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See detailCharacterization of the complete porcine MSTN gene and expression levels in pig breeds differing in muscularity.
Stinckens, A.; Luyten, T.; Bijttebier, J. et al

in Animal Genetics (2008), 39(6), 586-96

Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member, is an essential factor for the growth and development of muscle mass. The protein functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth ... [more ▼]

Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member, is an essential factor for the growth and development of muscle mass. The protein functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth and is related to the so-called double-muscling phenotype in cattle, where a series of mutations renders the gene inactive. One particular breed of pigs, the Belgian Pietrain, also shows a heavily muscled phenotype. The similarity of muscular phenotypes between the double-muscled cattle and Pietrain pigs indicated that MSTN may be a candidate gene for muscular hypertrophy in pigs. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the complete MSTN gene from 45 pigs of five different breeds, including the heavily muscled Pietrain breed at one extreme and the Meishan and Wild boar breeds at the other extreme. In total, 7626 bp of the porcine MSTN gene were sequenced, including the 5' and 3' UTR. Fifteen polymorphic loci were found, three of which were located in the promoter region, five in intron 1 and seven in intron 2. Most mutations were found when comparing the obtained MSTN sequence with porcine MSTN sequences already published. However, one polymorphism located at position 447 of the porcine MSTN promoter had a very high allele frequency in the Pietrain pig breed and disrupted a putative myocyte enhancer factor 3 binding site. Real-time PCR using Sybr Green showed that this mutation was associated with expression levels of the MSTN gene in m. longissimus dorsi at an age of 4 weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the development of a behavioural sensitization in female Swiss mice
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Behavioural Pharmacology (2008), 19(5-6), 30-30

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See detailCharacterization of the DGAT1 K232A and variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in French dairy cattle.
Gautier, M.; Capitan, A.; Fritz, S. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2007), 90(6), 2980-8

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) underlying different milk production traits has been identified with a high significance threshold value in the genomic region containing the acylCoA:diacylglycerol ... [more ▼]

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) underlying different milk production traits has been identified with a high significance threshold value in the genomic region containing the acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene, in the 3 main French dairy cattle breeds: French Holstein, Normande, and Montbeliarde. Previous studies have confirmed that the K232A polymorphism in DGAT1 is responsible for a major QTL underlying several milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle and several other bovine breeds. In this study, we estimate the frequency of the 2 alternative alleles, K and A, of the K232A polymorphism in French Holstein, Normande, and Montbeliarde breeds. Although the K allele segregates in French Holstein and Normande breeds with a similar effect on production traits, the existence of additional mutations contributing to the observed QTL effect is strongly suggested in both breeds by the existence of sires heterozygous at the QTL but homozygous at the K232A polymorphism. One allele at a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 5' noncoding region of DGAT1 has been recently proposed as a putative causative variant. In our study, this marker was found to present a high mutation rate of 0.8% per gamete and per generation, making the allele diversity observed compatible with that expected under neutrality. Moreover, among the sires homozygous at the K232A polymorphism, no allele at the VNTR can fully explain their QTL status. Finally, no allele at the VNTR was found to be significantly associated with the fat percentage variation in the 3 breeds simultaneously after correction for the effect of the K232A polymorphism. Therefore, our results suggest the existence of at least one other causative polymorphism not yet described. Because the A allele is nearly fixed in the Montbeliarde breed, this breed represents an interesting model to identify and confirm other mutations that have a strong effect on milk production traits. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the discoidal complexes formed between apoA-I-CNBr fragments and phosphatidylcholine.
Vanloo, B.; Morrison, J.; Fidge, N. et al

in Journal of Lipid Research (1991), 32(8), 1253-64

The structure, composition, and physico-chemical properties of lipid-protein complexes generated between dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DPMC) and the CNBr fragments of human apoA-I were studied. The ... [more ▼]

The structure, composition, and physico-chemical properties of lipid-protein complexes generated between dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DPMC) and the CNBr fragments of human apoA-I were studied. The fragments were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and purified on a reversed-phase column. The complexes with DMPC were isolated on a Superose column; their dimensions were obtained by gradient gel electrophoresis and by electron microscopy. The secondary structure of the protein in the complexes was studied both by circular dichroism and by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The fragments 1 and 4 of apoA-I, containing, respectively, two and three amphipathic helices, recombined with the phospholipid to generate discoidal particles with sizes similar to that of apoA-I- and apoA-II-DMPC complexes. The infrared measurements indicated that in all complexes the apolipoprotein helical segments were oriented parallel to the phospholipid acyl chains and that the protein was located around the edges of the discs. Computer modelling of the complexes based on energy minimization techniques proposed a model for these particles in agreement with the dimensions measured experimentally. In conclusion, we propose that apoA-I and its longest CNBr fragments are able to generate discoidal particles with DMPC, with apolipoprotein helical segments oriented parallel to the acyl chains of the phospholipids. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the erosive power of the suspension used within the framework of accelerated wear tests of spraying nozzles.
Loyen, S.; Huyghebaert, B.; Debouche, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000), 65(2b), 907-918

