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See detailComparative analysis of the energy dissipation on a stepped spillway downstream of a Piano Key Weir
Silvestri, Aurélien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg et al

in Erpicum, Sébastien; Laugier, Frédéric; Pfister, Michael (Eds.) et al Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II - PKW 2013 (2013)

A systematic experimental study has been carried out to compare the residual energy at the toe of a stepped spillway of varied length considering a classical ogee-crested weir (OCW) or two different piano ... [more ▼]

A systematic experimental study has been carried out to compare the residual energy at the toe of a stepped spillway of varied length considering a classical ogee-crested weir (OCW) or two different piano key weirs (PKW) at the top of the structure. Four spillway lengths have been considered on a wide range of discharge. An indirect method has been used to compute the residual flow energy at the spillway toe from water depth measurements in a horizontal channel downstream. The results indicate that uniform flow conditions, i.e. flow energy at the spillway toe independent of the spillway length, are reached on significantly shorter spillways downstream of a PKW than downstream of an OCW. However, the uniform flow energy at constant discharge on the spillway is found to vary depending on the weir type. In particular, it is smaller downstream of the OCW than downstream of the PKWs. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative analysis of the entrepreneurial profile of the rural entrepreneur: Moldavia region of Romania, Niger state in Nigeria and Camaguey region of Cuba
Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin ULg; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi; Bover-Felices, Katia

in Advances in Agriculture & Botanics (2010), 2(1), 35-39

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the entrepreneurial profiles identified in three distinct regions from three countries: the historical region of Moldavia in Romania, known today as the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the entrepreneurial profiles identified in three distinct regions from three countries: the historical region of Moldavia in Romania, known today as the North–East Development Region, Niger state in Nigeria and the Camaguey region in Cuba. In identifying the entrepreneurial profile of the rural entrepreneur statistical national, from every country, and international databases have been used (ex. INS, National Bureau of Statistics of Nigeria, La Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas de Cuba, EUROSTAT). Features regarding the environment of origin, level of studies, age, sex etc were identified. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of the lubricating power between a pure mineral oil and biodegradable oils of the same mean iso grade
Kabuya, A.; Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg

in Dowson, D.; Taylor, C. M.; Childs, T. H. C. (Eds.) et al Lubricants and lubrication : proceedings of the 21th Leeds-Lyon symposium on tribology held at the Institute of Tribology , University of Leeds U.K., 6th-9th September 1994 (1995)

n this paper, we compare the viscosimetric and tribological properties of some vegetable oils and one synthetic ester with a pure mineral oil. The viscosimetric characteristics of lubricants show that ... [more ▼]

n this paper, we compare the viscosimetric and tribological properties of some vegetable oils and one synthetic ester with a pure mineral oil. The viscosimetric characteristics of lubricants show that both vegetable oils and ester have a higher viscosity index than mineral oil. The test results show that all tested oils have a somewhat dilatant behaviour.The oiliness, antiwear and extreme pressure properties of lubricants have been studied respectively with a Stribeck machine and a four-ball machine. We have noted the following: On the four-ball machine, extreme pressure results expressed in terms of pressure wear index and mean hertz load show that the higher performance is obtained with the vegetable oils. Extreme pressure results expressed in terms of weld load, do not show a big difference between the tested oils. Antiwear results expressed in terms of wear scar show that die highest performances are obtained with vegetable oils. On the Stribeck machine, oiliness results expressed in terms of friction coefficient indicate that: in the regime of fluid lubrication, tested oils have me same behaviour; in die boundary lubrication regime, both vegetable oils and synthetic, ester have a better response uian mineral oil. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of the predictive capacity of breaching models for an overtopped rockfill dam
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Workshop "Stability and Breaching of Embankment Dams" (2004)

The paper covers a brief description and a comprehensive comparative analysis of several state-of-the-art dam breaching models. The study is specifically focused on the applicability and on the predictive ... [more ▼]

The paper covers a brief description and a comprehensive comparative analysis of several state-of-the-art dam breaching models. The study is specifically focused on the applicability and on the predictive capacity of the models for the gradual breaching of an overtopped rockfill dam. A wide range of modelling techniques is reviewed, from process-oriented numerical simulations to empirical models. Comparisons are performed regarding various aspects, such as the applicability of the model without prior calibration or the possibility of coupling the breaching model with a quasi-3D flow solver such as WOLF. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the downstream hydrograph to various parameters is conducted and the conclusions drawn are illustrated in the case of a large-scale real application in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of triacylglycerol composition, melting properties and polymorphic behavior of palm oil and fractions
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Gibon, Veronique

in European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology [=EJLST] (2007), 109(4), 359-372

