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See detailA comparison between subjective and objective methods for evaluating the vocal accuracy of a popular song
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Lévêque, Yohana; Giovanni, Antoine et al

Poster (2012, July 25)

Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustical analyses and subjective judgements. For one decade, acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution to ... [more ▼]

Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustical analyses and subjective judgements. For one decade, acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution to evaluate vocal accuracy, avoiding the limitation of experts’ perceptive system and their variability. This paper presents for the first time a direct comparison of these methods. 166 occasional singers were asked to sing the popular song « Happy Birthday ». Acoustic analyses were performed to quantify the pitch interval deviation, the number of contour errors and the number of tonality modulations for each recording. Additionally, eighteen experts in singing voice or music rated the global pitch accuracy of these performances. The results showed a high inter-rater concordance within the judges. In addition, a high correlation occurred between acoustic measurements and subjective rating. The total model of acoustic analyses explained 81% of the variance of the judges’ scores. Their rating was influenced by both tonality modulations and interval deviations. This study highlights the congruence between objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy while the assessment is done by music or singing voice experts. Our results confirm the relevance of the “pitch interval deviation” criterion in vocal accuracy assessment. Furthermore, the “number of tonality modulations” is a salient criterion in perceptive rating and should be taken into account in studies using acoustical analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between swabbing and destructive methods for microbiological pig carcass sampling.
Ghafir, Yasmine; Daube, Georges ULg

in Letters in Applied Microbiology (2008), 47

Aims: To compare the Belgian swabbing sampling method for pig carcasses with the reference destructive method with regard to Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts, Salmonella and Campylobacter ... [more ▼]

Aims: To compare the Belgian swabbing sampling method for pig carcasses with the reference destructive method with regard to Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts, Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence and their relationship. Methods and Results: Recovery was significantly lower for the swabbing method and corresponded to a recovery of 36% for E. coli counts and 81% for aerobic plate counts in comparison with the destructive method. There was no significant difference between the swabbing and destructive sampling methods for the prevalence of Salmonella or Campylobacter. A higher median for E. coli counts was detected for samples where Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. The same association was also observed between the median for aerobic plate counts and the presence of Campylobacter. Conclusions: The method of swabbing used, covering 600 cm2 on each half-pig carcass, is efficient for the sampling of pig carcasses in comparison with the reference destructive method. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study describes an efficient method for microbiological pig carcass sampling. The Belgian swabbing method should continue to be used to allow the follow up of bacterial contamination in the Belgian meat production chain. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 ULg)
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See detailComparison between temporal pressure and ERT signals in a bubble column
Fransolet, Emmanuelle; Toye, Dominique ULg; Crine, Michel ULg et al

Conference (2002)

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See detailComparison between the charring rate model and the conductive model of Eurocode 5
Cachim, Paulo B.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire & Materials (2009), 33

Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C, wood is no longer ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C, wood is no longer able to sustain any stress, which makes the determination of the location of the 300°C isotherm decisive for the result provided by the models. In this paper, the charring rate model and the conductive model presented in Eurocode 5, part 1-2 are compared regarding the determination of the location of 300°C isotherm. The main wood parameters investigated are density, moisture content and anisotropy. the almost complete independence of the charring rate model from these parameters leads to some inconsistencies between the models. To reduce thse inconsistencies some proposals to improve the conductive and the charring rate models are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between the GIRBAS Scale and the Acoustic and Aerodynamic Measures Provided by EVA for the Assessment of Dysphonia following Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Jamart, Jacques; Wery, Carine et al

in Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica (2001), 53(6), 317-25

The aim of this study is to establish relevant objective parameters for evaluating dysphonia following unilateral vocal fold paralysis. To do so, the study compares objective and perceptual voice measures ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to establish relevant objective parameters for evaluating dysphonia following unilateral vocal fold paralysis. To do so, the study compares objective and perceptual voice measures. The objective measures were obtained using a voice analysis software (Evaluation Vocale Assistee), whereas the perceptual measures were established with the GIRBAS Scale (grade, instability, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain). All measurements were performed on 40 voice samples: 28 dysphonic subjects with unilateral laryngeal paralysis, and 12 control subjects. The intra- and inter-judge agreements were fairly good, at least for control subjects. The six GIRBAS measures obtained from the pathological voices were higher than those from the control voices (p < 0.001) and the correlation between both groups was good. Grade, breathiness and asthenia correlated with the objective parameters that express the aperiodicity of the phonatory signal (p < 0.01), namely, the coefficient of variability of the fundamental frequency, the coefficient of variability of intensity, and jitter. Our findings suggest that the perceptual reality of laryngeal paralysis-induced dysphonia depends more on grade, breathiness and asthenia than it does on roughness or instability. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between the Natural Postnatal Maturation and the Spermine-Induced Maturation of the Rat Intestine
Peulen, Olivier ULg; Pirlet, Christine; Klimek, Monique ULg et al

in Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1998), 106(1), 46-55

In the suckling rats, orally provided spermine induced structural and biochemical changes in the intestine, which are characteristics of the postnatal maturation. This induced maturation was compared to ... [more ▼]

In the suckling rats, orally provided spermine induced structural and biochemical changes in the intestine, which are characteristics of the postnatal maturation. This induced maturation was compared to that occurring spontaneously. Eight mumol spermine were administered orally once a day, for one or three days, to suckling rats which were 11 days old at the beginning of the experiment. The animals were killed 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 hours or 3 days after the first treatment. Control rats from the same litter were treated in the same way but received only the vehicle. In order to complete the study of the naturally occurring maturation, another group of rats was killed when they were 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 or 30 days old. Animal and intestine weights were measured. Disaccharidase specific activity, and protein, DNA and RNA contents were estimated in the small intestine. Histological and ultrastructural aspects of the intestinal mucosa were examined. For all these parameters, the maturation induced by spermine ingestion appeared close to that occurring naturally at weaning. Consequently, dietary spermine induces all the morphological and biochemical modifications characterizing the intestinal postnatal maturation in the suckling rat suggesting a role of the polyamines in the naturally occurring processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
See detailComparison between the SMM and GEMINI++ de-excitation models
Mancusi, Davide ULg; Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Boudard, A. et al

in Proceedings to the Satellite Meeting on Nuclear Spallation Reactions, International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators 2009 (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
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See detailA comparison between the TEC computed using GPS and ionosonde measurements
Warnant, René ULg; Jodogne, Jean-Claude

in Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica (1998), 33(1), 147-153

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)
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See detailComparison between three therapeutic strategies in the bovine respiratory disease complex
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Coghe, J.; Borceux, J. P. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2002), 443

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg)
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See detailComparison between Three- and Four-Element Windkessel Models to Characterize Vascular Properties of Pulmonary Circulation
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Gérard, Paul ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1997), 105(7), 625-32

In 11 anaesthetised pigs the accuracy of the three-element (WK3) and the four-element (WK4) Windkessel models to describe hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary circulation was compared during six ... [more ▼]

In 11 anaesthetised pigs the accuracy of the three-element (WK3) and the four-element (WK4) Windkessel models to describe hemodynamic properties of the pulmonary circulation was compared during six different experimental conditions increasing pulmonary arterial pressure: increase in left atrial pressure, increase in alveolar pressure, increase in pulmonary blood flow, endotoxin shock, mechanical obstruction of left pulmonary artery or histamine infusion. Our results showed that WK4 fitted better the data than did WK3 because values of 1-R2 decreased from 6 percent (WK3) to 1.4 percent (WK4) when WK4 was used (P < 0.0005). 1-R2 was an adequate marker of the accuracy of the linear regression used to solve equations of both models. Compliance values estimated by WK4 were decreased by 5% comparatively to WK3 (P = 0.008). However, this difference can be considered as not physiologically relevant. Values of characteristic resistance corresponding to R1 + (L/R2C) in WK4 and to R1 in WK3 were not different (P = 0.22). The relative changes in R1, R2, and C observed due to the different experimental conditions were comparable regardless of the model. In conclusion, the conversion of WK3 in WK4 by adding an inductance, whose physiological meaning is not clear, resulted in an increased statistical accuracy of the model, but did not seem to have relevant influence on parameters or their evolution during experimental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between transrectal ultrasonography and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein determination for early pregnancy diagnosis in the goat
Quesada, E; Gonzalez, F; Calero, P et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(4), 247

