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See detailThe Commission's Non Contractual Liability in the Field of Merger Control - Don't Use a Hammer When You Need a Screwdriver
Petit, Nicolas ULg; Rato, Miguel

in Global Competition Policy (2007)

It has become conventional wisdom to view the rulings handed down by the CFI in Airtours, Schneider, Tetra Laval and Impala as unprecedented setbacks for the European Commission ("the Commission") that ... [more ▼]

It has become conventional wisdom to view the rulings handed down by the CFI in Airtours, Schneider, Tetra Laval and Impala as unprecedented setbacks for the European Commission ("the Commission") that would usher in a new era of administrative accountability in the field of merger control. However, several commentators still consider that the Commission regretfully enjoys a de facto power of "life or death" over notified mergers, and that judgments striking down its decisions are unlikely to change much in practice. Parties to a blocked merger generally abandon their projects following the Commission's decision, irrespective of the outcome of the actions they may subsequently bring before the EC Courts (e.g. the Airtours/First Choice or Schneider/Legrand mergers). Third parties - competitors or consumers - to an illegally approved merger have little prospect of inducing the Commission to unscramble a consummated transaction (e.g. the Sony/BMG merger). This unsatisfactory state of affairs has led practitioners to explore other legal avenues to hold the Commission accountable for its mistakes. One such possible means of redress is to resort to Article 288 EC which provides that the EC shall "make good any damage caused by its institutions". Where an EC institution such as the Commission is found liable for such damage, Article 235 EC grants the Community Courts jurisdiction to award compensation In light of the virulence of some of criticism directed at the Commission by the CFI in the Airtours and Schneider/Legrand judgments, the parties to those mergers initiated proceedings against the Commission, seeking compensation for the unlawful prohibition of their proposed mergers. These actions drew enthusiastic reactions from certain EC competition law experts which, upon close examination, appear unjustified. The legal avenue provided for by Article 288 EC is most likely a procedural dead-end. First, from the applicants' perspective, the conditions under which the Commission's liability can give rise to a right to compensation in the field of merger control are set so high by existing case-law that most Article 288 EC claims are likely to be dismissed as unfounded. Second, from a public policy standpoint, Article 288 EC does not constitute an adequate instrument to improve the Commission's accountability for its unlawful decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailCommissioning case study of a cooling ceiling system
Fonseca, N.; Hannay, J.; Andre, Philippe ULg

in Proceedings Building Simulation 2009: BS'09, Glasgow, August 2009 (2009, August)

As a part of commissioning case study, the cooling ceiling system of a commercial building in Brussels is experimentally evaluated by means a functional test procedure and a detailed thermal model of this ... [more ▼]

As a part of commissioning case study, the cooling ceiling system of a commercial building in Brussels is experimentally evaluated by means a functional test procedure and a detailed thermal model of this system. This one has to be used on situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning process in order to determine the main parameters of the cooling ceiling systems. Due to the extended gazing surface of the building, the problem is the overheated zones submitted to the expected solar heat gain. The subsystems considered for commissioning process includes the fenestration, ventilation and cooling ceiling system. The interaction and individual operation conditions of each system are evaluated. A Functional Performance Testing guide (FPT) for cooling ceiling commissioning process is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailCommissioning-orientated building loads calculations. Application to the CA-MET building in Namur (Belgium).
Adam, Ch.; Andre, Philippe ULg; Aparecida Silva, Cl. et al

Conference (2004, October)

The parallel use of whole building simulation and monitoring of building energy consumptions (heating, cooling, lighting and other electricity consumptions) represents a potential “high-level” ... [more ▼]

The parallel use of whole building simulation and monitoring of building energy consumptions (heating, cooling, lighting and other electricity consumptions) represents a potential “high-level” commissioning tool in order to verify, either as a one shot campaign or as a continuous process, the correct operation of a building. The most advanced approaches use on-line building simulation to continuously compare the real performance of the building to a base line provided by simulation. In that context, different levels of building loads calculation can be used, ranging from rough methods like eg degree day methods to detailed multizone building simulation. The former methods use aggregated information about the buildings (“global” parameters like the heat loss coefficient for instance) and provide as outputs average quantities (energy consumption for a given average controlled temperature) while the latter require a high number of parameters and deliver very detailed results (hourly evolution of demands in each zone of the building). A major question concerns the suitability of the different approaches in a commissioning context. This papers illustrates the use of different calculation methods (heating and cooling loads) for the particular case of an office building located in Namur (Belgium), which is the object of an intensive re-commissioning activity for several years. Very global methods are used as well as detailed computer simulations using TRNSYS Multizone building types 46 and 56. In the latter case, the model is calibrated using reference periods and can serve as a baseline indicator of the energy consumption in the building. The complexity of the building (300 m long, modular architecture, presence of an atrium-like internal street) required some simplifications in the modelling associated to a specific methodology to extrapolate the results got from the simulation of a relatively small part of the building to the whole picture. The paper will explain the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, the required information and the limits of the results. The potential use of the different calculation levels for the implementation in a continuous commissioning process will be examinated as conclusion of the work. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon agricultural policy and its objectives for sustainable management of natural resources and measures in favor of the climate
Terrones Gavira, François ULg; Burny, Philippe ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Burny, Philippe; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra-Malina (Eds.) Agri-environment : perspectives on sustainable development (2012)