The study concerns the application techniques of agrochemical products and especially focuses on the wear of spraying nozzles. This one leads to a modification of the spraying characteristics and the ... [more ▼]

The study concerns the application techniques of agrochemical products and especially focuses on the wear of spraying nozzles. This one leads to a modification of the spraying characteristics and the homogeneity of distribution deteriorates. An accelerated wear process of nozzles is defined by the standard ISO 5682-1, which makes it possible to compare the wear resistance of the different nozzles available on the market. In order to accelerate the process, an erosive suspension is used in the test rig, but this suspension looses its characteristics during the utilisation time. This is the reason why a system measuring continuously the erosive power has been set up. This system is validated by different discontinuous measurement and the correlation observed have a coefficient of about 0,99. From the signal detected by the new device, two calculations have been carried out. A first one determining continuously the total wear quantity of the nozzles. A second one identifying continuously the erosive power of the suspension. On the one hand, we obtain a basis allowing to compare the wear resistance of nozzles and on the other hand, a parameter indicating the appropriate time to change the suspension. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the gaseous companion κ Andromedae b. New Keck and LBTI high-contrast observations
Bonnefoy, M.; Currie, T.; Marleau, G.-D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 562

Context. We previously reported the direct detection of a low-mass companion at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU around the B9-type star κ Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio ... [more ▼]

Context. We previously reported the direct detection of a low-mass companion at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU around the B9-type star κ Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for understanding the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide orbits. <BR /> Aims: We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the system at 2.146 (K[SUB]s[/SUB]), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB_4.05), and 4.78 μm (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We aim to determine the near-infrared spectral energy distribution of the companion and use it to characterize the object. <BR /> Methods: We used analysis methods adapted to ADI to extract the companion flux. We compared the photometry of the object to reference young, and old objects and to a set of seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models of cool objects accounting for the formation of dust. We used evolutionary models to derive mass estimates considering a wide range of plausible initial conditions. Finally, we used dedicated formation models to discuss the possible origin of the companion. <BR /> Results: We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 ± 0.21, H = 14.95 ± 0.13, K[SUB]s[/SUB] = 14.32 ± 0.09 mag for κ And b. We detect the companion in all our high-contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at K[SUB]s[/SUB] and L' band. We derive NB_4.05 = 13.0 ± 0.2, and M' = 13.3 ± 0.3 mag and estimate log [SUB]10[/SUB](L/L[SUB]⊙[/SUB]) = -3.76 ± 0.06. Atmospheric models yield T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 1900[SUP]+100[/SUP][SUB]-200[/SUB] K. They do not set any constraint on the surface gravity. "Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14[SUP]+25[/SUP][SUB]-2[/SUB] M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and when considering a conservative age range for the system (30[SUP]+120[/SUP][SUB]-10[/SUB] Myr), "warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M ≥ 10M[SUB]Jup[/SUB]. <BR /> Conclusions: The mass of κ Andromedae b mostly falls in the brown-dwarf regime, owing to remaining uncertainties in age and in mass-luminosity models. According to the formation models, disk instability in a primordial disk may account for the position and a wide range of plausible masses of κ And b. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.Appendices are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322119/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the hot Neptune GJ 436 b with Spitzer and ground-based observations
Demory, B*-O; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Barman, T. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 475

We present Spitzer Space Telescope infrared photometry of a secondary eclipse of the hot Neptune GJ 436 b. The observations were obtained using the 8-mum band of the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC). The data ... [more ▼]

We present Spitzer Space Telescope infrared photometry of a secondary eclipse of the hot Neptune GJ 436 b. The observations were obtained using the 8-mum band of the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC). The data spanning the predicted time of secondary eclipse show a clear flux decrement with the expected shape and duration. The observed eclipse depth of 0.58 mmag allows us to estimate a blackbody brightness temperature of T[SUB]p[/SUB] = 717 ± 35 K at 8 mum. We compare this infrared flux measurement to a model of the planetary thermal emission, and show that this model reproduces properly the observed flux decrement. The timing of the secondary eclipse confirms the non-zero orbital eccentricity of the planet, while also increasing its precision (e = 0.14 ± 0.01). Additional new spectroscopic and photometric observations allow us to estimate the rotational period of the star and to assess the potential presence of another planet. Our final secondary eclipse, photometric and Ca II H+K index time series are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/475/1125 [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter: human zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to different regions function as transcription repressors
Nishimura, Tadahiro; Narita, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Emi et al

in International Immunology (2001), 13(8), 1075-84

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene ... [more ▼]