The aim of the present workwas to compare the efficiency of transrectal ultrasonography technique and the determination of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) concentrations in plasma samples for ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present workwas to compare the efficiency of transrectal ultrasonography technique and the determination of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) concentrations in plasma samples for pregnancy diagnosis in goats. Thirty nine Canary goats were synchronized and naturally mated every 12 hours throughout oestrous. Blood samples were collected on days 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 and transrectal ultrasonography was carried out on days 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 (Day 0¼day of the last mating). PAG concentrations were analysed by a RIA method previously validated. There were 23 pregnant goats (10 single and 13 multiple pregnancies) and 16 nonpregnant goats. The pregnancy diagnosis was a little earlier by PAG determination than transrectal ultrasonography (sensitivity: 95 and 91% on Day 24 and 100 and 96% on Day 26, respectively). The ultrasonography allowed to discriminate between single and multiple pregnancies in 70% of goats (16/23) on Day 28 of pregnancy. The PAG concentrations were significantly higher in multiple than single pregnancies from Day 19 onwards, suggesting that it could also be used as a tool to discriminate between single and multiple gestations. (Supported by D.G. de Universidades del Gobierno de Canarias). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between various methods for the evaluation of the fire resistance of concrete filled hollow steel columns
Fellah, Farid; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Seridi, Ahcène et al

in Proceeding of the Romanian Academy. Series A, Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science (2011), 12(4), 324-331

Hollow steel columns filled with bar-reinforced concrete are used extensively in the construction of high-rise buildings. Many research works devoted to the fire resistance of these profiles have been ... [more ▼]

Hollow steel columns filled with bar-reinforced concrete are used extensively in the construction of high-rise buildings. Many research works devoted to the fire resistance of these profiles have been performed in Europe and in North America. Though calculation methods are now proposed in codes, more practical tools are needed by the design engineers. It is not easy to develop such methods due to the large scatter of experimental results. In this article three methods based on quite different procedures are examined. Comparisons have been made between the results obtained by the three methods and test results. The potentialities of each method are examined, but also the domains in which they should be used with care, or even they should not be used. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (7 ULg)
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See detailComparison between ventrodorsal and dorsoventral projections for the diagnosis of hip dysplasia
Saunders, J.; Godefroid, T.; Snaps, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1999), 24

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
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See detailComparison between wind speed observed at 100m height and wind speeds simulated by the WRF and MAR models
Doutreloup, Sébastien ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2014, June 06)

In the context of FLEXIPAC project funded by "RELIABLE" program of Walloon Region (Belgium), the Laboratory of Climatology and Topoclimatology (LCT) of the University of Liège (Belgium) aims to adjust the ... [more ▼]

In the context of FLEXIPAC project funded by "RELIABLE" program of Walloon Region (Belgium), the Laboratory of Climatology and Topoclimatology (LCT) of the University of Liège (Belgium) aims to adjust the WRF regional model (v.3.4.) forced by ERA-Interim model. Our analysis shows that wind speeds at 100m height simulated by WRF are systematically overestimated compared to wind speeds extracted from wind productions of two wind farms. In order to identify this problem, four comparisons were performed in this contribution. Firstly, we compare WRF model with reanalysis based forcing model. Secondly, we compare two WRF simulations, where one of them has a more precise spatial resolution. Thirdly, we smooth WRF outputs in time (6-hr running mean) in order to study the accuracy of the 30-min variability generated by WRF model. Finally, we comp compare the WRF model with the MAR (v3.3.) regional model using the same forcing at its lateral boundaries. This last one seems to suggest that the MAR model better simulates wind speeds at 10m and at 100m than WRF model and then that wind speed underestimation by WRF is well linked to the WRF physics itself. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (6 ULg)
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See detailComparison by image processing of target supports of spray droplets
Degre, Aurore ULg; Mostade, Olivier; Huyghebaert, Bruno et al

in transaction of the American society of Agricultural engineers (2001), 44(2), 217-222

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg)
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See detailComparison of bronchodilators in feline airways: In vitro and in vivo investigations
Leemans, Jérôme ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Delvaux, F. et al

in In proceedings: 15th Congress European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine – companion animals (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg)