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See detailLe colostrum bovin : "une solution pour réduire les effets négatifs du sevrage"
Boudry, Christelle ULg

Article for general public (2008)

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See detailColostrum. De nouvelles voies de valorisation
Boudry, Christelle ULg

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailColour ConText
Neven, Sylvie ULg

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2014)

For several centuries, the literature of artists’ recipe books has been considered one of the most original and comprehensive primary sources for the historical study of artistic practices and materials ... [more ▼]

For several centuries, the literature of artists’ recipe books has been considered one of the most original and comprehensive primary sources for the historical study of artistic practices and materials. In addition to the famous Libro dell’arte of Cennino Cennini, nearly five hundred European manuscripts containing artistic recipes survive from before circa 1550. A great number of these are still unpublished and virtually unknown. Our work on a large corpus of recipe collections has generated the material for a database that facilitates consultation and exploitation of the source material.Current structure of the database The core data consists of mediaeval and pre-modern manuscripts and printed books from Northern and Southern Europe. The various layouts of the ‘Colour ConText’ database allow access to the metadata of the sources with details such as title, current location, place and date of origin, scribes or authors, previous owners, and description of any other (non-recipe) content. The database also allows access to digital images of these sources via European Cultural Heritage Online (ECHO) or via digital collections made available by external institutes, and to the transcription and translation of the recipe texts. Reference to primary and secondary sources, together with the related bibliographical data, is integrated throughout the database. To date, over 400 manuscripts have been considered and 4,500 recipes - some constituting only a few lines, others covering several folios - have been transcribed and recorded within the database. The database also includes a complete index of the ‘simples’ (substances mentioned as ingredients). Thus materials are indexed both by their current scientific name and by the terms exactly as they appear in the source texts. Each ingredient’s appellation is linked by relational tables to its contemporary and modern synonyms. This allows the retrieval of all the different appellations used for one ingredient – detailing the historical written context – but also the various ingredients that may be related to one ‘appellation’. A survey of artistic materials and techniques The database helps not only to observe the global frequency and recurrence of each ingredient and technical instruction, but also to deduce the availability of artistic material within a chronologically and geographically defined area. Many of these recipes can be used to identify specific, datable practices and materials, as compilers often specify the name and/or place of origin of the artists from whom they obtained their information. Information related to the historical provenance of the source material (obtained through codicological or philological analysis) has also been recorded within the database and may be used for that purpose. Moreover, it is possible to observe, through factors such as frequency within the corpus, basic structure, and evolution, how recipes were modified over time or by other external phenomena. It is also possible to link the development of specific artistic procedures and technical traditions, and to correlate these with more widely diffused techniques. Thus, recipe books allow us to study the geography, chronology, circulation and dissemination of artists’ knowledge. Colour material and terminology This project notably aims at considering and evaluating the importance and interest accorded to knowledge of the materials and substances used by artists and shared with other professionals (such as apothecaries), focusing on pigments and colouring material. For that purpose, other written sources related to colour will be included (notably texts on colour theory, on colour symbolism, on colour systems, on the pharmaceutical qualities of colours, etc.). In parallel to the physical descriptions of pigments and colourants, these written sources deliver information concerning their optical characteristics, conservation, (in)compatibility with other sorts of materials and their ageing properties. The diversity of colour denominations and the complexity of the varied technical terminology will be made transparent through a glossary of all the substances, ingredients, and their synonyms mentioned in the recipe books. Transmission of artists’ knowledge Such collections of recipes were often gathered in the same book with other subjects (such as theology, alchemy, botany or medicine) and these are also described within the database. The database also includes information concerning the provenance and circulation of these books outside the workshop. This allows other questions to be addressed - notably those related to the ownership and readership of collections of recipes. [less ▲]

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See detail"Colour ConText". A Database on Colour Practice and Colour Knowledge in Pre-Modern Europe
Neven, Sylvie ULg; Leonhard, Karin; Dupré, Sven

in Dubois, Hélène; Eyb-Green, Sigrid; Kroustallis, Stephanos (Eds.) et al Making and transforming art : changes in artists’ materials and practice (2014)

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See detailColour conText’ : a New Database of Artists’ Recipes
Neven, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2013)

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See detailColour differentiation in a coral reef fish throughout ontogeny: habitat background and flexibility
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Mills, Suzanne C.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in Aquatic Biology (2010), 9(3), 271-277

Colour polymorphism is widespread in animals but, in contrast to other types of polymorphism, has been little explored during ontogeny. Among coral reef fish, the surge damselfish Chrysiptera leucopoma ... [more ▼]