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene and the isolation of the promoter region-binding proteins by a yeast one-hybrid assay. The minimal 154-bp region upstream from the transcription start site of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene was shown to possess promoter activity in a variety of cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that multiple nuclear factors in cell extracts bind to the two regions [F2-3 (-110 to -93) and F4-3 (-47 to -31)] of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter. Mutation analysis indicated that GGGAGGAGC (-105 to -97) and AATTTGTTTGCC (-47 to -36) sequences are responsible for binding to nuclear factors respectively. By using GGGAGGAGC and AATTTGTTTGCC as bait sequences, we cloned two zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to the F2-3 and F4-3 regions within the promoter of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene respectively. When the ZNF140 and ZNF91 were transfected with reporter plasmid, both showed repressor activity with additive effects. Thus, these results indicate that these cloned ZNF140 and ZNF91 proteins function as repressors for the human Fc gamma RIIB transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the IGF system and analysis of the possible molecular mechanisms leading to IGF-II overexpression in a mesothelioma.
Hodzic, D.; Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Willemsen, P. et al

in Hormone & Metabolic Research (1997), 29(11), 549-55

The expression of members of the IGF system in a mesothelioma from a patient suffering from hypoglycemia, in term placenta and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were compared. Very high levels of IGF-II ... [more ▼]

The expression of members of the IGF system in a mesothelioma from a patient suffering from hypoglycemia, in term placenta and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were compared. Very high levels of IGF-II mRNA and protein were detected in the mesothelioma. Moreover, half of the IGF-II protein took the high-molecular-weight form. We also analyzed the parental imprinting status and the promoter usage of the IGF-II gene. Our results showed loss of imprinting (LOI) in the mesothelioma while the imprinting was maintained in HT29 cells, expressing moderate levels of the transcript. Promoter P4 was active in the three tissues we analyzed, whereas IGF-II mRNA transcription from promoter P3 was only detected in the mesothelioma and the placenta, expressing comparably high levels of the transcript. IGF-II gene structure was identical in the analyzed tissues and cells. The type-I receptor mRNA expression was very low in the tumor. IGFBP-2, -4 and -5 mRNAs were detected in the mesothelioma, while IGFBP-2, -3 and -5 transcripts were detected in the placenta. IGFBP-1 and -6 transcripts were not detected. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the impact of tillage and nitrogen fertilization on the root development of a winter wheat crop by use of NIR hyperspectral imaging combined to chemometrics
Fraipont, Guillaume ULg; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

Poster (2016, March 16)

The objective of this study is to characterize the impact of tillage management and nitrogen fertilization on the root system development of a winter wheat crop. To reach this objective, an innovative ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study is to characterize the impact of tillage management and nitrogen fertilization on the root system development of a winter wheat crop. To reach this objective, an innovative root quantification method that combines NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) and chemometric tools will be applied. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the impact of tillage on the root development and distribution of crop residues of a winter wheat crop by the use of NIR hyperspectral imaging
Fraipont, Guillaume ULg; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

Poster (2016, May 20)

The objectives of the study were to show the impact of tillage and crop residues management on the distribution of crop residues and root system of a winter wheat crop in the 0-30 cm soil profile.This ... [more ▼]

The objectives of the study were to show the impact of tillage and crop residues management on the distribution of crop residues and root system of a winter wheat crop in the 0-30 cm soil profile.This poster shows the results obtained during one crop year (2011-2012). This study is allowed by a rapid and innovative method of root system quantification based on the near infrared hyperspectral Imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the insulin-like growth (IGF) axis in the human thymus
Kecha, Ouafae; Achour, Imane; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in The Endocrine Society (Ed.) Proceedings of the 77th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society (1997)

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See detailCharacterization of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis in the Human Thymus
Kecha, Ouafae; Martens, Henri ULg; Franchimont, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (1999), 11(6), 435-40

The components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated in the normal human thymus. Using ribonuclease protection assays (RPA), IGF-II transcripts were detected in the normal ... [more ▼]

The components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated in the normal human thymus. Using ribonuclease protection assays (RPA), IGF-II transcripts were detected in the normal human thymus. By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses, promoters P3 and P4 were found to be active in the transcription of IGF2 gene within human thymic epithelial cells (TEC). No IGF-II mRNA could be detected in human lymphoid Jurkat T cells with 30 cycles of RT-PCR. By Northern blot analyses, IGFBP-2 to -6 (but not IGFBP-1) were found to be expressed in TEC with a predominance of IGFBP-4. Interestingly, Jurkat T cells only express IGFBP-2 but at high levels. The type 1 IGF receptor was detected in Jurkat T cells but not in human TEC. The identification of the components of the IGF axis within separate compartments of the human thymus adds further evidence for a role of this axis in the control of T-cell development. The precise influence of thymic IGF axis upon T-cell differentiation and immunological self-tolerance however needs to be further investigated. [less ▲]

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