The first part of this article is a history of the greening of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The second part focuses on parameters and methodologies to take into account in order to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

The first part of this article is a history of the greening of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The second part focuses on parameters and methodologies to take into account in order to evaluate the costs and the benefits of the future CAP. Finally, the last part of this paper is a discussion about the objectives of the greening and the instruments used to achieve them. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon Agricultural Policy and the environment : are they compatible ?
Burny, Philippe ULg

in Universitatea "Babes-Boliay" Cluj-Napoca (Ed.) Simpozion national "Contributii stiintifice în tehnologii si echipamente pentru evaluarea si protectia mediului" (2005)

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See detailThe Common Agricultural Policy towards 2020
Burny, Philippe ULg; Habran, Maxime ULg; Terrones Gavira, François ULg

in Lorencowicz, Edmund; Uziak, Jacek; Huyghebaert, Bruno (Eds.) VI International Scientific Symposium "Farm Machinery and Processes Management in Sustainable Agriculture" : Symposium Proceedings (2013)

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined in the Treaty of Rome and implemented since 1962, has always been under reform, mainly in 1992, 1999, 2003 and 2009. However, after the last enlargements and ... [more ▼]

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined in the Treaty of Rome and implemented since 1962, has always been under reform, mainly in 1992, 1999, 2003 and 2009. However, after the last enlargements and the international financial crisis, a new reform was needed for the budget period going from 2014 to 2020. The first ideas were launched by the EU Commissionner for Agriculture, M. Dacian Ciolos, in 2010. After three years of discussions, the political agreement between the Council of Ministers, the EU Parliament and the Commission was reached in June 2013. So, this paper presents the main decisions of this agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailA common mutation (epsilon1267delG) in congenital myasthenic patients of Gypsy ethnic origin
Abicht, A.; Stucka, R.; Karcagi, V. et al

in Neurology (1999), 53(7), 1564-9

OBJECTIVE: Mutation analysis of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene in patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). BACKGROUND: The nicotinic ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Mutation analysis of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene in patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). BACKGROUND: The nicotinic AChR of skeletal muscle is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel that mediates synaptic transmission at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. Mutations in its gene may cause congenital myasthenic syndromes. A recently described mutation in exon 12 of the AChR epsilon subunit (epsilon1267delG) disrupts the cytoplasmic loop and the fourth transmembrane region (M4) of the AChR epsilon subunit. METHODS: Forty-three CMS patients from 35 nonrelated families were clinically classified as sporadic cases of CMS (group III according to European Neuromuscular Centre consensus) and were analyzed for epsilon1267delG by PCR amplification and sequence analysis. RESULTS: The authors report the complete genomic sequence and organization of the gene coding for the epsilon subunit of the human AChR (accession number AF105999). Homozygous epsilon1267delG was identified in 13 CMS patients from 11 independent families. All epsilon1267delG families were of Gypsy or southeastern European origin. Genotype analysis indicated that they derive from a common ancestor (founder) causing CMS in the southeastern European Gypsy population. Phenotype analysis revealed a uniform pattern of clinical features including bilateral ptosis and mild to moderate fatigable weakness of ocular, facial, bulbar, and limb muscles. CONCLUSIONS: The mutation epsilon1267delG might be frequent in European congenital myasthenic syndrome patients of Gypsy ethnic origin. In general, patients (epsilon1267delG) were characterized by the onset of symptoms in early infancy, the presence of ophthalmoparesis, positive response to anticholinesterase treatment, and the benign natural course of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon Prevalence Of Alanine And Glycine In Mobile Reactive Center Loops Of Serpins And Viral Fusion Peptides - Do Prions Possess A Fusion Peptide
Callebaut, I.; Tasso, A.; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design (1994), 8(2),