Palm oil is without doubt the most widely fractionated oil. Dry fractionation is based on differences in the melting points of triacylglycerols (TAG) which will crystallize selectively during the cooling ... [more ▼]

Palm oil is without doubt the most widely fractionated oil. Dry fractionation is based on differences in the melting points of triacylglycerols (TAG) which will crystallize selectively during the cooling process. Unfortunately, limitations due to intersolubility, closely linked to polymorphism, induce formation of co-crystals at each crystallization step. For this reason, only restricted TAG enrichments are observed. In this work, a series of samples (24) of palm oil, solid and liquid fractions (stearins, mid fractions, oleins and superoleins) have been selected and examined in terms of TAG composition (by HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting profile and variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction pattern. Three major endotherms [low-melting, high-melting and very high-melting peaks (LMP, HMP and VHMP)] are detected in the DSC melting profiles (5 degrees C/min). The VHMP is only recorded for palm stearin which contains more SSS components. The HMP contribution is weak for palm olein and even not observed for palm super oleins. The LMP is usually made up of UUU, SUU and SUS components; SUS components are observed in both LMP and HMP; the HMP is also made up of some SSS, except for palm oleins and super oleins. Sub-alpha(2), sub-alpha(1), alpha, beta'(2), beta'(1), and beta polymorphic forms are recorded; the LMP components preferentially crystallize in sub-alpha(2), sub-alpha, and alpha forms; the HMP components generally crystallize in beta'(2) and beta'(1), with a tendency to exhibit beta crystals, depending on the SSS content. Components of the VHMP have an increased tendency to stabilize in the 0 form; in view of the results, we can assume that there is a clear relationship between TAG composition, melting properties and polymorphic behavior and of palm oil and fractions. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of two different approaches to putting IHP+ into practice: Mali and Benin
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Berthé, Issa; Samaké, Salif

Conference (2011, October)

Introduction: The International Health Partnership and related initiatives (IHP+) seeks to achieve better results by mobilising development partners around a single country-led national health strategy ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The International Health Partnership and related initiatives (IHP+) seeks to achieve better results by mobilising development partners around a single country-led national health strategy, guided by the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. At country level, the IHP+ materializes through the preparation, signature, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of a "Country Compact" – a negotiated and signed agreement in which partners commit to implement and uphold the priorities outlined in the national health strategy. Some of the main determining features of the IHP+ are the leadership of the recipient government over the preparation and implementation process of the Compact, broad domestic ownership of the national health plan, and mutual accountability for results. Methods: In this communication, we perform a comparative analysis of two very different approaches that have been followed in Mali and Benin. It is based on authors' experience in the IHP+ process in Mali, extensive document review and interviews with most significant stakeholders involved in the process both in Mali and Benin. Results: Mali has prepared its country Compact on the grounds of its 10-year experience in leading a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in the health sector. It has therefore benefited from improved donor coordination, MoH leadership in piloting the national programme, trust capital between partners and broad ownership of the health plan. It has succeeded in making the IHP+ process even more inclusive. On the contrary, Benin had no health SWAp to start with. The preparation process of the Compact was much less inclusive and country-led, resulting in narrow ownership and vague commitments. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the IHP+ can help launch a new partnership dynamic within the health sector. Conclusion: Beyond common principles, the IHP+ is put into practice in different ways from country to country according to their context. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds measured by various tests
Tabart, Jessica ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2009), 113

The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacities of standard compounds (phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and glutathione) as measured by various assays. Five methods were selected so ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacities of standard compounds (phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and glutathione) as measured by various assays. Five methods were selected so as to span a diversity of technical approaches: TEAC (radical 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6 sulphonic acid), DPPH (radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl used to measure reducing capacity), ORAC (oxygen radical scavenging capacity), red blood cell haemolysis (protection of biological sample), and ESR (electron spin resonance for direct free radical evaluation). Most compounds showed significant differences in free radical scavenging activity according to the method used. Of the 25 tested compounds, only a few, such as myricetin and gallocatechin, gave comparable activities in the various tests. To standardise reporting on antioxidant capacity, it is proposed to use a weighted mean of the values obtained using the DPPH, ORAC, resistance to haemolysis, and ESR assays. This strategy was used to test the antioxidant capacity of several beverages. The highest antioxidant capacity was observed for red wine, followed by green tea, orange juice, grape juice, vegetable juice, and apple juice. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative Aspects Nationality Law - Selected Questions
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Learning material (2009)