Colour polymorphism is widespread in animals but, in contrast to other types of polymorphism, has been little explored during ontogeny. Among coral reef fish, the surge damselfish Chrysiptera leucopoma settles in the larval stage as a yellow morph, whereas 2 colour morphs (yellow and brown) are apparent in adults at Rangiroa Atoll, French Polynesia. To understand this dimorphism, we tested, under controlled conditions, the hypotheses that: (1) environmental cues (habitat background and conspecific density) play important roles in morph differentiation during ontogeny and (2) morph colouration is reversible. Our first experiment showed that a dark habitat background induced the formation of the brown morph, while C. leucopoma larvae kept their yellow morph when placed in aquaria with a bright habitat background. Colour change from yellow to brown also occurred within the bright habitat, but only at high conspecific densities. Our second experiment showed that colour change was reversible within 15 d post-settlement, but not at the adult stage. Overall, our results highlighted that the studied polymorphism may be environmentally induced and reversible during the first post-settlement days of this coral reef fish. [less ▲]

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See detailColour removal from model solutions by coagulation - surface charge and floc characterisation aspects
Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Karthikeyan, J.; Ay, P.

in Environmental Technology (2006), 27

Chemical coagulation applied for colour removal from dye bearing solutions has been investigated from point of view of surface charge progression. Two commercially used dyes, i.e. CI Acid Blue 113 and CI ... [more ▼]

Chemical coagulation applied for colour removal from dye bearing solutions has been investigated from point of view of surface charge progression. Two commercially used dyes, i.e. CI Acid Blue 113 and CI Disperse Blue 26 have been tested, employing three common coagulants: alum, aluminium chloride and ferric chloride. Coagulant type and dose level and pH of the dye solution have been studied as process parameters affecting surface charge and degree of colour removal after filtration of coagulated dye. It has been found, that both dyes could be almost completely removed with the tested coagulants, when supplied however at different dosages. From one side, the correlation between surface charge and colour removal suggests that destabilization of colour colloids occurs as a result of charge neutralization followed by removal by filtration. From other side, the lack of re-stabilization and continued high colour removal even at increased coagulant dosages implies enmeshment of destabilized dye colloids into the hydroxy flocs/precipitates of metal coagulant by “sweep coagulation”. Finally, flocs from selected sludge samples have been examined for particle size and shape by image analysis and their key characteristics summarised [less ▲]

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See detailColour removal from wastewater by means of microbial treatment
Janeczko, M.; Georgiev, P.; Nicolova, M. et al

in Fecko, P. (Ed.) 10-th Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing (2006)

Water solutions of different dyes used in textile industry (Reactive Black 5, Acid Orange 7 and Disperse Yellow 5) were treated under laboratory conditions by means of different microorganisms or their ... [more ▼]

Water solutions of different dyes used in textile industry (Reactive Black 5, Acid Orange 7 and Disperse Yellow 5) were treated under laboratory conditions by means of different microorganisms or their metabolites. The following organisms were used in this study: Bacillus megatherium, B.subtilus, B.circulans, activated sludge from industrial w. w. teratment plant and a mixed enriched culture of flocculating bacteria. It was find out that the microbial effect towards the dyes was quite specific and the extent of colour removal varied in broad range. Very good results were achieved also by means of permeable reactive barriers inhabitated by flocculating bacteria and other independent microorganisms and operating under continuous flow conditions. The colour removal in these case varied in the range of about 80 - 90 % and was similar to that achieved by the well known chemical reagents used in the textile industry. [less ▲]

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See detailColour rendering and spectral power distribution: a new parametric approach
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Lighting Research & Technology (1984), 16 (3)

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See detailColour rendering of supplementary artificial lighting
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Color Research and Application (1992), 17(3)

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See detailColour rendering under the combination of daylight and artificial light
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the A.I.C. Interim meeting '96 (Association Internationale de la Couleur) (1996)

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See detailColour-magnitude diagrams of transiting Exoplanets - II. A larger sample from photometric distances
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Lanotte, Audrey ULg; Smalley, Barry et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 444(1), 711-728

CColour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each other. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary ... [more ▼]

CColour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each other. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary systems. Parallaxes for seven systems confirm our methodology. Combining those measurements with fluxes obtained while planets were occulted by their host stars, we compose colour-magnitude diagrams in the near and mid-infrared. When possible, planets are plotted alongside very low mass stars and field brown dwarfs, who often share similar sizes and equilibrium temperatures. They offer a natural, empirical, comparison sample. We also include directly imaged exoplanets and the expected loci of pure blackbodies. Irradiated planets do not match blackbodies; their emission spectra are not featureless. For a given luminosity, hot Jupiters' daysides show a larger variety in colour than brown dwarfs do and display an increasing diversity in colour with decreasing intrinsic luminosity. The presence of an extra absorbent within the 4.5 μm band would reconcile outlying hot Jupiters with ultra-cool dwarfs' atmospheres. Measuring the emission of gas giants cooler than 1000 K would disentangle whether planets' atmospheres behave more similarly to brown dwarfs' atmospheres than to blackbodies, whether they are akin to the young directly imaged planets, or if irradiated gas giants form their own sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailColourism: from a Local Legacy of Slavery to a Global Power Dynamics
Gabrielle, Cindy ULg

in Journal de BabeLg (2008), 25

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See detailColumn Abundance measurements of formaldehyde above the Jungfraujoch.
Demoulin, Philippe ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Mélen, F. et al

in Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications 1999 - Proceedings (1999)