Serpin reactive centre loops and fusion peptides released by proteolytic cleavage are particularly mobile. Their amino acid compositions reveal a common and unusual abundance of alanine, accompanied by ... [more ▼]

Serpin reactive centre loops and fusion peptides released by proteolytic cleavage are particularly mobile. Their amino acid compositions reveal a common and unusual abundance of alanine, accompanied by high levels of glycine. These two small residues, which are not simultaneously abundant in stable helices (standard or transmembrane), probably play an important role in mobility. Threonine and valine (also relatively small amino acids) are also abundant in these two kinds of peptides. Moreover, the known 3D structures of an uncleaved serpin reactive centre and a fusion peptide are strikingly similar. Such sequences possess many small residues and are found in several signal peptides and in PrP, a protein associated with spongiform encephalopathies and resembling virus envelope proteins. These properties may be related to the infection mechanisms of these diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailA common reference population from four European Holstein populations increases reliability of genomic predictions.
Lund, M. S.; de Ross, S. P.; de Vries, A. G. et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2011), 43(1), 43

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Size of the reference population and reliability of phenotypes are crucial factors influencing the reliability of genomic predictions. It is therefore useful to combine closely ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Size of the reference population and reliability of phenotypes are crucial factors influencing the reliability of genomic predictions. It is therefore useful to combine closely related populations. Increased accuracies of genomic predictions depend on the number of individuals added to the reference population, the reliability of their phenotypes, and the relatedness of the populations that are combined. METHODS: This paper assesses the increase in reliability achieved when combining four Holstein reference populations of 4000 bulls each, from European breeding organizations, i.e. UNCEIA (France), VikingGenetics (Denmark, Sweden, Finland), DHV-VIT (Germany) and CRV (The Netherlands, Flanders). Each partner validated its own bulls using their national reference data and the combined data, respectively. RESULTS: Combining the data significantly increased the reliability of genomic predictions for bulls in all four populations. Reliabilities increased by 10%, compared to reliabilities obtained with national reference populations alone, when they were averaged over countries and the traits evaluated. For different traits and countries, the increase in reliability ranged from 2% to 19%. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic selection programs benefit greatly from combining data from several closely related populations into a single large reference population. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon resting brain dynamics indicate a possible mechanism underlying zolpidem response in severe brain injury
Williams, Shawniqua; Conte, Mary; Goldfine, Andrew et al

in eLife (2013)

Zolpidem produces paradoxical recovery of speech, cognitive and motor functions in select subjects with severe brain injury but underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In three diverse patients with known ... [more ▼]

Zolpidem produces paradoxical recovery of speech, cognitive and motor functions in select subjects with severe brain injury but underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In three diverse patients with known zolpidem responses we identify a distinctive pattern of EEG dynamics that suggests a mechanistic model. In the absence of zolpidem, all subjects show a strong low frequency oscillatory peak ∼6–10 Hz in the EEG power spectrum most prominent over frontocentral regions and with high coherence (∼0.7–0.8) within and between hemispheres. Zolpidem administration sharply reduces EEG power and coherence at these low frequencies. The ∼6–10 Hz activity is proposed to arise from intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal neurons that are passively entrained across the cortex by locally-generated spontaneous activity. Activation by zolpidem is proposed to arise from a combination of initial direct drug effects on cortical, striatal, and thalamic populations and further activation of underactive brain regions induced by restoration of cognitively-mediated behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon Security and Defence Policy Module - External Evaluation Report
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Federal Republic of Austria (2014)

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See detailCommon Security and Defence Policy Module 2012 - External Evaluation Report
Paile, Sylvain ULg

in Armis et Litteris (2013), 28

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See detailCommon Security and Defence Policy Modules 2011 External Evaluation Report
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Federal Republic of Austria (2012)

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See detailCommon Security and Defence Policy Modules 2012 External Evaluation Report
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Federal Republic of Austria (2013)

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See detailCommon stochastic trends in European stock markets
Corhay, Albert ULg; Tourani-Rad, Alireza; Urbain, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Economics Letters (1993), 42(4), 385-390

The objective of the paper is to investigate whether price indices of different European stock markets display a common long-run trending behaviour. Using cointegration analysis, we provide empirical ... [more ▼]

The objective of the paper is to investigate whether price indices of different European stock markets display a common long-run trending behaviour. Using cointegration analysis, we provide empirical evidence of common stochastic trends among five important European stock markets over the period 1975-1991. [less ▲]

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