These slides were used as support for a course taught in English which provides an overview of the major questions arising in the field of nationality law. The course focuses on acquisition and loss of ... [more ▼]

These slides were used as support for a course taught in English which provides an overview of the major questions arising in the field of nationality law. The course focuses on acquisition and loss of nationality and touches upon other issues such as multiple nationalities and the influence of the European construction on nationality law. All these questions are studied using comparative materials as basis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative Aspects of Nationality Law - Selected Questions
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Learning material (2010)

These slides were used as support for a course taught in English (in 2010) which provides an overview of the major questions arising in the field of nationality law. The course focuses on acquisition and ... [more ▼]

These slides were used as support for a course taught in English (in 2010) which provides an overview of the major questions arising in the field of nationality law. The course focuses on acquisition and loss of nationality and touches upon other issues such as multiple nationalities and the influence of the European construction on nationality law. All these questions are studied using comparative materials as basis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative Aspects of Nationality Law - Selected Questions (2011)
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Learning material (2011)

se slides were used as support for a course taught in English (in 2011) which provides an overview of the major questions arising in the field of nationality law. The course focuses on acquisition and ... [more ▼]

se slides were used as support for a course taught in English (in 2011) which provides an overview of the major questions arising in the field of nationality law. The course focuses on acquisition and loss of nationality and touches upon other issues such as multiple nationalities and the influence of the European construction on nationality law. All these questions are studied using comparative materials (mainly from Western Europe) as basis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative assessment of old and new suboptimal control schemes on three example processes
Journee, Michel ULg; Schweickhardt, T.; Allgöwer, Frank

in Proceedings of the 13th IFAC Workshop on Control Applications of Optimisation, Paris (2006)

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See detailComparative assessment of old and new suboptimal control schemes on three example processes
Journee, Michel ULg; Schweickhardt, Tobias; Allgöwer, Frank

in International Journal of Tomography & Statistics (2007), 6(S07), 45--50

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See detailComparative assessment of right ventricular performance from the pressure-volume relationship in double-muscled and conventional calves.
Amory, Hélène ULg; Mc Entee, Kathleen ULg; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1995), 59(2), 135-141

Forty-one and 55 records of right-sided and systemic arterial pressures, cardiac output, and end-diastolic and end-systolic right ventricular volumes were collected from a group of 6 conventional and 6 ... [more ▼]

Forty-one and 55 records of right-sided and systemic arterial pressures, cardiac output, and end-diastolic and end-systolic right ventricular volumes were collected from a group of 6 conventional and 6 double-muscled calves, respectively. In each group, the mean right ventricular pressure-volume loop was constructed. Global cardiac performance was significantly lower in the double-muscled than in the conventional calves. The right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, as well as the diastolic portion of the mean pressure-volume loop, were similar in the 2 groups. Those results suggest that the reduced cardiac performance of double-muscled calves is not due to a lowered ventricular preload and that diastolic properties of their myocardium are similar to those of conventional calves. When expressed on a body weight basis, however, the right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were lower in the double-muscled than in conventional calves. When expressed as a function of probable metabolic demand, therefore, the volumetric capacity of the cardiac pump appears to be reduced in double-muscled calves. The significantly lower right ventricular ejection fraction, maximal rate of ventricular pressure rise and right ventricular peak-systolic pressure to end-systolic volume ratio measured in double-muscled as compared with conventional calves suggest that reduced myocardial contractility may also be partly responsible for the significantly lower stroke index of the former calves. The cardiac pump of double-muscled cattle thus seems to be less effective than that of conventional cattle because of reduced volumetric capacity and lowered strength of contraction. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants
Kamdem, Irenee ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

in World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology (2013)

We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored ... [more ▼]

We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g-1 dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g-1, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 106 kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH4 productivity could be improved. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins
Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Kay-Christian, Emeis et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2015), 141

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions ... [more ▼]

The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins. [less ▲]

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