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See detailColumn bases in steel building frames
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Column bases in steel building frames (1999)

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See detailColumnar defects acting as passive internal field detectors
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Civale, L.; Avila, M. A.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2002), 65(17),

We have studied the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of several YBa2Cu3O7 and 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with columnar defects tilted off the c axis. At high magnetic fields, the ... [more ▼]

We have studied the angular dependence of the irreversible magnetization of several YBa2Cu3O7 and 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with columnar defects tilted off the c axis. At high magnetic fields, the irreversible magnetization M-i(Theta) exhibits a well-known maximum when the applied field is parallel to the tracks. As the field is decreased below Hsimilar to0.02H(c2), the peak shifts away from the tracks' direction toward either the c axis or the ab planes. We demonstrate that this shift results from the misalignment between the external and internal field directions due to the competition between anisotropy and geometry effects. [less ▲]

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See detailComa and consciousness: Paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging.
Laureys, Steven ULg; Schiff, N.

in NeuroImage (2012)

The past 15years has provided an unprecedented collection of discoveries that bear upon our scientific understanding of recovery of consciousness in the human brain following severe brain damage ... [more ▼]

The past 15years has provided an unprecedented collection of discoveries that bear upon our scientific understanding of recovery of consciousness in the human brain following severe brain damage. Highlighted among these discoveries are unique demonstrations that patients with little or no behavioral evidence of conscious awareness may retain critical cognitive capacities and the first scientific demonstrations that some patients, with severely injured brains and very longstanding conditions of limited behavioral responsiveness, may nonetheless harbor latent capacities for significant recovery. Included among such capacities are particularly human functions of language and higher-level cognition that either spontaneously or through direct interventions may reemerge even at long time intervals or remain unrecognized. Collectively, these observations have reframed scientific inquiry and further led to important new insights into mechanisms underlying consciousness in the human brain. These studies support a model of consciousness as the emergent property of the collective behavior of widespread frontoparietal network connectivity modulated by specific forebrain circuit mechanisms. We here review these advances in measurement and the scientific and broader implications of this rapidly progressing field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailComa and disorders of consciousness
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg

in Handbook of Clinical Neurology (2013), Vol 118

Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by ... [more ▼]

Patients in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, and in minimally conscious states pose medical, scientific, and ethical challenges. As patients with disorders of consciousness are by definition unable to communicate, the assessment of pain, quality of life, and end-of-life preferences in these conditions can only be approached by adopting a third-person perspective. Surveys of healthcare workers' attitudes towards pain and end of life in disorders of consciousness shed light on the background of clinical reality, where no standard medical-legal framework is widely accepted. On the other hand, patients with locked-in syndrome, who are severely paralyzed but fully conscious, can inform about subjective quality of life in serious disability and help us to understand better the underlying factors influencing happiness in disease. In the medico-legal arena, such ethical issues may be resolved by previously drafted advance directives and, when absent, by surrogate representation. Lately, functional medical imaging and electrophysiology provide alternative means to communicate with these challenging patients and will potentially mediate to extract responses of medical-ethical content. Eventually, the clinical translation of these advanced technologies in the medical routine is of paramount importance for the promotion of medical management of these challenging patients [less ▲]

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See detailComa and disorders of consciousness: scientific advances and practical considerations for clinicians
Bodart, Olivier ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Gosseries, Olivia ULg

in Seminars in Neurology (2013), 33

Recently, neuroscientists and clinicians have seen the rapid evolution of diagnoses in disorders of consciousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome–vegetative state, the minimally conscious state ... [more ▼]

Recently, neuroscientists and clinicians have seen the rapid evolution of diagnoses in disorders of consciousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome–vegetative state, the minimally conscious state plus and minus, and the functional locked-in syndrome have been defined using new neuroimaging techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroen- cephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques have all promoted important discoveries in the field of disorders of consciousness. This has led to a better understanding of these patients’ condition and to the development of new prognosis, therapeutic, and communication tools. However, low sensitivity and artifacts problems need to be solved to bring these new technologies to the single-patient level; they also need to be studied in larger scale and randomized control trials. In addition, new ethics questions have arisen and need to be investigated. [less ▲]

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