatic phase. The action can be considered multicentric and multiphase because of the direct modulating action on cytokines and angiokines normally involved and up-regulated in the case of such skin condition. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined enzymatic hydrolysis and HPAEC method for simultaneous analysis of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars of pectin.
Garna, H.; Mabon, N.; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2003), 68(2 Pt A), 297-300

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See detailCombined enzymatic synthesis of nucleotide (deoxy) sugars from sucrose and nucleoside monophosphates
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Stein, Andreas; Adrian, Holger et al

in Tetrahedron (1996), 52(7), 2395-2404

Abstract: The synthesis of NDP-glucose 3a-d (N= A, C, U, dU) with sucrose synthase B was combined with the enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside diphosphates 2a-d from their corresponding nucleoside ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The synthesis of NDP-glucose 3a-d (N= A, C, U, dU) with sucrose synthase B was combined with the enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside diphosphates 2a-d from their corresponding nucleoside monophosphates la-d by different kinases A. Further combination with recombinant dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase D enabled us to synthesize dUDP-6-deoxy-alpha-D-xylo-4-hexulose 5 from ld on a preparative scale. By using the repetitive batch technique the enzymatic syntheses of nucleotide (deoxy) sugars 3a-d, 5 could be realized on a 0.1 - 0.5 g scale. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties of estetrol on breast cancer may provide a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms
Gérard, Céline ULg; Mestdagt, Mélanie; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2015)

Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a ... [more ▼]

Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a promising compound for clinical use in MHT. However, its impact on breast cancer is controversial and poorly defined. In this preclinical study, we show that E4 acts as a weak estrogen by stimulating the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer only at concentrations exceeding menopausal therapeutic needs. E4 presents also an antitumor activity by decreasing the strong proliferative effect of estradiol (E2). While estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is the predominant receptor mediating its effects, the dual weak-estrogenic/anti-estrogenic feature of E4 results from differential signaling pathways activation. Both nuclear and rapid extra-nuclear signaling pathway are necessary for a complete estrogenic effect of E4. However, the antitumor action of E4 is not due to a capacity to antagonize E2-induced nuclear activity. Altogether, our results highlight that E4 has a limited impact on breast cancer and may offer a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined experimental and computational approaches to study the action of blockers of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels
Dilly, Sébastien ULg; Lamy, Cédric; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg et al

in Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (2010), 199(supplement 678), -10

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and underlie medium duration afterhyperpolarizations in many types of neurons ... [more ▼]

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and underlie medium duration afterhyperpolarizations in many types of neurons. Three subtypes of SK channels, SK1, SK2 and SK3, have been identified so far in different parts of the brain. Blocking SK channels might be beneficial in the treatment of several CNS disorders such as depression, Parkinson’s disease and cognitive disorders. Until now, the precise site of interaction between these channels and their blockers has not yet been elucidated. In this context, molecular modeling is a theoretical approach that can quickly provide ideas on the binding mode of SK blockers. We first performed homology modeling of the S5-H5-S6 portion of the channels on the basis of the crystal structure of the KcsA potassium channel (Zhou et al. Nature. 2001, 414, 43-48). The binding sites of N-methyl-laudanosine (NML) (Scuvée-Moreau et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2002, 302, 1176-83), a non-selective and non-peptidic ligand, and apamin (Blatz et al. Nature. 1986, 323, 718-20), an octadecapeptide with a preference for the SK2 subtype, were subsequently explored by docking analysis. Different amino-acids were suggested to interact with the two blockers. The docking of NML revealed a binding site in the turret region, far from the pore. The docking of apamin identified a very large binding site that includes a portion of the site of NML. In order to confirm the predicted binding sites, site-directed mutagenesis was used. The first mutant channels tested in electrophysiological experiments by the patch clamp technique validated some of the theoretical data. Using this strategy, we hope to get a better understanding of the mechanism of action of SK blockers and eventually find strategies to obtain subtype-selective blockers. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined FiF+ Tangent-to-tangents VMAT breast SIB technique: Clinical introduction of an optimal class solution
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Cucchiaro, C.; Mathot, Michel et al

in Radiother Oncol (2014), ESTRO 33

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See detailA Combined for Element-Free Galerkin Method/Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulation for Dynamic Crack Propagation
Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; BELYTSCHKO, T.

in Durban, D.; Pearson, J. R. A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the "IUTAM Symposium on Non-Linear Singularities in Deformation and Flow (1998, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg)